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Adjacency management

Adjacencies define the relationship to allow mobile call handover (HO) between cells. Adjacencies can be created, modified, and deleted manually either on Map, in Navigator, or in Browser. For instructions, see Optimizing adjacencies in Optimizing a Network Using Optimizer. For information on measurement-based automated adjacency optimization, see chapter Measurement-based automated adjacency optimization.

Adjacency types
Depending on the type of cells for which the relationship is defined, there are different types of adjacencies:

ADCE, an adjacency between Master BTSs ADJW, an adjacency from a Master BTS to a WCEL ADJG, an adjacency from a WCEL to a Master BTS ADJS, an adjacency between WCELs, intra-frequency ADJD, an adjacency between WCELs, intra-frequency (Soft Handover Based on Detected Set Reporting). ADJI, an adjacency between WCELs, inter-frequency ADJLL, an intra-LTE adjacency

The creation, modification, deletion and provisioning of ADJLL is not supported.

All adjacency types can be displayed on Map at the same time or separately. The adjacencies may have different coloring depending on their type. The direction of the adjacency is also visualized. Adjacency state (deleted/actual/planned/in provision) can also be used as filtering criteria of the visible objects. All these settings can be customized per user. An adjacency can be visible on Map only if the target cells are visible.

ADJS and ADJD KPIs are combined under one object type.

The adjacency target cell can also be a foreign or external GSM BTS or WCDMA cell.

Adjacency templates
Optimizer shows the available adjacency templates that have been created in CM Editor. Templates contain default parameter values for adjacency creation. You can select the templates to be used for different adjacency types and create the rules for each source and target cell combination according to which these templates are assigned. Templates can be assigned per cluster, or individual controllers (BSC or RNC) or group of controllers can be selected for a

template assignment. If no matching adjacency template is found, Optimizer assigns the System template by default. This should be avoided because the System template parameter values do not work properly in a real network. For more information, see section Creating adjacency and cell templates in Optimizing a Network Using Optimizer.

Template assignment rules


There are two kinds of adjacency template assignment rules: cluster-specific assignment rules and controller-specific rules. The rules consist of source and target categories. The source and target categories can consist of the following items:
GSM

Cell Types. The value of the Cell Type parameter in BTS is mapped as one category. Frequency Band In Use. The value of the Frequency Band In Use parameter in BTS is used. Frequency. UARFCN is mapped as one category. WCDMA and GSM A parent template assigned to BTS or a WCEL. The parent template assignment can be either actual or planned. The template assignment can be seen in Browser in the Original Template column. Planned template assignment can be used if the plan has been imported from Configurator.

WCDMA Both

symbol

The category does not have to match with the data in the source cell.

Both the source and the target cell can belong to several categories. In this case, the AND operation is applied between the rules. The rule is applicable to adjacency if both the source and the target categories match with the source and target cell data. If there are several applicable rules for adjacency, the following priorities are used:
The controller-specific

rule is always more important than the cluster-specific assignment

rule.
The source In

category is more important than the target category when there is the same priority level of categories in the source and target categories. general, rules are applied with priority from the more precise to more general.

The priorities are the following (in the order of importance):


1. Templates (WCDMA and GSM) 2. Cell Type (GSM) 3. Frequency Band In Use (GSM) 4. Frequency (WCDMA)

5. * symbol (WCDMA and GSM)

For instructions on creating, assigning, and deleting template assignment rules, see Managing template assignment rules in Optimizer Help.

Adjacency constraint management


There are adjacency constraints only in actuals as globals. Adjacency constraints are not network objects that could be provisioned. You can create two types of adjacency constraints in Optimizer: mandatory and forbidden adjacency constraints. The automated adjacency creation algorithms always check adjacency constraints when adjacencies are deleted or created. If there are forbidden adjacency constraints, the adjacency cannot be created or it can be deleted by the automated adjacency optimization. If there are mandatory adjacency constraints, the adjacency cannot be deleted or it can be created (if it does not exist) by the automated adjacency optimization. In manual adjacency creation, forbidden adjacencies are checked and if they exist, the adjacency cannot be created before the constraint is removed. In addition, mandatory constraints are checked and if they exist, the adjacency cannot be deleted before the constraint is removed. For instructions on managing adjacency constraints, see Managing adjacency constraints in Optimizing a Network Using Optimizer, and Creating adjacency constraints and Deleting adjacency constraints in Optimizer Help.

