:::: 40
LL
Say You SawIt In CQ December 1982  CQ  21
a Cable losses
(d8) (d8) B Receiver bandwidth
f (MHz) Gv(dB) FA
::::F
s

C Noise correlation factor
kT
o
kT
o
FA Antenna noise figure
2  31 47.4
F
m1n
Amplifier noise figure (for best noise
match)
 21.7 35.2
F
R
Receiver noise figure
5
F
s
System noise figure (antenna, cable,
10 15.5 28.6
and receiver)
G
v
Antenna gain = antenna output power
15 12 24.9
IP
2
Secondorder intercept point
IP
3
Thirdorder intercept point
20 10.2 23.1
P
a
Output power into 50 ohms
Pam2.
3
Second or third order intermodulation
7.3
20.2
products output power
25
Pan
Noise output power
30
5.5 18.4
Va
Output voltage (terminated in 50 Q)

V
o
Antenna output EMF
ZA
Antenna rod impedance
Table 11 Electronic losses and noise figure as a function of freq.
Zopt
Antenna rod impedance (for best noise
matching)
Table 1 Active antenna dynamic analysis terminology.
I
32
I
28 24
I I
duced. Let us assume that an intercept
point of IP2 = 100 dBm and IP
3
of 65 dBm
can be reached in a practical amplifier.
The following results will then be obtain
ed:
1. Second order intermodulation dis
tortion products are going to be  46
dBm and the useful dynamic range will be
84 dB.
2. Third order intermodulation prod
ucts will be  49 dBm and the useful dy
namic range will be 81 dB.
These calculations assume a noise fig
ure of 40 dB at 2 MHz and two 10V ran
dom carriers generating the intermodula
tion distortion products as specified.
A number of tests in extremely hostile
environments have already been per
formed with this active antenna. How
ever, it is not yet in mass production and,
therefore, not enough information about
reproducibility is available. This will be
the next step for evaluation.
I I I I I
4
'\
'\
"
, ' .... "'""''0..
" ... _
, ....  ..... _ .... ....._____ Fsmaxarbitrarynoise
'... ""........ ...__ (specification)
<,  ..
............. __ Man made noise

_ "CCIRreport2582
 _ (quiet, rural)

  .. Gv
12 16 20
Frequency (MHz)
Fig. 5 The electronic gain and noise figure of the ionosphere, active antenna, and re
quired system noise figure.
_ 30
en
>
(9
IJ.." 20 l
10
50
40
/P
21dBm)
= 2P
aidBm)
 P
am2(dBm)
With ValVo = 0.5 and Va = 10V, P
a
is
+ 27 dBm, and therefore, IP
2
= 144 dBm
and IP
3
= 85 dBm. These are the two
values that are required to generate an
intermodulation distortion noise floor at
the rated level. For practical considera
tions the 1 dB compression point should
be 10 dB above the operating output lev
el. Therefore, in this case, it should be
+ 37 dBm. This results in a voltage level
of 44.3V at 0.9A in a 50 ohm system. The
operating voltage of this amplifer should
be set at 50V. If the input voltage ratio is
changed and a higher than 0.5 voltage di
vision ratio is utilized, then the second
and third order intercept points can be re
Intercept Point Calculations
At2MHz,F
s
= 40dBandG
v
= 31dB.
Therefore, P
am2.
3
=  90 dBm.
Shipboard Environment
Specifications
The active antenna, per the specifica
tions,' sees two 10V EMF's. The inter
modulation distortion products that are
generated due to these two voltages are
40 dB above the specified maximum sys
tem's noise figure, as a worst case condi
tion. Therefore:
PanldBm) = FsldB) + G,ldB) = 10./ogkToB.l0
3
= FsldB) = G,ldB)  139 dBm and
P
am2 3
IdB) = PanminldBm) + 40dB
. max = [FsldB) + G,IdB)Jmln 99dBm
Loss and Noise Figure
Versus Frequency
Table II lists electronic losses and
noise figure as a function of frequency.
(This assumes that the noise figure of the
active device is 2 dB.) This data is also
plotted in fig. 5. In this graph, the sys
tem's noise figure, the manmade noise,
and some arbitrary noise specifications
are plotted.
Despite a loss of 30 dB (the active an
tenna relative to the power available at
the antenna input) the signaltonoise
ratio up to 4 MHz can meet the specifica
tions. Below 4 MHz, the specifications
are equal to the manmade noise. Above
4 MHz the antenna's performance ex
ceeds the specifications.
'Antenna system developed for use on
shipboard by Communications Consult
ing Corp., Upper Saddle River, NJ, based
on some discussions with the Naval Re
search Laboratory in Washington, D.C.
22 CO December 1982
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