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1.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 1 introduces you to the History of the English language. It provides an overview of the origin of the English language and how it spreads all over the world. It also aims to help you understand better the varieties of English spoken in the world. 1.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of Topic 1, you will be able to: trace the origin of English language define the terms World Englishes and World English name the varieties of English used 1.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS

CONTENT History of the English Language Indo-European Language Family Tree World Englishes SESSION ONE (3 Hours) History of the English Language English is a member of the Indo-European family of languages. This broad family includes most of the European languages spoken today. 1.2.1 Indo-European Language Family Tree The Indo-European family includes several major branches: Latin and the modern Romance languages (French etc.); the Germanic languages (English, German, Swedish etc.); the Indo-Iranian languages (Hindi, Urdu, Sanskrit etc.); the Slavic languages (Russian, Polish, Czech etc.); the Baltic languages of Latvian and Lithuanian; the Celtic languages (Welsh, Irish Gaelic etc.); Greek. The influence of the original Indo-European language can be seen today, even though no written record of it exists. The word for father, for example, is vater in German, pater in Latin, and pitr in Sanskrit. These words are all cognates, similar words in different languages that share the

same root. Of these branches of the Indo-European family, two are, as far as the study of the development of English is concerned, of paramount importance, the Germanic and the Romance (called that because the Romance languages derive from Latin, the language of ancient Rome). The Germanic Family of Languages English is a member of the Germanic family of languages. Germanic is a branch of the Indo-European language family. It is believed that this group began as a common language in the Elbe river region about 3,000 years ago.

The map below shows how the Germanic invaders entered Britain on the east and south coasts in the 5th century

By the second century BC, this Common Germanic language had split into three distinct subgroups:

East Germanic was spoken by peoples who migrated back to southeastern Europe. No East Germanic language is spoken today, and the only written East Germanic language that survives is Gothic North Germanic evolved into the modern Scandinavian languages of Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, and Icelandic (but not Finnish, which is related to Hungarian and Estonian and is not an Indo-European language). West Germanic is the ancestor of modern German, Dutch, Flemish, Frisian, and English From the family tree you can see that a surprising number of modern languages are related by way of a common ancestor. Indo-European Languages Family Tree

Indo-European languages around the world Within the red borders the IE languages are the predominant or official languages

1.2.2 World Englishes World Englishes refers to the emergence of localized or indigenized varieties of English, especially varieties that have developed in nations colonized by England or the United States. World Englishes consist of varieties of English used in diverse sociolinguistic contexts globally, and how sociolinguistic histories, multicultural backgrounds and contexts of function impact the use of colonial English in different regions of the world. Currently, there are approximately 75 territories where English is spoken either as a first language (L1) or as an unofficial or institutionalised second language (L2) in fields such as government, law and education. It is difficult to establish the total number of Englishes in the world, as new varieties of English are constantly being developed and discovered World English versus World Englishes The notions of World English and World Englishes are far from similar, although the terms are often mistakenly used interchangeably. World English refers to the English language as a lingua franca used in business, trade, diplomacy and other spheres of global activity, while World Englishes refers to the different varieties of English and English-based creoles developed in different regions of the world. Classification of Englishes The spread of English around the world is often discussed in terms of three distinct groups of users, where English is used respectively as:

1. a native language (ENL); the primary language of the majority population of a country, such as in the United States or the United Kingdom. 2. a second language (ESL); an additional language for intranational as well as international communication in communities that are multilingual, such as in India, Nigeria, and Singapore. 3. a foreign language (EFL); used almost exclusively for international communication, such as in Japan and Germany. Most of these Englishes developed as a result of colonial imposition of the language in various parts of the world.

