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Gaussian beam

Xingyuan Lu, Cun Wei, Lin Liu, Gaofeng Wu, Fei Wang

n

, Yangjian Cai

School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 22 May 2013

Received in revised form

20 July 2013

Accepted 27 July 2013

Keywords:

Hollow Gaussian beam

Fractional Fourier transform

Beam shaping

a b s t r a c t

Hollow Gaussian beam (HGB) was introduced in [Cai et al., Optics Letters 2003;28:10841086 [12]] and

the fractional Fourier transform (FRT) for a HGB was studied theoretically in [Zheng, Physics Letters A

2006;355:156161 [53]] . In this paper, we derive the analytical formula for the truncated FRT for a HGB,

and we report experimental observation of the FRT and the truncated FRT for a HGB. The inuences of

the fractional order and the truncation parameter on the intensity distribution of the HGB in the FRT

plane have been studied in detail both theoretically and experimentally. It is found that the FRT optical

system provides an efcient way for modulating the beam prole of a HGB. Our experimental results

agree well with the theoretical predictions.

& 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

In the past decades, dark hollow beam (DHB) has been investi-

gated extensively and it has found wide applications in free-space

optical communications, laser optics, particles trapping, medical

sciences, atomic and binary optics [140]. Several theoretical

models have been proposed to describe various DHBs [918]. The

conventional DHBs such as Bessel Gaussian beam [9] and TEM

n

01

beam (also known as doughnut beam) [10] usually have a spiral

phase, and their dark hollow beam proles remain invariant on

propagation although their beam spots spread. Hollow Gaussian

beam (HGB) is one kind of DHB without a spiral phase, and was

introduced by Cai et al. in 2003 [12], and it is shown that it has

unique propagation properties, i.e., its dark beam prole varies on

propagation in free space and its dark hollow beam prole

disappears totally in the far eld, which are much different from

those of the conventional DHBs with a spiral phase. Theoretical

model named hollow elliptical Gaussian beam was proposed to

describe a DHB of elliptical system without spiral phase [18]. Deng

et al. derived the expression for the M

2

-factor of a HGB [19]. The

focusing properties of a HGB were explored in [2023]. Paraxial

propagation properties of a HGB through aligned or misaligned

optical system with truncation were reported in [24,25]. Zhou et al.

investigated the nonparaxial propagation properties and the vector-

ial structure of a HGB [2630]. Wang et al. carried out investigation

of atomic trapping and guiding by a HGB, and found that a HGB is

useful for atomic trapping and guiding [31]. Zhao et al. studied the

radiation forces on a dielectric sphere produced by highly focused

HGB, and found that a focused HGB can be used to trap particles

with refractive index larger or smaller than the ambient under

suitable conditions [32]. Qiao et al. studied the scintillation index

and bit error rate of a HGB in atmospheric turbulence, and they

found that a HGB has advantage over a Gaussian beam for reducing

turbulence-induced scintillation, which is useful for free-space

optical communications [33]. Yadav and Kandpal explored the

spectral anomalies of polychromatic HGB and discussed its applica-

tions in free-space optical communications [34]. In [35], Philip and

Viswanathan found that HGB is useful for generating tunable chain

of three-dimensional optical beams. More recently, Wang et al.

reported experimental generation of a LaguerreGaussian Schell-

model beam with the help of a HGB, which is useful for beam

shaping [36]. Up to now, several methods have been proposed to

generate a HGB [3739]. Just recently, we proposed a new method

to generate a HGB through transforming a LaguerreGaussian beam

into a HGB [40].

On the other hand, since the concept of fractional Fourier

transform (FRT) was rst introduced into optics by Ozaktas,

Mendlovic and Lohmann in 1993 [4143], numerous attention

has been paid to the FRT and it has found important applications in

image encryption, signal processing, beam shaping and beam

analysis [44]. In the past several years, the propagation properties

of various laser beams through the FRT optical system have been

studied extensively, and it is shown that the FRT optical system

provides a convenient way to control the statistical properties of

laser beams [4553]. The FRT for a HGB was studied theoretically

in [53], and it is found that the intensity distribution of the HGB in

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/optlastec

Optics & Laser Technology

0030-3992/$ - see front matter & 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2013.07.023

n

Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 512 691 53532.

E-mail addresses: fwang@suda.edu.cn (F. Wang),

yangjiancai@suda.edu.cn (Y. Cai).

Optics & Laser Technology 56 (2014) 9298

the FRT plane can be modulated by varying the parameter of the

FRT optical system. In this paper, we report experimental study of

the FRT and the truncated FRT for a HGB, and explore the

inuences of the fractional order and the truncation parameter

of the FRT optical system on the intensity distribution of the HGB

in the FRT plane both theoretically and experimentally.

2. Theory

In this section, we rst review briey the FRT for a HGB, and

then we investigate the truncated FRT for a HGB theoretically.

