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Q.2:Discuss / Explain the various functions of RBI. Ans. A.

RESERVE BANK OF INDIA (RBI) :The Reserve Bank of India is the central bank of India it was established as a shareholders bank on 1st April 1935. On 1st January 1949 it was nationalized. RBI, like any other bank performs almost all traditional Central banking functions. Due to countrys development it has also undertaken developmental and promotional functions. FUNCTIONS OF RBI :RBI performs many functions, some of them are:1. Issue Of Currency Notes :RBI has the sole right to issue currency notes of all denominations except one rupee coins and notes. The one-rupee notes and coins are issued by Central Government and their distribution is undertaken by RBI as the agent of the government. 2. Banker To The Government :The RBI acts as a banker agent and adviser to the government. It has obligation to transact the banking business of Central Government as well as State Governments. E.g.:- RBI receives and makes all payments on behalf of government, buys and sells foreign currencies for it and gives it advice on all banking matters. RBI helps the Government both Central and state to float new loans and manage public debt. 3. Bankers bank And Lender Off Last Resort :-

RBI acts as a banker to other banks. It provides financial assistance to scheduled banks and state co-operative banks in form of rediscounting of eligible bills and loans and advances against approved securities. RBI acts as a lender of last resort. It provides funds to bank when they fail to get it from other sources. It also acts as a clearing house. Through RBI, banks make interbanks payments. 4. Controller Of Credit :RBI has power to control the volume of credit created by banks. The RBI through its various quantitative and qualitative techniques regulates total supply of money and bank credit in the interest of economy. RBI pumps in money during busy season and withdraws money during slack season. 5. Exchange control And Custodian Of Foreign Reserve :RBI has the responsibility of maintaining fixed exchange rates with all member countries of IMF. For this, RBI has centralized all foreign exchange reserves (FOREX). RBI functions as custodian of nations foreign exchange reserves. It has to maintain external value of Rupee. RBI achieves this aim through appropriate monetary fiscal and trade policies and exchange control. 6. Regulatory And Supervisory Functions :The RBI has wide powers of supervision and control over commercial and co-operative banks, relating to licensing, establishment, branch expansion, liquidity of Assets, management and methods of working, amalgamation, reconstruction and liquidation. The supervisory functions of RBI is to help in improving the standard of banking in India to develop on sound lines and to improve the methods of their operation. 7. Clearing House Functions :-

The RBI acts as a clearing house for all member banks. This avoids unnecessary transfer of funds between the various banks. 8. Communicating with the public It aims at sharing knowledge about the financial area. The reserve bank website provides a full range of informatiom about the banks activities & publications. This website is updated regularly & is posted in its local language. 8. Development And Promotional Functions :The RBI has helped in setting up 1. Industrial Finance Corporations of India (IFCI), 2. State Financial Corporations (SFCs), 3. Agricultural Refinance and Development Corporation (ARDC), 4. Units Trust of India (UTI) etc. These institutions were set up to mobilize savings, promote saving habits and to provide industrial and agricultural finance. RBI has a special Agricultural Credit Department (ACD) which studies the problems of agricultural credit. For this Regional Rural banks, Co-operative, NABARD etc. were established. Thus RBI has contributed to economic growth by promoting rural credit, industrial financing, export trade etc. Q.3): Explain the quantitative and selective methods of credit control used by RBI.OR Explain the Monetary Policy of RBI measures taken by RBI to control credit. OR

Write note on Quantitative I Selective methods of credit control. OR Explain Monetary Management of RBI.