Adjacency constraint import


You can import adjacency constraints to Optimizer from a CSV file. You can import constraints to an empty database or to a database which already contains constraints. The import operation overwrites existing constraints in the database with the same source and target cell identification. Furthermore, if the import file contains overlapping constraints with the same source and target identification, only the last constraint is imported. The constraints to be imported can be defined as mandatory, forbidden, or removed (in other words, the old constraint is removed from the database). In Adjacency Constraint Import, the identification of cells is as follows: GSM Cells: MCC
MNC LAC Cell

ID

WCDMA Cells:
MCC MNC RNC Cell

Identifier

Identifier

The format of the import file is CSV (Comma Separated Values) and the columns have headers in this order:
Parameter name,Type,Possible values: ADJACENCY_TYPE, string, [ADCE, ADJW, ADJS,ADJI, ADJG] S_MCC, string S_MNC, string S_RNC_ID, string, Empty for GSM Cells S_GSM_LAC, integer, Empty for WCDMA Cells S_CELL_CI, integer T_MCC, string T_MNC, string T_RNC_ID, string, Empty for GSM Cells T_GSM_LAC, integer, Empty for WCDMA Cells T_CELL_CI, integer ACTION, string, [MANDATORY, FORBIDDEN, REMOVE] INFO, string, [the range is limited by the database column to less than 512 characters], Note that if the length in import file is longer it is cut from the end. Can be empty.

All columns must exist, no matter what the adjacency type is. In the case of GSM Cells, the *_RNC ID column can be empty. In the case of WCDMA Cells, the *_GSM_LAC columns can be empty. In the following, an example of the import file is provided:
ADJACENCY_TYPE,S_MCC,S_MNC,S_RNC_ID,S_GSM_LAC,S_CELL_CI, T_MCC,T_MNC,T_RNC_ID,T_GSM_LAC,T_CELL_CI,ACTION,INFO ADJG, 244,5,4,,11891,244,5,,9112,62076,MANDATORY,Must be mandatory ADCE,244,5,,9112,63265,244,5,,9112,13,MANDATORY,Must be mandatory ADJS,244,5,4,,11733,244,5,4,,11732,FORBIDDEN,Should not ever be created ADJW,244,5,,9112,9540,244,5,4,,11889, MANDATORY,Must be mandatory ADCE,244,5,,9112,9540,244,5,,9112, 256,REMOVE,Constraint not anymore needed

The INFO column can be used for free format info text which can be made visible on Map, in Browser and in the Adjacency Optimization tool in Adjacency Browser. On Map the info text is only visible as a tooltip of a constraint object but not with adjacency. In Browser, info text is visible only with constraint object. In the Adjacency Optimization tool, the info text is visible with the adjacency object itself. In Adjacency Optimization, rules can be run after import to delete adjacencies where forbidden adjacency constraint exist and to create adjacencies where mandatory adjacency constraints exist.

In the Adjacency Optimization tool in Adjacency Browser there are all columns available for import. Data can be copied to a file which can be imported.

For instructions, see Importing adjacency constraints in Optimizer Help.

Automated adjacency management


Optimizer provides two methods for creating adjacencies automatically:

Adjacency creation based on distance and antenna direction for GSM, WCDMA and LTE, and also between the systems for GSM and WCDMA.

Measurement-based adjacency creation and deletion for GSM, WCDMA and between the systems for GSM and WCDMA. For more information, see chapter Measurement-based automated adjacency optimization.

For more information and instructions, see section Optimizing adjacencies automatically in Optimizing a Network Using Optimizer.