The electric eld of a HGB at the source plane is dened as [12]

Er;

r

2

2

0

_ _

n

exp

r

2

2

0

_ _

; 1

where r, are the radial and azimuthal (angle) coordinates and n is

the order of the HGB,

0

denotes the source beam waist size of a

fundamental Gaussian beam. When n0, Eq. (1) reduces to the

electric eld of a fundamental Gaussian beam. The area of the dark

region increases with the increase of the beam order n (see Fig. 1).

The propagation of a laser beam through a paraxial ABCD

optical system can be treated by the following Collins formula

[54]:

E;

ik

2B

_

1

0

_

2

0

Er; exp

ik

2B

Ar

2

2r cos D

2

_ _

rdrd ;

2

where k2/ is the wavenumber with being the wavelength of

the beam. A, B, C, D are the elements of the transfer matrix of the

paraxial optical system. Substituting Eq. (1) into Eq. (2), we obtain

the following analytical propagation formula for a HGB passing

through a paraxial ABCD optical system [12]:

E;

ikAn!

2B

2n

0

1

2

0

ikA

2B

_ _

n1

exp

ikDr

2

2B

kr=2B

2

1=

2

0

ikA=2B

_ _

L

0

n

kr=2B

2

1=

2

0

ikA=2B

_ _

;

3

where L

0

n

denotes the Laguerre polynomial of order n and 0.

According to [41], the optical system for implementing the FRT

for an optical beam is given as shown in Fig. 2. E(r,) and E(,)

denote the electric eld of the beam in the input plane and the FRT

plane, respectively. A thin lens with focal length f = sin is located

between the input pane and the FRT plane, and both the distance

from the input plane to the thin lens and the distance from the thin

lens to the FRT plane equal to f tan=2. Here f is the standard focal

length, and p/2 with p being the fractional order of the FRT

optical system. When p4n+1 with n being any integer, the FRT

optical system reduces to the conventional Fourier transformoptical

system. The transfer matrix of the FRT optical system in Fig. 2 is

given as

A B

C D

_ _

1 f tan=2

0 1

_ _

1 0

sin=f 1

_ _

1 f tan=2

0 1

_ _

cos f sin

sin=f cos

_ _

: 4

Applying Eqs. (3) and (4), one can study the properties of a HGB

in the FRT plane numerically. Numerical results in [53] have

shown that the FRT optical system can be used to modulate the

intensity distribution of a HGB by varying the fractional order.

Now we study the truncated FRT for a HGB. In a practical case,

most optical systems contain some aperture connement

(i.e., truncation), thus it is interesting to study the inuence of

truncation on the properties of a HGB in the FRT plane. Fig. 3

shows the optical system for performing the truncated FRT for an

optical beam, which is similar to Fig. 2, except that a circular

aperture with radius a is located just before the thin lens in Fig. 3.

The whole optical system can be divided into two sections: The

rst section is the free-space propagation of the beam from the

input plane to the truncated lens plane, and the second section is

also the free-space propagation of the beam from the truncated

lens plane to the FRT plane.

The transfer matrix of the free space between the input plane

and the truncated lens plane reads as

A B

C D

_ _

1 f tan=2

0 1

_ _

: 5

Applying Eqs. (3) and (5), we obtain the expression for the

electric eld of a HGB in the truncated lens plane as follows:

E;

ikn!p

1

n1

2

2n

0

f tan=2

exp

ik

2f tan=2

k

2

2

4f

2

tan

2

=2p

1

_ _

L

0

n

k

2

2

4f

2

tan

2

=2p

1

_ _

; 6

where

p

1

2

0

ik

2f tan=2

:

The propagation of the HGB from the truncated lens plane to

the FRT plane can be studied by the following extended Collins

Fig. 1. Normalized intensity distribution of a HGB for different values of n with

0

1 mm.

Fig. 2. Optical system for performing the FRT for an optical beam.

Fig. 3. Optical system for performing the truncated FRT for an optical beam.

X. Lu et al. / Optics & Laser Technology 56 (2014) 9298 93

formula:

E;

ik

2B

1

_

1

0

_

2

0

HE;

exp

ik

2B

1

A

1

2

2 cos

2

D

1

_ _

dd; 7

where A

1

, B

1

, C

1

, D

1

are the elements of the transfer matrix

between the truncated lens plane and the FRT plane given as

A

1

B

1

C

1

D

1

_ _

1 f tan=2

0 1

_ _

1 0

sin =f 1

_ _

cos f tan=2

sin =f 1

_ _

: 8

H() in Eq. (7) denotes the transmission function of the circular

aperture expressed as

H

1; ra

0; 4a

_

9

In order to obtain analytical propagation formula, we expand the

transmission function of the aperture as the following nite sum

of complex Gaussian functions [55]

H

M

m 1

A

m

exp

B

m

a

2

2

_ _

; 10

where A

m

and B

m

are the expansion and Gaussian coefcients, which

can be obtained by optimization computation. A table of A

m

and B

m

can be found in [55,56]. This expansion method has been proved

reliable and efcient. The simulation accuracy improves as the

expansion order M increases. For a circular hard aperture, M10

assures a very good description of the diffracted beam [5557].

