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1. When you asked an older student why it is necessary to change the patients be everyday, he says, I guess we have always done it that way.This answer is an example of: A. Unsubstantiated knowledge B. Scientific knowledge C. Authoritative knowledge D. Traditional knowledge Answer: The correct answer is D. Traditional knowledge is the part of nursing practice passed down from generation to generation, often without research data to support it. 2. One method of developing a theory is by first examining a general idea and then considering specific actions or ideas. What is this method called? A. Inductive reasoning B. Deductive reasoning C. Conceptual modeling D. Concept development Answer: The correct answer is B. Moving from a general idea to specific ideas is deductive reasoning. 3. What word may be used to describe a concept? A. Fact B. Science C. Idea D. Truth Answer: The correct answer is C. A concept, like an idea, is an abstract impression of reality. 4. Which of the following types of nursing theory focuses on clinical nursing practice? A. Prescriptive theory B. Descriptive Theory C. Developmental Theory D. Systems Theory Answer: The correct response is A. Prescriptive theories address nursing interventions and are designed to contro, promote, and change clinical practice. 5. There are four concepts common to nursing theories. Which concept is the most important? A. Person B. Environment C. Health

D. Nursing Answer: The correct response is A. The most important is the person. 6. When conducting research, which of the following terms is used to describe the information that is collected? A. Subject B. Analysis C. Data D. Abstract Answer: The correct response is C. Data is observable and verifiable information collected to describe, explain or predict events. 7. What is the name of the type of quantitative research conducted to directly influence or improve clinical practice? A. Basic research B. Applied research C. Experimental Research D. Descriptive Research Answer: The correct response is B. Applied research, a type of quantitative research, is designed to directly influence or improve clinical practice. 8. A researcher is studying the effects of exercise and sleep on blood pressure. What type of variable is blood pressure in this study? A. Exploratory B. Correlational C. Dependent D. Independent Answer: The correct answer is C. The dependent variableis the variable being studied and is determined by manipulating condition (the independent variable) 9. Of the following types of qualitative research, which method developed in anthropology? A. Historical B. Ethnography C. Grounded Theory D. Phenomenology Answer: The correct response is B. Ethnographic research was developed by the discipline of anthropology and is used to examine issues of culture of interest to nursing. 10. What type of clinical nursing practice is becoming increasingly important to healthcare and nursing today?

A. Primary care nursing B. Community-based nursing C. Authoritative nursing D. Evidence-based nursing Answer: The correct response is D. An increasing trend in healthcare, including nursing, is the use of research-supported, evidence-based clinical nursing practice.