Introduction:
Transform techniques are an important tool in the analysis of signals and linear time
invariant systems. The Laplace transforms are popularly used for analysis of
continuous time signals and systems. Similarly Z transform plays an important role
in analysis and representation of linear discrete time systems. The Z transform
provides a method for the analysis of discrete time systems in the frequency domain
which is generally more efficient than its domain analysis.
When continuous signals are sampled, discrete time functions arise. Z transform
plays an important role in the fields of communication engineering and control
engineering at the stage of analysis and representation of discretetime linear shift
invariance systems.
Z transform is named after Zakowski. A discrete system is expressible as a
difference equation and its solutions are found using Z transforms.
Defintion: If ( ) { } n f is a sequence defined for L , 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 = n , then ( )
n
n
n
z n f
=
=
is called as
Bilateral Z transform of ( ) { } n f and denoted as ( ) { } n f Z , where z is a complex variable in
general. If ( ) { } n f is a causal sequence (i.e. if ( ) 0 = n f for ) 0 < n , then Z transform is called
as unilateral Z transform and defined as
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( ) { } ( ) ( )
n
n
n
z n f z f n f Z
=
=
= =
0
Note: 1. If the function ( ) t f is defined by means of a sequence of its sampled values at
L , 2 , , 0 T T then Z transform of ( ) t f is defined as
( ) { } ( ) ( )
n
n
n
z nT f z f t f Z
=
=
= =
0
Note: 2. The series ( )
n
n
n
z n f
=
=
0
is convergent only in a certain region of the Z plane and it
is called Region of Convergence (ROC)
Properties of Z Transforms
1. Linearity: The Z transform is linear. i.e. if { } { } ) ( and ) ( n g n f are two sequences then
( ) { } ( ) { } ( ) { } n g bZ n f aZ n bg n af Z + = + ) ( where a and b are constants
2. Time Shifting: (i) { } { } ) ( ( n f Z z n n f Z
o
n
o
= ;(ii) { } { } ) 0 ( ) ( ) ( f z f z T t f Z = +
3. Frequency Shifting : { }

\

=
a
z
f n f a Z
n
) (
4. Differentiation in the Z Domain: { } ) ( ) ( z f
dz
d
z n nf Z =
5. Initial Value Theorem: If { } ) ( ) ( z f n f Z = ,then ( ) z f
z
f
=
lim
) 0 (
6. Final Value Theorem: If { } ) ( ) ( z f n f Z = ,then ( ) ( ) { } z f z
z
n f
n
1
1
lim
) (
lim
=
7. Convolution : The convolution of two sequences { } ) (n f and { } ) (n g is defined as
{ }= ) ( * ) ( n g n f
r
r n g r f ) ( ) ( , if the sequences are non causal and
=
n
r
r n g r f
0
) ( ) ( , if the sequences are causal
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8. Convolution Theorem on Z transforms: If { } ( ) z f n f Z = ) ( and { } ( ) z g n g Z = ) ( then
{ }= ) ( * ) ( n g n f Z ( ) ( ) z g z f
Example 1: Find the Z transform of
n
a
{ }
=
0 n
n n n
z a a Z =
=

\

0 n
n
z
a
=
a z
z
= =
n
aT anT at
e Z e Z e Z
aT
e z
z
, where ROC is
aT
e z >
Example 3: Find the Z transform of
n
na
{ } ( ) { }
n n
a Z
dz
d
z na Z = =

\

a z
z
dz
d
z =
( )
2
a z
az
, ROC is a z >
Example 4: Find the Z transform of
n
1
=
)
`
1
1 1
n
n
z
n n
Z = ....
1
3
1 1
2
1 1
3 2
+