Combining Eqs. (6)(8) and (10), we obtain the following

approximate analytical expression for the electric eld of a HGB

after passing through the truncated FRT optical system:

E;

k

2

n!p

1

n1

4

2n

0

f

2

tan

2

=2

exp

ik

2f tan=2

2

_ _

M

m 1

A

m

n1

m

m

n

exp

k

2

2

4

m

f

2

tan

2

=2

_ _

L

0

n

k

2

2

4f

2

tan

2

=2

m

_ _

; 11

with

k

2

4f

2

tan

2

=2p

1

B

m

a

2

ik cos

2f tan=2

ik

2f tan=2

;

k

2

4f

2

tan

2

=2p

1

:

Applying Eq. (11), we calculate in Fig. 4 the normalized intensity

distribution (cross line

y

0, solid line) of a HGB with n1 after

passing through the truncated FRToptical systemfor different values

of the fractional order p. For the convenience of comparison, the

corresponding results (dashed lines) calculated by Eq. (7) through

direct numerical integration are also shown in Fig. 4. The parameters

used in the calculations are chosen as 632.8 nm,

0

0.48 mm,

Fig. 4. Normalized intensity distribution (cross line

y

0, solid line) of a HGB with n1 after passing through the truncated FRT optical system for different values of the

fractional order p. The dashed lines are calculated by Eq. (7) numerically.

Fig. 5. Experimental setup for generating a HGB and observing the FRT or

truncated FRT for the generated HGB. RM: reecting mirror; BE: beam expander;

SLM: spatial light modulator; CA: circular aperture; SPP: spiral phase plate; BPA:

beam prole analyzer; PC: personal computer.

X. Lu et al. / Optics & Laser Technology 56 (2014) 9298 94

Fig. 6. Experimental results of the intensity distribution and the corresponding normalized intensity distribution at cross line y0 (dotted curve) of the generated HGB

beam with n1 just after the SPP. The solid curve is a result of the theoretical t for the experimental data.

Fig. 7. Experimental results of the intensity distribution and the corresponding normalized intensity distribution at cross line

y

0(dotted curve) of the generated HGB after

passing through the FRT optical system without truncation for different values of the fractional order p. The solid curves denote the corresponding theoretical results

calculated by Eq. (3).

X. Lu et al. / Optics & Laser Technology 56 (2014) 9298 95

f400 mm, a0.64 mm. A

m

and B

m

are chosen to be the same as

those in [55,56] with M10. One nds from Fig. 4 that the results

calculated by analytical formula agree well with the results calcu-

lated by the direct numerical integration. Thus, our analytical

formula provides an efcient and reliable way for studying the

propagation properties of a HGB passing through the truncated FRT

optical system.

3. Experimental results

In this section, we carry out experimental observation of the

FRT and the truncated FRT for a HGB.

First, we outline briey the procedure for generating a HGB and

observing the FRT for the generated HGB. Fig. 5 shows our

experimental setup for generating a HGB and observing the FRT

or truncated FRT for the generated HGB. A beam emitted from the

HeNe laser (632.8 nm) is reected by a reecting mirror, then

it passes through a beam expander (BE). The beam from the BE

goes towards a spatial light modulator (SLM, Holoeye LC2002),

which acts as a grating with fork pattern designed by the method

of computer-generated holograms. The rst-order diffraction pat-

tern of the beam from the SLM is exactly a LaguerreGaussian

beam with modes 0 and l, and is selected out by a circular

aperture. The computer-generated hologram method is a well-

known technique to generate a LaguerreGaussian beam [58,59].

The order l of the generated LaguerreGaussian beam equals to the

number of the dislocations in the grating [59]. The electric eld of

the generated LaguerreGaussian beam can be expressed as

Er;

r

0

_ _

l

exp

r

2

2

0

_ _

expil: 12

The generated LaguerreGaussian beam passes through a spiral

phase plate (SPP) with transmission function Tr; expil, then

the intrinsic spiral phase term expil in LaguerreGaussian beam is

counteracted and the transmitted beam becomes a HGB with nl/2

[40]. The generated HGB passes through the FRT or truncated FRT

optical system with truncation parameter a (i.e., the radius of the

aperture), and then arrives at the beam prole analyzer (BPA), which

is used to measure the intensity distribution.