Restrictions for adjacency optimization


In unidirectional adjacency creation, an adjacency is created only if all thresholds are met, that is, each optimization value is better than the corresponding threshold. An adjacency is deleted if all of the thresholds are not met, that is, at least one optimization value is worse than the corresponding threshold. Optimization value means KPI value, distance, or any value that defines how good an adjacency is. For information on bidirectional adjacency creation, see Adjacency Optimization tool view in Optimizer Help. There are also restrictions for the algorithm. For some algorithms, the user can decide whether to ignore them or take them into account (controllable restrictions), but the rest of them cannot be exceeded (restrictions uncontrollable for the user). Restrictions controllable by the user By default, the optimization algorithm does not create or delete adjacencies (bi-directional or unidirectional) to an Indoor Cell, but the user can enable creation or deletion in the user interface. A cell is defined as indoor if any of the antennas related to the cell has an indoor antenna. An antenna is indoor if the user defined state parameter contains the string indoor. The string is case insensitive. There can be other strings in the parameter. In/Out Gateway Cells should not be defined as indoor cells if they are to be included in optimization without enabling the optimization of all indoor cells. The optimization algorithm enables the creation or deletion of adjacencies to or from a foreign BTS or EWCE (External WCDMA cell). RU10 (3GPP R6, Correction target RU10: RAN1323 Extension of SIB11 (SIB11bis)) implements SIB11bis, which enables the SIB11+SIB11bis to accommodate all 96 cells and solves the contradiction in the earlier specification. SIB11bis is included as a standard feature in RU10. Note that only R6 and later UE are capable of decoding SIB11bis. RAN Parameters AdjsSIB, AdjiSIB and ADJGSIB can be used to disable the transmission of neighbor info in SIB11/12. In addition, in the RU10 RNC neighbors can be selected for SIB11bis with these Adjx parameters. The values for these are: 0, No = does not belong to SIB11 or SIB11bis
1, 2,

SIB = belongs to SIB11 SIBbis = belongs to SIB11bis

Note also that limitation still remains with the SIB12, which is used for connected mode (not CELL_DCH) neighbor info. The following rules apply to GSM dual band adjacency creation: BTS in PGSM900 band can have maximum 18 adjacencies to BTSs in bands EGSM900+GSM1800.

BTS BTS BTS

in GSM1800 band can have maximum 16 adjacencies to BTSs in band GSM900. in 850 band can have maximum 18 adjacencies to BTSs in 1900 band. in 1900 band can have maximum 22 adjacencies to BTSs in 850 band.

For more information on restrictions that can be controlled, see Adjacency Optimization tool view in Optimizer Help. Restrictions uncontrollable by the user The cases when adjacencies are never created and/or deleted by the optimization algorithm are the following:
Adjacency optimization does

not delete adjacencies that have a mandatory adjacency constraint. Mandatory adjacency constraints are defined on Map or in Browser, and you can also import mandatory and forbidden constraints using a CSV file. create forbidden adjacency constraints between cells in Navigator and on Map. Adjacency optimization does not create an adjacency where it is forbidden.

The user can

Collision types In addition to restrictions for the algorithm, also collisions can occur in adjacency optimization. The collisions types are the following:
Same

BCCH in source and target cells and Same BCCH BSIC combination in ADCE NCL (Neighbor Cell List) The ADCE NCL has more than one cell with the same BCCH-BSIC combination or the source and target cell have the same BCCH BSIC. Scrambling Code and UARFCN Combination in ADJW NCL

Same

The ADJW NCL has more than one cell with the same scrambling code-UARFCN combination Scrambling Code and UARFCN Combination in ADJS NCL The ADJS NCL has more than one cell with the same scrambling code-UARFCN combination or the source and the target cell have the same scrambling codeUARFCN combination. Scrambling Code and UARFCN Combination in ADJI NCL ADJI NCL has more than one cell with the same scrambling code-UARFCN combination.

Same

Same

Same

Scrambling Code and UARFCN Combination in 3 Cells SHO ADJS and ADJI NCL The combined ADJS and ADJI NCL in three cells SHO has more than one cell with the same scrambling code-UARFCN combination (in other words, this means neighbors and neighbors neighbors of WCELs). BCCH BSIC Combination in ADJG NCL

Same

The ADJG NCL has more than one cell with the same BCCH-BSIC combination.

Same

BCCH BSIC Combination in 2 Cells SHO ADJG NCL

The ADJG NCL in two cells SHO has more than one cell with the same BCCHBSIC combination. BCCH BSIC Combination in 3 Cells SHO ADJG NCL The ADJG NCL in three cells SHO has more than one cell with the same BCCHBSIC combination.

