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Experimental study of the fractional Fourier transform for a hollow

Gaussian beam
Xingyuan Lu, Cun Wei, Lin Liu, Gaofeng Wu, Fei Wang
n
, Yangjian Cai
School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China
a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history:
Received 22 May 2013
Received in revised form
20 July 2013
Accepted 27 July 2013
Keywords:
Hollow Gaussian beam
Fractional Fourier transform
Beam shaping
a b s t r a c t
Hollow Gaussian beam (HGB) was introduced in [Cai et al., Optics Letters 2003;28:10841086 [12]] and
the fractional Fourier transform (FRT) for a HGB was studied theoretically in [Zheng, Physics Letters A
2006;355:156161 [53]] . In this paper, we derive the analytical formula for the truncated FRT for a HGB,
and we report experimental observation of the FRT and the truncated FRT for a HGB. The inuences of
the fractional order and the truncation parameter on the intensity distribution of the HGB in the FRT
plane have been studied in detail both theoretically and experimentally. It is found that the FRT optical
system provides an efcient way for modulating the beam prole of a HGB. Our experimental results
agree well with the theoretical predictions.
& 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
In the past decades, dark hollow beam (DHB) has been investi-
gated extensively and it has found wide applications in free-space
optical communications, laser optics, particles trapping, medical
sciences, atomic and binary optics [140]. Several theoretical
models have been proposed to describe various DHBs [918]. The
conventional DHBs such as Bessel Gaussian beam [9] and TEM
n
01
beam (also known as doughnut beam) [10] usually have a spiral
phase, and their dark hollow beam proles remain invariant on
propagation although their beam spots spread. Hollow Gaussian
beam (HGB) is one kind of DHB without a spiral phase, and was
introduced by Cai et al. in 2003 [12], and it is shown that it has
unique propagation properties, i.e., its dark beam prole varies on
propagation in free space and its dark hollow beam prole
disappears totally in the far eld, which are much different from
those of the conventional DHBs with a spiral phase. Theoretical
model named hollow elliptical Gaussian beam was proposed to
describe a DHB of elliptical system without spiral phase [18]. Deng
et al. derived the expression for the M
2
-factor of a HGB [19]. The
focusing properties of a HGB were explored in [2023]. Paraxial
propagation properties of a HGB through aligned or misaligned
optical system with truncation were reported in [24,25]. Zhou et al.
investigated the nonparaxial propagation properties and the vector-
ial structure of a HGB [2630]. Wang et al. carried out investigation
of atomic trapping and guiding by a HGB, and found that a HGB is
useful for atomic trapping and guiding [31]. Zhao et al. studied the
radiation forces on a dielectric sphere produced by highly focused
HGB, and found that a focused HGB can be used to trap particles
with refractive index larger or smaller than the ambient under
suitable conditions [32]. Qiao et al. studied the scintillation index
and bit error rate of a HGB in atmospheric turbulence, and they
found that a HGB has advantage over a Gaussian beam for reducing
turbulence-induced scintillation, which is useful for free-space
optical communications [33]. Yadav and Kandpal explored the
spectral anomalies of polychromatic HGB and discussed its applica-
tions in free-space optical communications [34]. In [35], Philip and
Viswanathan found that HGB is useful for generating tunable chain
of three-dimensional optical beams. More recently, Wang et al.
reported experimental generation of a LaguerreGaussian Schell-
model beam with the help of a HGB, which is useful for beam
shaping [36]. Up to now, several methods have been proposed to
generate a HGB [3739]. Just recently, we proposed a new method
to generate a HGB through transforming a LaguerreGaussian beam
into a HGB [40].
On the other hand, since the concept of fractional Fourier
transform (FRT) was rst introduced into optics by Ozaktas,
Mendlovic and Lohmann in 1993 [4143], numerous attention
has been paid to the FRT and it has found important applications in
image encryption, signal processing, beam shaping and beam
analysis [44]. In the past several years, the propagation properties
of various laser beams through the FRT optical system have been
studied extensively, and it is shown that the FRT optical system
provides a convenient way to control the statistical properties of
laser beams [4553]. The FRT for a HGB was studied theoretically
in [53], and it is found that the intensity distribution of the HGB in
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Optics & Laser Technology
0030-3992/$ - see front matter & 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2013.07.023
n
Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 512 691 53532.
E-mail addresses: fwang@suda.edu.cn (F. Wang),
yangjiancai@suda.edu.cn (Y. Cai).
Optics & Laser Technology 56 (2014) 9298
the FRT plane can be modulated by varying the parameter of the
FRT optical system. In this paper, we report experimental study of
the FRT and the truncated FRT for a HGB, and explore the
inuences of the fractional order and the truncation parameter
of the FRT optical system on the intensity distribution of the HGB
in the FRT plane both theoretically and experimentally.
2. Theory
In this section, we rst review briey the FRT for a HGB, and
then we investigate the truncated FRT for a HGB theoretically.
The electric eld of a HGB at the source plane is dened as [12]
Er;
r
2

