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Six Sigma Program And An Application

Sevil ENTRK and Berna YAZICI


Anadolu University Science Faculty, Department of Statistics, Eskisehir, TURKEY e-mails: sdeligoz@anadolu.edu.tr , bbaloglu@anadolu.edu.tr (Research Assistant, PhD in Department of Statistics)

Abstract: In a competing atmosphere, companies need to present good quality products. This directs the companies to produce new strategies. Six sigma method came out as a result of this need. Six sigma method is a management and company philosophy which is a way of measuring the perfectness of work in the sense of total quality. In this study six sigma method and its tools are examined. Under any condition which tool must be used is of interest. Six sigma method is applied on the data obtained from a company which produces house equipments. It is analysed how much that process is held by six sigma. Keywords: Six Sigma, variability, statistical process control, process capability, gauge R&R, DOE, cause and effect diagram, FMEA.

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Introduction

Six sigma is a statistical measurement. Six sigma program is a management and company philosophy which is a way of measuring the perfectness of work in the sense of total quality. This program informs the producer about goodness of productions, services and processes. The program also compares a particular production, service and process with other similar products, services and processes. Six sigma program is an informative measuring tool about customer satisfaction and if a product provides six sigma level, that means it is the best in class. When used as a metric, six sigma technically means having no more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities in any process, product, or service. Statisticians may notice that having specification limits 6 standard deviations away from the average of an assumed normal distribution will not produce 3.4 defects per million, and they are correct.

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Six Sigma Tools

Six sigma method is applied by using different tools. These tools are statistical process control, process capability analysis, gage repeatability and reproducibility (Gauge R&R) and design of experiment. In some cases, different tools are in question too. These are failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), cause and effect diagram. 915

Six Sigma Program And An Application Sevil ENTRK and Berna YAZICI

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Application Study

150 data have been taken from the length of a sheet iron plate for a critical operation from a factory that produces house equipments. First of all, to research if the measurement tool is capable or not, Gauge R&R study has been conducted. 30 pieces, all formed from 5 pieces, have been examined. All pieces have been measured two times by three operators. Due to results of Gauge R&R graphics we concluded that: The measurement tool is capable of measuring the length since Gauge R&R is less than 30%. The two measurements of the first piece are different from each other. So the operator must recognize the measurement system. The mean of the measurements of the operators has been taken. Most of these measurements are out of control limits. The graphics also shows the differences from piece to piece and 6 measurements with their centre points. It shows the distribution of the 20 measurements varying from operator to operator. Here, it is clear that there is a variability in the distribution for operators. Here the mean of the measurements of the pieces taken by the operators are shown. The acceptable variability and the means coincides. As a result of Gauge R&R, Gauge is capable of measuring the length. Following Gauge R&R study, process capability analysis has been conducted on 150 data. As a result of this study, it was clear that the process met for the specification limits but the PPM value 1461.30 was very high. This is an extreme value for six sigma and that means there is a variability. Machine capability analysis has been conducted to see the causes of this variability. Machine capability analysis has been conducted on 50 data. As a result of this analysis, since Cpk>1.33, we concluded that the machine is capable. After improvement activities, a data set, made up of 30 pieces that are formed from 5 pieces have been examined again. The process capability analysis on this data set shows that the process is capable with a decrease on PPM value (585.86). Since the total PPM value is smaller than the first PPM value, it can be concluded that the improvement activities are really effective in improving the process and there is a nine hundred unit improvement in one million.
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