Same

If collisions are created for ADCEs, it is recommended that Frequency Allocation is performed after Adjacency Optimization. If collisions are created for ADJSs, it is recommended that Scrambling Code Allocation is performed after Adjacency Optimization. Collisions created for ADJI, ADJW, and ADJG can be corrected only manually in Optimizer. If ADJSs or ADJG are to be created to several rotation plans, all the created adjacencies in all the rotation plans are checked. For example, if collisions are not allowed, all the created adjacencies can be in the network at the same time without new collisions occurring. When user equipment is connected to two or three WCDMA cells, the neighbor cell lists of the connected cells are combined. Collision checking is based on adjacency information and assumes that any combination of the combined neighbor cell lists is possible in the user equipment. As collision checks are theoretical, all combinations of combined neighbor cell lists are not instantiated in practise, an so all collisions are not causing problems from the user equipment point of view. Removing obsolete long distance adjacencies is important as they limit the adjacency creation by causing theoretical collision situations. The collision creation restrictions Same Scrambling Code and UARFCN Combination in 3 Cells SHO ADJS and ADJI NCL and Same BCCH BSIC combination in 3 Cells SHO ADJG NCL may be too tight in some cases and collision creation might be enabled. However, in cases when a collision is created, it is recommended that the result is verified in the Scrambling Code Management tool and on Map.

No scrambling code collision checking is done for ADJD adjacencies.

Adjacency creation based on distance and antenna bearing


Adjacency creation based on distance and antenna direction allows creating and deleting of adjacencies by using distance and/or bearing as criteria. This method can be used for initial adjacency creation when the network objects are not yet in the air, but it provides also means for fast mass creation or deletion of actual objects. This is useful, especially when managing WCDMA adjacencies. Creating adjacencies based on distance and antenna bearing includes the following steps:
1. User defines the maximum distance D for the adjacency to be created. 2. User defines the maximum angle q (Maximum Theta Angle). In the following figure, theta1 is the angle between the antenna bearing and the direction of the vector joining the source and destination sites, similar to theta2. Theta angle is theta1 + theta2. Theta1 and theta2 are always positive (>=0).

Figure 7: The relation between antenna directions and the positions of the source and destination sector 3. The algorithm creates adjacencies between all sectors that belong to the same site. 4. The algorithm filters all sites that have distance lower than (D < Dmax) and (theta 1 + theta 2 < Maximum Theta Angle) and creates outgoing adjacency from that sector to all sectors within the range. 5. The highest priority is assigned to each adjacency created in Step 3, while adjacencies created in Step 4 are prioritized according to the value of the adjacency creation factor P. The higher the value of P, the higher the priority of the adjacency in that site. P= (exp(-N * D/Dmax) ) (O1 * O2 * A) In the Priority equation,

N is the propagation constant with default 2. D is the distance between sites. Dmax is the maximum distance. In case of auto-configuration, neighbor creation Dmax is defined by an option Search Distance. O1 is the Omni Antenna Correction Factor for the source cell. O2 is the Omni Antenna Correction Factor for the target cell. A is Antenna Factor

The higher the value of P the higher the priority of the adjacency is in that sight. Omni Antenna Correction Factor (O1 or O2) is 1 if the antenna is not omni. Omni Antennas have smaller antenna gain than normal antennas. Therefore, using the Omni Antenna Correction Factor, we get more equal results. The smaller the value, the smaller the priority value when the source and/or target cell's antenna is omni. The default is 0.8. When the source or the target cell have multiple antennas/power divider, the priority is calculated for all antenna combinations. The antenna combination which results highest Priority is used.

Figure 8: In the antenna factor A,

Antenna factor

F (Antenna Correction Factor) has the range [01]. The default value is 0.99. For omni antennas, O1 or O2 are 0. If the distance is 0, the Theta angle is: 180 + |difference of antenna angles| = 180 + SourceAntennaBearing - TargetAntennaBearing

The -/+ or -/+ sign is used if Theta1 and Theta2 are on the same/different side of the connecting line between the sites. The Antenna Correction Factor and Omni Antenna Correction Factor can be adjusted in the Preferences dialog (Options > Preferences > Adjacency Optimization). For instructions, see Managing preferences in Optimizer Help.