2
0
_ _
n
exp
r
2

2
0
_ _
; 1
where r, are the radial and azimuthal (angle) coordinates and n is
the order of the HGB,
0
denotes the source beam waist size of a
fundamental Gaussian beam. When n0, Eq. (1) reduces to the
electric eld of a fundamental Gaussian beam. The area of the dark
region increases with the increase of the beam order n (see Fig. 1).
The propagation of a laser beam through a paraxial ABCD
optical system can be treated by the following Collins formula
[54]:
E;
ik
2B
_
1
0
_
2
0
Er; exp
ik
2B
Ar
2
2r cos D
2

_ _
rdrd ;
2
where k2/ is the wavenumber with being the wavelength of
the beam. A, B, C, D are the elements of the transfer matrix of the
paraxial optical system. Substituting Eq. (1) into Eq. (2), we obtain
the following analytical propagation formula for a HGB passing
through a paraxial ABCD optical system [12]:
E;
ikAn!
2B
2n
0
1

2
0

ikA
2B
_ _
n1
exp
ikDr
2
2B

kr=2B
2
1=
2
0
ikA=2B
_ _
L
0
n
kr=2B
2
1=
2
0
ikA=2B
_ _
;
3
where L
0
n
denotes the Laguerre polynomial of order n and 0.
According to [41], the optical system for implementing the FRT
for an optical beam is given as shown in Fig. 2. E(r,) and E(,)
denote the electric eld of the beam in the input plane and the FRT
plane, respectively. A thin lens with focal length f = sin is located
between the input pane and the FRT plane, and both the distance
from the input plane to the thin lens and the distance from the thin
lens to the FRT plane equal to f tan=2. Here f is the standard focal
length, and p/2 with p being the fractional order of the FRT
optical system. When p4n+1 with n being any integer, the FRT
optical system reduces to the conventional Fourier transformoptical
system. The transfer matrix of the FRT optical system in Fig. 2 is
given as
A B
C D
_ _

1 f tan=2
0 1
_ _
1 0
sin=f 1
_ _
1 f tan=2
0 1
_ _

cos f sin
sin=f cos
_ _
: 4
Applying Eqs. (3) and (4), one can study the properties of a HGB
in the FRT plane numerically. Numerical results in [53] have
shown that the FRT optical system can be used to modulate the
intensity distribution of a HGB by varying the fractional order.
Now we study the truncated FRT for a HGB. In a practical case,
most optical systems contain some aperture connement
(i.e., truncation), thus it is interesting to study the inuence of
truncation on the properties of a HGB in the FRT plane. Fig. 3
shows the optical system for performing the truncated FRT for an
optical beam, which is similar to Fig. 2, except that a circular
aperture with radius a is located just before the thin lens in Fig. 3.
The whole optical system can be divided into two sections: The
rst section is the free-space propagation of the beam from the
input plane to the truncated lens plane, and the second section is
also the free-space propagation of the beam from the truncated
lens plane to the FRT plane.
The transfer matrix of the free space between the input plane
and the truncated lens plane reads as
A B
C D
_ _

