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Advanced Placement Chemistry Course Description

This course prepares students for the Advanced Placement Chemistry examination through the study of chemistry at the first-year college level. Students obtain an in-depth understanding of fundamentals and the ability to deal with complex chemical problems through lectures and laboratory work. Chemistry is a prerequisite for this class and physics is strongly recommended. Most students take this course as a senior, and the great majority of those are students who have shown significant success in chemistry and physics. The course assumes review work will be done before the beginning of the year and that students will be able to complete work independently throughout the year. In addition to acquiring an extensive library of chemical knowledge, students will, through practice, acquire the skills needed for advanced analysis of problems and data. The content covered in the course (and detailed in the outline below) is focused upon six fundamental ideas: Big Idea 1: The chemical elements are fundamental building materials of matter, and all matter can be understood in terms of arrangements of atoms. These atoms retain their identity in chemical reactions. Big Idea 2: Chemical and physical properties of materials can be explained by the structure and the arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules and the forces between them. Big Idea 3: Changes in matter involve the rearrangement and/or reorganization of atoms and/or the transfer of electrons. Big Idea 4: Rates of chemical reactions are determined by details of the molecular collisions. Big Idea 5: The laws of thermodynamics describe the essential role of energy and explain and predict the direction of changes in matter Big Idea 6: Any bond or intermolecular attraction that can be formed can be broken. These two processes are in a dynamic competition, sensitive to initial conditions and external perturbations.

Course Outline Covered over the summer: I. The Chemical Equation (3 days) A. Matter and Measurement B. Atoms, Molecules and Ions C. Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations Test 1 First Term Covered during the academic year: II. The Chemical Reaction (14 days) A. Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry (40 pages) Experiment 6 (7days) 1. General Properties 2. PPT Reactions 3. Acid/Base Reactions 4. Redox Reactions 5. Concentrations 6. Quantitative Analysis B. Thermochemistry (42 pages) Experiment 26 (6days) 1. Kinetic and Potential Energy 2. Zero and First Laws of Thermodynamics 3. Enthalpy and Reactions a) Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions b) Enthalpies of Formation and Reaction 4. Quantitative Analysis Test 2 III. The Energy of the Electron (11 days) A. Electron Structure of Atoms (40 pages) (5 days) 1. Wave/Particle Duality 2. Quantized Energy and Photons 3. Spectra of Hydrogen and the Bohr Model 4. Wave Nature of Matter 5. Quantum Numbers for Electrons 6. Many Electron Configurations B. and the Periodic Table C. Periodic Properties of the Elements (34 pages) Experiment 15 (5 days) 1. Electron Structures 2. Ionization Energy 3. Electron Affinity 4. Metal/Metalloid/Non-metal Properties 5. Group Properties

Test 3 VI. The Chemical Bond (13 days) a. Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding (42 pages) (6days) i. Types ii. Lewis Structure Introduction iii. Ionic Bonding 1. Energetics: Ionization and Lattice Energies iv. The Covalent Bond 1. Electronegativity 2. The Dipole 3. Lewis Diagrams a. Rules b. Multiple bonds c. Resonance d. Exceptions v. Energetics b. Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories (52 pages) (6days) i. Molecular Shapes ii. VESPR iii. Polarity iv. Hybrid Orbitals v. Multiple Bonds 1. and Bonding 2. Delocalized evi. Molecular Orbitals 1. Hybrids 2. Anti-Bonding 3. Bond Order

Test 4 VII. Phases of Matter (19days) a. Gases (40 pages) Experiment 14 (6 days) i. Characteristics and Measurements ii. Gas Laws 1. Ideal Gas 2. Boyles, Charles, Avogadros 3. Partial Pressures, Raoults Law 4. KMT 5. Grahams iii. Deviations and explanations b. Intermolecular Forces, Liquids and Solids (42 pages) (6 days) i. Intermolecular Forces

1. The Dipole Force a. Ion-dipole b. Dipole- dipole c. Hydrogen Bonding 2. London Dispersion Forces ii. Liquids 1. Properties a. Viscosity b. Surface Tension 2. Phase Changes and Energetics 3. Vapor Pressure a. Boiling Point b. Clausius-Clapeyron Equation (lnP= (-Hvap/RT) + C) c. In equilibria with solids and liquids iii. Phase Diagrams iv. Solids c. Properties of Solutions (40 pages) Experiment 19 (6 days) i. Solvation Process ii. Limits to Solubility iii. Measurements iv. Colloids Test 5 VIII. Nuclear Chemistry (36 pages) (To be read independently) a. Nuclear Structure b. Strong and Weak Nuclear Forces c. Instability and decay types i. Fission and gamma radiation ii. Alpha and Beta decay d. Half-life calculations e. Energy, Fission and Fusion; Biological Effects

Second Term (52 days) IX. The Behavior of Populations (15 days) a. Chemical Kinetics and Chemical Equilibria b. Kinetics i. Rate and Concentration ii. Rate Order iii. Temperature and the Arrhenius Equation iv. Reaction Mechanisms and Rate Order v. Catalysis c. Equilibrium Defined and Keq i. Calculating Keq and Q

ii. LeChatelier's Principle iii. Practice Calculations Test 6 X. Applied Aqueous Equilibria (22 days) a. Acid-Base Equilibria ( 48 pages) Experiment 20, Experiment 23 (8days) b. Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria (42 pages) (7days) c. Chemistry of Coordination Compounds (32 pages) Experiment 34 (7days) d. Acid-Base Definitions, pH Scale e. Strong and Weak Acids i. Strong and Weak Bases ii. Neutralization and Salt Behavior iii. Practice Calculations iv. Buffered Solutions v. Titrations vi. Practice Calculations f. Ksp and Solubility and pH g. Qualitative Analysis i. Schema and results h. Coordination Compounds i. Chelates i. Properties of Alloys and Transition Metals

Test 7 XI. Advanced Systems (15 days) a. Chemical Thermodynamics (38 pages) (7days) b. Electrochemistry (54 pages) (7days) c. Thermodynamics Definitions i. Entropy ii. Gibb's Free Energy and Keq d. Electrochemistry i. Balancing Redox Equations ii. Voltaic Cells iii. EMF, Gibb's Free Energy and Keq e. Practical Applications i. Practice Calculations ii. Integration

Test 8

Lab Protocol
Formal lab periods are 80 minutes in length and are scheduled weekly, although other periods may be and are used. Formal labs are entered into a lab notebook (provided at the beginning of the year). Each lab is entered into the notebook by the students with an objective and procedure (completed before the lab) and with results, error analysis and discussion, entered during and after the lab. Lab assessment is made in two ways. First, lab questions, generated by the lab procedures and analysis, are part of each of the 8 Unit tests. Second, the lab notebook is collected and graded a minimum of twice each semester and calculated as part of the semester average. Informal labs, either as demonstrations, or as addendums to the formal labs, are conducted as needed. Labs constitute approximately 25 % of all class periods (based upon 107 class periods and 36 lab periods.)

Students are evaluated on the basis of a mix of tests, quizzes and laboratory work. Quizzes are designed to ensure that students are able to complete certain types of Free-Response questions. Extensive practice from a library of questions is provided before each. Tests have been modeled on the Advanced Placement style, in timing and form, and multiple practice tests are provided for practice before tests, examinations and the Advanced Placement Test itself.

Useful AP Chemistry Resources

The College Board AP Chemistry Course website The College Board AP Chemistry Course & Exam Description The College Board AP Chemistry Curricular Framework