Kachru's English




The most influential model of the spread of English is Braj Kachru's model of World Englishes. In this model the diffusion of English is captured in terms of three Concentric Circles of the language: The Inner Circle, the Outer Circle, and the Expanding Circle The Inner Circle The Inner Circle refers to English as it originally took shape and was spread across the world in the first diaspora. In this transplantation of English, speakers from England carried the language to Australia, New Zealand and North America. The Inner Circle thus represents the traditional historical and sociolinguistic bases of English in regions where it is now used as a primary language: the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, Malta, anglophone Canada and South Africa (South Africa is regarded as a special case), and some of Caribbean territories. English is the native language or mother tongue of most people in these countries. The total number of English speakers in the inner circle is as high as 380 million, of whom some 120 million are outside the United States. The Outer Circle The Outer Circle of English was produced by the second diaspora of English, which spread the language through the colonization by Great

Britain and the USA in Asia and Africa. In these regions, English is not the native tongue, but serves as a useful lingua franca between ethnic and language groups. Higher education, the legislature and judiciary, national commerce and so on may all be carried out predominantly in English. This circle includes India, Nigeria, the Philippines, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Malaysia, Tanzania, Kenya, non- Anglophone South Africa, etc. The total number of English speakers in the outer circle is estimated to range from 150 million to 300 million. The Expanding Circle Finally, the Expanding Circle encompasses countries where English plays no historical or governmental role, but where it is nevertheless widely used as a medium of international communication. This includes much of the rest of the world's population not categorised above: China, Russia, Japan, most of Europe, Korea, Egypt, Indonesia, etc. The total in this expanding circle is the most difficult to estimate, especially because English may be employed for specific, limited purposes, usually business English. The estimates of these users range from 100 million to one billion. The Future of World Englishes Two scenarios have been advanced about English's future status as the major world language: it will ultimately fragment into a large number of mutually unintelligible varieties (in effect, languages), or it will converge so that differences across groups of speakers are largely eliminated. English as the language of others If English is, numerically speaking, the language of others, then the centre of gravity of the language is almost certain to shift in the direction of the others. In the words of Widdowson, there is likely to be a paradigm shift from one of language distribution to one of language spread: "When we talk about the spread of English, then, it is not that the conventionally coded forms and meanings are transmitted into different environments and different surroundings, and taken up and used by different groups of people. It is not a matter of the actual language being distributed but of the virtual language being spread and in the process being variously actualized. The distribution of the actual language implies adoption and conformity. The spread of virtual language implies adaptation and nonconformity. The two processes are quite different."

In this new paradigm, English spreads and adapts according to the linguistic and cultural preferences of its users in the Outer and Expanding circles (refer to Kachru's Three Circles of English). However, if English is genuinely to become the language of others, then the others have to be accorded or perhaps more likely, accord themselves at least the same English language rights as those claimed by mother-tongue speakers. However, it remains to be seen whether such a paradigm shift will take place. The languages of others as World Languages The other potential shift in the linguistic centre of gravity is that English could lose its international role altogether, or, at best, come to share it with a number of equals. Although this would not happen mainly as a result of native-speaker resistance to the spread of non-native speaker Englishes and the consequent abandoning of English by large numbers of non-native speakers, the latter could undoubtedly play a part. Due to the inherent difficulties of the English language, it would not be surprising if there was eventually a move to abandon English in favour of an international language with fewer complicating linguistic factors along with less of a colonial discourse attached to it. Spanish appears to be a major contender, with its simpler pronunciation, spelling and verb systems, and its increasing influence in both the EU and America. Further evidence that English may eventually give way to another language (or languages) as the worlds lingua franca is provided by the Internet. According to Crystal, "When the internet started it was of course 100 percent English because of where it came from, but since the 1980s that status has started to fall away. By 1995, it was down to about 80 per cent present of English on the internet, and the current figures for 2001 are that it is hovering somewhere between 60 percent and 70 percent, with a significant drop likely over the next four or five years . On the other hand, there are at least 1500 languages present on the internet now and that figure is likely to increase. Nevertheless Crystal predicts that English will remain the dominant presence.