1 f tan=2
0 1
_ _
: 5
Applying Eqs. (3) and (5), we obtain the expression for the
electric eld of a HGB in the truncated lens plane as follows:
E;
ikn!p
1
n1
2
2n
0
f tan=2
exp
ik
2f tan=2

k
2

2
4f
2
tan
2
=2p
1
_ _
L
0
n
k
2

2
4f
2
tan
2
=2p
1
_ _
; 6
where
p
1

2
0

ik
2f tan=2
:
The propagation of the HGB from the truncated lens plane to
the FRT plane can be studied by the following extended Collins
Fig. 1. Normalized intensity distribution of a HGB for different values of n with

0
1 mm.
Fig. 2. Optical system for performing the FRT for an optical beam.
Fig. 3. Optical system for performing the truncated FRT for an optical beam.
X. Lu et al. / Optics & Laser Technology 56 (2014) 9298 93
formula:
E;
ik
2B
1
_
1
0
_
2
0
HE;
exp
ik
2B
1
A
1

2
2 cos
2
D
1

_ _
dd; 7
where A
1
, B
1
, C
1
, D
1
are the elements of the transfer matrix
between the truncated lens plane and the FRT plane given as
A
1
B
1
C
1
D
1
_ _

1 f tan=2
0 1
_ _
1 0
sin =f 1
_ _

cos f tan=2
sin =f 1
_ _
: 8
H() in Eq. (7) denotes the transmission function of the circular
aperture expressed as
H
1; ra
0; 4a
_
9
In order to obtain analytical propagation formula, we expand the
transmission function of the aperture as the following nite sum
of complex Gaussian functions [55]
H
M
m 1
A
m
exp
B
m
a
2

2
_ _
; 10
where A
m
and B
m
are the expansion and Gaussian coefcients, which
can be obtained by optimization computation. A table of A
m
and B
m
can be found in [55,56]. This expansion method has been proved
reliable and efcient. The simulation accuracy improves as the
expansion order M increases. For a circular hard aperture, M10
assures a very good description of the diffracted beam [5557].
Combining Eqs. (6)(8) and (10), we obtain the following
approximate analytical expression for the electric eld of a HGB
after passing through the truncated FRT optical system:
E;
k
2
n!p
1
n1
4
2n
0
f
2
tan
2
=2
exp
ik
2f tan=2