List length reduction in automated adjacency optimization


Automated adjacency optimization tries to reduce the Neighbor Cell List (NCL) so that the NCL length is not longer than the Maximum NCL length. Reducing the list length is started from the poorest adjacencies. List length reduction is applied only to the cells which are in the optimization scope. Adjacency priorities is defined as follows: If no measurements are involved, Priority here means distance and antenna angle based priority. This applies for all adjacency types. If measurements are involved, the definitions for poorness are as follows: For existing remaining adjacencies (ACTUAL, UPDATED)
New

ADCE: The sum of HO Attempts in outgoing and incoming directions [N] ADJS: The sum of SHO Attempts in outgoing and incoming directions [N] ADJG: The sum of ISHO Attempts in outgoing and incoming directions [N] ADJI: The sum of IFHO Attempts in outgoing and incoming directions [N] adjacencies (CREATED) ADCE: FEP, CIP or ARP ADJS: If Final list is selected, Fitness; if DSR is selected: DSR Priority ADJG or ADJI: Fitness

Maximum NCL length is defined as follows: The smallest from the list lengths in Options Preferences Adjacency Management Maximum Amount of ADxx and the adjacency type specific Max list lengths defined in the Adjacency Optimization tool view (Common tab Adjacency list lengths) are used, and the smaller one is selected. In the case of ADCE, a cell specific BTS Constraint Maximum length of ADCE Adjacency List is also considered. If a

BTS Constraint is assigned to a BTS, the list length limits in the BTS Constraint are used even if the restriction in the BTS Constraint is less strict than the restrictions set in the Common tab of Adjacency Optimization. The algorithm to reduce the list length is as follows:
1. If adjacency type is selected for creation, remove the poorest CREATED adjacencies from the plan, until the NCL length is smaller than the maximum NCL length. 2. If adjacency type is selected for deletion, remove the poorest ACTUAL/UPDATED adjacencies from the plan, until the NCL length is smaller than the maximum NCL length.

Distance and measurement based adjacency optimization


Adjacencies can be optimized based on distance only (see cases 1-3 below), or measurements can be used (see case 4). If both deletion and creation of adjacencies are selected and no measurements are used, the creation can undelete adjacencies and deletion can remove created adjacencies from the plan. Undeletion is done using the parameters under the Creation tab in the Adjacency Optimization tool view. Removing of adjacencies from the plan is done based on parameters under the Deletion tab in the Adjacency Optimization tool view. In this case created and undeleted adjacencies are optimized at the same time, so that an optimal solution is found (see Case 3 below). For more information, see Adjacency Optimization tool view in Optimizer Help. Four different cases of distance based adjacency optimization are described below.
1. Only deletion is selected and no measurement are used:

Deletion is done based on the deletion thresholds for ACTUAL, UPDATED, CREATED Undeletion is done based on the deletion thresholds for DELETED adjacencies List length reduction is done for ACTUAL and UPDATED adjacencies

2. Only creation is selected and no measurements are used:

Created adjacencies are removed from the plan based on creation thresholds Optimizer tries to add DELETED adjacencies and created adjacencies based on creation thresholds List length reduction is done for CREATED adjacencies

3. Both deletion and creation are selected and no measurements are used:

Deletion is done based on deletion thresholds for ACTUAL, UPDATED, CREATED adjacencies Created adjacencies are deleted based on creation thresholds Optimizer tries to add DELETED adjacencies and created adjacencies to the plan based on creation thresholds List length reduction is done for ACTUAL, UPDATED, and CREATED adjacencies

4. Either deletion or creation is using measurements:


DN0196638

If deletion is used, ACTUAL and UPDATED adjacencies are deleted based on deletion thresholds If creation is used, CREATED adjacencies are removed from the plan based on creation thresholds If deletion is used, DELETED adjacencies are undeleted based on deletion thresholds If creation is used, new adjacencies are created based on creation thresholds If creation is used, list length reduction is done for CREATED adjacencies If deletion is used, list length reduction is done for ACTUAL and UPDATED adjacencies
Id: 0900d805808388ba 2011/4/8 Nokia Siemens Networks