The order l is designed to be 2 and then the order n of the

generated HGB in our experiment equals to 1. Fig. 6 shows our

experimental results of the intensity distribution and the

corresponding normalized intensity distribution at cross line

y0 (dotted curve) of the generated HGB beam with n1 just

after the SPP. The solid curve denotes a result of the theoretical t

for the experimental data. From the theoretical t of the experi-

mental data, the beam waist size is found to be

0

0.48 mm. One

nds from Fig. 6 that there is an undesired side lobe in our

experimental results which may come from the diffraction effect

of the forked phase grating loaded on the SLM, while this small

side lobe almost does not affect the intensity distribution of the

generated HGB in the FRT plane as shown later.

Fig. 7 shows our experimental results of the intensity distribu-

tion and the corresponding normalized intensity distribution at

cross line

y

0(dotted curve) of the generated HGB after passing

through the FRT optical system without truncation for different

values of the fractional order p with n1,

0

0.48 mm,

632.8 nm, f 400 mm. For the convenience of comparison, the

corresponding results (solid curves) calculated by Eq. (3) are also

shown in Fig. 7. One nds from Fig. 7 that the dark hollow beam

prole in the FRT plane gradually disappears as the value of the

fractional order p increases gradually from 0.33 to 1.0, i.e., the on-

axis intensity increases gradually as p increases. In the Fourier

transform plane (i.e., p1), the on-axis intensity becomes max-

imum, and the beam prole of the HGB degenerates to a bright

spot with a side ring around it. This interesting propagation

phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the HGB is not a

pure mode, but a superposition of a series of LaguerreGaussian

modes (see Eq. (8) of Ref. [12]). Different modes overlap and

interfere in the FRT plane, thus leading to the unique focusing

properties of a HGB. Thus the FRT optical indeed can be used to

shape the beam prole of a HGB. Our experimental results agree

well with the theoretical results.

Now we study the inuence of the truncated FRT optical system

on the properties of the generated HGB. Fig. 8 shows our experi-

mental results of the intensity distribution and the corresponding

normalized intensity distribution at cross line

y

0(dotted curve)

of the generated HGB after passing through the truncated FRT

optical system for different values of the fractional order p with

n1,

0

0.48 mm, 632.8 nm, a0.64 mm and f 400 mm.

Fig. 9 shows our experimental results of the intensity distribution

and the corresponding normalized intensity distribution at cross

line

y

0 (dotted curve) of the generated HGB after passing

through the truncated FRT optical system for different values of

the truncation parameter a with n1,

0

0.48 mm, 632.8 nm,

Fig. 8. Experimental results of the intensity distribution and the corresponding normalized intensity distribution at cross line

y

0 (dotted curve) of the generated HGB

after passing through the truncated FRT optical system for different values of the fractional order p with a0.64 mm. The solid curves denote the corresponding theoretical

results calculated by Eq. (11).

X. Lu et al. / Optics & Laser Technology 56 (2014) 9298 96

p0.6 and f 400 mm. The corresponding results (solid curves)

calculated by Eq. (11) are also shown in Figs. 8 and 9 for the

convenience of comparison. One sees that the beam prole of the

generated HGB in the FRT plane changes as the fractional order p

changes for xed value of the truncation parameter a (see Fig. 8) or

as the truncation parameter a changes for xed value of the

fractional order p (see Fig. 9), and more bright rings appear in

the beam prole compared to the case a1 (without aperture).

This interesting phenomenon can be explained by that fact the

beam prole in the FRT plane is formed by the diffraction effect,

and the diffraction effect is determined by two factors, one is the

propagation distance between the input plane and the FRT plane,

another is the aperture. The diffraction effect changes as the

propagation distance (i.e., the fractional order p) or the radius of

the aperture (i.e., truncation parameter a) changes. Thus, the beam

prole in the FRT plane varies as the parameters a and p vary. Thus

the truncated FRT optical system provides a exible way for

shaping the beam prole of the HGB by varying the fractional

order p and the truncation parameter a. Our experimental results

also agree well with the theoretical results.

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, we have derived analytical formula for the trun-

cated FRT for a HGB, and we have reported experimental observation

of the FRT and the truncated FRT for a HGB. It is found that the FRT

optical system can be used to modulate the intensity distribution of

the HGB by varying the fractional order and the truncation para-

meter, and our experimental results agree well with the theoretical

predictions. Our results will be useful in some applications, where

light beam with special intensity distribution is required, such as

particle trapping and free-space optical communications.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foun-

dation of China under Grant nos. 11104195 and 11274005, the Huo

Ying Dong Education Foundation of China under Grant no. 121009,

the Key Project of Chinese Ministry of Education under Grant no.

210081, the Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program

Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, the Uni-

versities Natural Science Research Project of Jiangsu Province

under Grant 11KJB140007, the National College Students Innova-

tion Experiment Program under Grant no. 201210285017, and the

Project Sponsored by the Scientic Research Foundation for the

Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry.

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