2
_ _

M
m 1
A
m

n1
m

m

n
exp
k
2

2
4
m
f
2
tan
2
=2
_ _
L
0
n
k
2

2
4f
2
tan
2
=2
m

_ _
; 11
with

k
2
4f
2
tan
2
=2p
1

B
m
a
2

ik cos
2f tan=2

ik
2f tan=2
;
k
2
4f
2
tan
2
=2p
1
:
Applying Eq. (11), we calculate in Fig. 4 the normalized intensity
distribution (cross line
y
0, solid line) of a HGB with n1 after
passing through the truncated FRToptical systemfor different values
of the fractional order p. For the convenience of comparison, the
corresponding results (dashed lines) calculated by Eq. (7) through
direct numerical integration are also shown in Fig. 4. The parameters
used in the calculations are chosen as 632.8 nm,
0
0.48 mm,
Fig. 4. Normalized intensity distribution (cross line
y
0, solid line) of a HGB with n1 after passing through the truncated FRT optical system for different values of the
fractional order p. The dashed lines are calculated by Eq. (7) numerically.
Fig. 5. Experimental setup for generating a HGB and observing the FRT or
truncated FRT for the generated HGB. RM: reecting mirror; BE: beam expander;
SLM: spatial light modulator; CA: circular aperture; SPP: spiral phase plate; BPA:
beam prole analyzer; PC: personal computer.
X. Lu et al. / Optics & Laser Technology 56 (2014) 9298 94
Fig. 6. Experimental results of the intensity distribution and the corresponding normalized intensity distribution at cross line y0 (dotted curve) of the generated HGB
beam with n1 just after the SPP. The solid curve is a result of the theoretical t for the experimental data.
Fig. 7. Experimental results of the intensity distribution and the corresponding normalized intensity distribution at cross line
y
0(dotted curve) of the generated HGB after
passing through the FRT optical system without truncation for different values of the fractional order p. The solid curves denote the corresponding theoretical results
calculated by Eq. (3).
X. Lu et al. / Optics & Laser Technology 56 (2014) 9298 95
f400 mm, a0.64 mm. A
m
and B
m
are chosen to be the same as
those in [55,56] with M10. One nds from Fig. 4 that the results
calculated by analytical formula agree well with the results calcu-
lated by the direct numerical integration. Thus, our analytical
formula provides an efcient and reliable way for studying the
propagation properties of a HGB passing through the truncated FRT
optical system.
3. Experimental results
In this section, we carry out experimental observation of the
FRT and the truncated FRT for a HGB.
First, we outline briey the procedure for generating a HGB and
observing the FRT for the generated HGB. Fig. 5 shows our
experimental setup for generating a HGB and observing the FRT
or truncated FRT for the generated HGB. A beam emitted from the
HeNe laser (632.8 nm) is reected by a reecting mirror, then
it passes through a beam expander (BE). The beam from the BE
goes towards a spatial light modulator (SLM, Holoeye LC2002),
which acts as a grating with fork pattern designed by the method
of computer-generated holograms. The rst-order diffraction pat-
tern of the beam from the SLM is exactly a LaguerreGaussian
beam with modes 0 and l, and is selected out by a circular
aperture. The computer-generated hologram method is a well-
known technique to generate a LaguerreGaussian beam [58,59].
The order l of the generated LaguerreGaussian beam equals to the
number of the dislocations in the grating [59]. The electric eld of
the generated LaguerreGaussian beam can be expressed as
Er;
r