Ans. A) MONETARY POLICY OF RBI :I) Quantitative Credit Control Methods :-

In India, the legal framework of RBIs control over the credit structure has been provided Under Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 and the Banking RegulationAct, 1949. Quantitative credit controls are used to maintain proper quantity of credit or money supply in market. Some of the important general credit control methods are:1. Bank Rate Policy :The bank rate, also known as the discount rate, is the rate of interest charged by the RBI for providing funds or loans to the banking system. This banking system involves commercial and co-operative banks, Industrial Development Bank of India, IFC, EXIM Bank, and other approved financial institutes. Funds are provided either through lending directly or rediscounting or buying money market instruments like commercial bills and treasury bills. 2. Open market operations :-

It refers to buying and selling of government securities from or to the public or banks in open market in order to expand or contract the amount of money in the banking system. This technique is superior to bank rate policy. It helps to maintains stability in government securities market. 3. Cash Reserve Ratio Every commercial bank is required to deposit a certain percentage of its total capital to the RBI in the form of cash, which is called CRR. Increase or decrease in CRR are used by RBI as an monetary control instrument particularly to mop up excess increase in money supply. 4. Statutory Liquidity Ratio Every commercial bank is required to keep a certain percentage of its deposits in the form of liquid assets such as cash, gold, precious metals, approved securities like bonds, Govt securities, T-bills, etc ., The ratio of the liquid assets to time and demand liabilities is termed as the Statutory liquidity ratio. 5. Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate Repo rate (repurchase rate) is the rate of interest at which commercial banks takes loans from RBI for short period (1-14 days). It is an agreement between the RBI and commercial banks under which commercial banks sells their securities to the RBI & promise to repurchase it at fixed price & fixed time. Reverse Repo rate is the rate at which RBI borrows money from the commercial banks. II) SELECTIVE / QUALITATIVE CREDIT CONTROL METHODS :Under Selective Credit Control, credit is provided to selected borrowers for selected purpose, depending upon the use to which the control try to regulate

the quality of credit - the direction towards the credit flows. The Selective Controls are :1. Ceiling On Credit The Ceiling on level of credit restricts the lending capacity of a bank to grant advances against certain controlled securities. 2. Margin Requirements :A loan is sanctioned against Collateral Security. Margin means that proportion of the value of security against which loan is not given. Margin against a particular security is reduced or increased in order to encourage or to discourage the flow of credit to a particular sector. Higher the margin lesser will be the loan sanctioned. 4. Directives:The RBI issues directives to banks regarding advances. Directives are regarding the purpose for which loans may or may not be given. 5. Direct Action It is too severe and is therefore rarely followed. It may involve refusal by RBI to rediscount bills or cancellation of license, if the bank has failed to comply with the directives of RBI. 6. Moral Suasion RBI may request commercial banks not to give loans for unproductive purpose which does not add to economic growth but increases inflation.

Marginal Standing Facility (MSF): It is a new facility started by RBI under which the banks will get loan for overnight purpose (1day) at 1% more than Repo rate. Prime Lending Rate (PLR): The rate at which the banks give loan to its most credit worthy customer or prime customer is called PLR. It is decided by the individual banks. So, it varies from banks to banks between 7.5% to 9% generally. Benchmark Prime Lending Rate (BPLR): Prsently, PLR and BPLR are same. Priority Sector Lending: Under this, all the commercial banks are required to give 40% of their total loan amount to the sector declared as priority sector by the Govt at concessional rates. Priority sector includes - Agriculture (18% at 7% rate of interest), Weaker sections (10%), & Others . Bank Rate: The rate of interest at which the RBI gives loan to the Commercial banks for long period of time in order to maintain CRR & SLR is called Bank Rate. Since April 2002, it was 6%. In Feb 2012, it was changed to 9.5%. Currently, it is 9%. Repo Rate (Repurchase Option): The rate of interest at which commercial banks takes loans from RBI for short period (1-14 days) is called Repo Rate. It is an agreement between the RBI and commercial banks under which commercial banks sells their securities to the RBI & promise to repurchase it at fixed price & fixed time. Presently, it is 8%. Reverse Repo Rate: The rate of interest at which commercial bank deposit their surplus liquidity with RBI or in the other words, the rate at which RBI takes loan from the commercial banks is called Reverse Repo Rate. Presently, it is 7%. CRR (Cash Reserve Ratio): Every commercial bank is required to deposit a certain percentage of its total capital to the RBI in the form of cash, which is called CRR. Presently, it is 4.75%. SLR (Statutory Liquidity Ratio): Every commercial bank is required to keep a certain percentage of its deposits in the form of liquid (RBI bonds, Govt securities, T-bills, Gold, etc) is called SLR. Presently, it is 24%.