0
_ _
l
exp
r
2

2
0
_ _
expil: 12
The generated LaguerreGaussian beam passes through a spiral
phase plate (SPP) with transmission function Tr; expil, then
the intrinsic spiral phase term expil in LaguerreGaussian beam is
counteracted and the transmitted beam becomes a HGB with nl/2
[40]. The generated HGB passes through the FRT or truncated FRT
optical system with truncation parameter a (i.e., the radius of the
aperture), and then arrives at the beam prole analyzer (BPA), which
is used to measure the intensity distribution.
The order l is designed to be 2 and then the order n of the
generated HGB in our experiment equals to 1. Fig. 6 shows our
experimental results of the intensity distribution and the
corresponding normalized intensity distribution at cross line
y0 (dotted curve) of the generated HGB beam with n1 just
after the SPP. The solid curve denotes a result of the theoretical t
for the experimental data. From the theoretical t of the experi-
mental data, the beam waist size is found to be
0
0.48 mm. One
nds from Fig. 6 that there is an undesired side lobe in our
experimental results which may come from the diffraction effect
of the forked phase grating loaded on the SLM, while this small
side lobe almost does not affect the intensity distribution of the
generated HGB in the FRT plane as shown later.
Fig. 7 shows our experimental results of the intensity distribu-
tion and the corresponding normalized intensity distribution at
cross line
y
0(dotted curve) of the generated HGB after passing
through the FRT optical system without truncation for different
values of the fractional order p with n1,
0
0.48 mm,
632.8 nm, f 400 mm. For the convenience of comparison, the
corresponding results (solid curves) calculated by Eq. (3) are also
shown in Fig. 7. One nds from Fig. 7 that the dark hollow beam
prole in the FRT plane gradually disappears as the value of the
fractional order p increases gradually from 0.33 to 1.0, i.e., the on-
axis intensity increases gradually as p increases. In the Fourier
transform plane (i.e., p1), the on-axis intensity becomes max-
imum, and the beam prole of the HGB degenerates to a bright
spot with a side ring around it. This interesting propagation
phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the HGB is not a
pure mode, but a superposition of a series of LaguerreGaussian
modes (see Eq. (8) of Ref. [12]). Different modes overlap and
interfere in the FRT plane, thus leading to the unique focusing
properties of a HGB. Thus the FRT optical indeed can be used to
shape the beam prole of a HGB. Our experimental results agree
well with the theoretical results.
Now we study the inuence of the truncated FRT optical system
on the properties of the generated HGB. Fig. 8 shows our experi-
mental results of the intensity distribution and the corresponding
normalized intensity distribution at cross line
y
0(dotted curve)
of the generated HGB after passing through the truncated FRT
optical system for different values of the fractional order p with
n1,
0
0.48 mm, 632.8 nm, a0.64 mm and f 400 mm.
Fig. 9 shows our experimental results of the intensity distribution
and the corresponding normalized intensity distribution at cross
line
y
0 (dotted curve) of the generated HGB after passing
through the truncated FRT optical system for different values of
the truncation parameter a with n1,
0
0.48 mm, 632.8 nm,
Fig. 8. Experimental results of the intensity distribution and the corresponding normalized intensity distribution at cross line
y
0 (dotted curve) of the generated HGB
after passing through the truncated FRT optical system for different values of the fractional order p with a0.64 mm. The solid curves denote the corresponding theoretical
results calculated by Eq. (11).
X. Lu et al. / Optics & Laser Technology 56 (2014) 9298 96
p0.6 and f 400 mm. The corresponding results (solid curves)
calculated by Eq. (11) are also shown in Figs. 8 and 9 for the
convenience of comparison. One sees that the beam prole of the
generated HGB in the FRT plane changes as the fractional order p
changes for xed value of the truncation parameter a (see Fig. 8) or
as the truncation parameter a changes for xed value of the
fractional order p (see Fig. 9), and more bright rings appear in
the beam prole compared to the case a1 (without aperture).
This interesting phenomenon can be explained by that fact the
beam prole in the FRT plane is formed by the diffraction effect,
and the diffraction effect is determined by two factors, one is the
propagation distance between the input plane and the FRT plane,
another is the aperture. The diffraction effect changes as the
propagation distance (i.e., the fractional order p) or the radius of
the aperture (i.e., truncation parameter a) changes. Thus, the beam
prole in the FRT plane varies as the parameters a and p vary. Thus
the truncated FRT optical system provides a exible way for
shaping the beam prole of the HGB by varying the fractional
order p and the truncation parameter a. Our experimental results
also agree well with the theoretical results.
4. Conclusion
In conclusion, we have derived analytical formula for the trun-
cated FRT for a HGB, and we have reported experimental observation
of the FRT and the truncated FRT for a HGB. It is found that the FRT
optical system can be used to modulate the intensity distribution of
the HGB by varying the fractional order and the truncation para-
meter, and our experimental results agree well with the theoretical
predictions. Our results will be useful in some applications, where
light beam with special intensity distribution is required, such as
particle trapping and free-space optical communications.
Acknowledgments
This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foun-
dation of China under Grant nos. 11104195 and 11274005, the Huo
Ying Dong Education Foundation of China under Grant no. 121009,
the Key Project of Chinese Ministry of Education under Grant no.
210081, the Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program
Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, the Uni-
versities Natural Science Research Project of Jiangsu Province
under Grant 11KJB140007, the National College Students Innova-
tion Experiment Program under Grant no. 201210285017, and the
Project Sponsored by the Scientic Research Foundation for the
Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry.
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