\

+

\

+
z z z
=

\

1
log
z
z
, ROC is 1 > z
Example 5: Find the Z transform of n r
n
cos and n r
n
sin
We know { }
a z
z
a Z
n
= . Putting
i
re a = , we get
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( ) { }
i
n
i
re z
z
re Z
= ,if r z >
( ) { }
( )
sin cos
sin cos
i r z
z
n i n r Z
n
+
= +
Multiplying and dividing by complex conjugate in RHS and equating real parts on both
sides,
( ) n r Z
n
cos =
( )
2 2
cos 2
cos
r zr z
r z z
+
( ) n r Z
n
sin =
2 2
cos 2
sin
r zr z
zr
+
The ROC is r z >
Example 6: Find the Z transform of
) 2 )( 1 (
3 2
+ +
+
n n
n
) 2 )( 1 (
3 2
+ +
+
n n
n
=
1
1
+ n
+
2
1
+ n
using Partial fractions

\

=

\

+ 1
log
1
1
z
z
z
n
Z ;
+
=

\

+
0
2
1
2
1
n
n
z
n n
Z
=
(
+

\

+

\

....
1
3
1 1
2
1
3 2
2
z z
z
= z
z
z
z

\

1
log
2
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Hence
) 2 )( 1 (
3 2
=


\

+ +
+
n n
n
Z z
z
z
z z

\

+
1
log ) 1 (
Example 7: Find the Z transform of ( ) ( ) n g n f * , where ( )
n
n f

\

=
2
1
and ( ) n n g cos =
( ) ( ) { }= n g n f Z * ( ) ( ) z g z f =
1 2
2
1 1 2
2
2
2
+
=

\

+

\

z z
z
z
z
z
z
INVERSE Z TRANSFORMS
Method 1 (Long Division Method)
From the usual polynomial division the expansion of ( )
n
n
z n f
0
is obtained in the
quotient
Example 8: Find the inverse Z transform of
( )( ) 2 1 z z
z
by long division method
) 2 3
2
+ z z z (
3 2 1
7 3
+ + z z z
1
2 3
+ z z
1
2 3
z
2 1
6 9 3
+ z z
2 1
6 7
z z
3 2 1
14 21 7
+ z z z
3 2
14 15
z z
2 3
2
+ z z
z
=
K + + +
3 2 1
7 3 z z z
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( )
n
n
z
=
0
n
1 2
Taking
1
z both sides
( ) ( ) 1 2 =
n
n f
Method 2(Partial Fractions Method)
When ( ) z f is expressed in terms of partial fractions, its inverse can be obtained by the
usual procedure. i.e. it is the sum of the inverse Z transforms of the partial fractions.
Example 9: Find


\

+
40 3
2
2
1
z z
z
z
by Partial fraction method
Let
z
z f ) (
=
( )( ) 5 8 + z z
z
( ) ( ) 5 8
+
+
z
B
z
A
( ) ( ) 5
13
5
8
13
8
+
+
=
z z
( ) z f
( ) ( ) 5
13
5
8
13
8
+
+
=
z
z
z
z
( ) ) (
1
z f z
=
) (n f
=
( ) ( )
n n
5
13
5
8
13
8
+
Method 3 (By Cauchys residue Theorem)
Using Residue Theorem, it can be shown that ( ) = n f Sum of residues of
( )
1 n
z z f
at
isolated singularities
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Example 10 : Find the inverse Z transform of
( )( )
2
3 2 z z
z
by residue theorem
From residue theorem, ( ) = n f sum of residues of
1 n
z
) (z f
at isolated singularities
) (
1
z f z
n
=
( )( )
2
3 2 z z
z
n
. The poles are 2 = z (simple pole) and
3 = z
(double pole)
Residue at
2 = z
is
( )
( )( )
2
2
3 2
2
z z
z
z Lt
n
z
=
n
2
Residue at
3 = z
is
( )
( )( )


\

2
2
3
3 2
3
z z
z
z
dz
d
Lt
n
z
=
( ) 3 3
1
n
n
( ) ( ) 3 3 2
1
+ =
n n f
n n
SOLUTION OF DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS
The given difference equation with associated boundary conditions can be solved using
Z transforms
Result1:
( ) { } ( ) 0 ) ( 1 zy z y z n y Z = +
Result 2:
( ) { } ( ) ( ) 1 0 ) ( 2
2 2
zy y z z y z n y Z = +
Result 3:
( ) { } ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 1 0 ) ( 3
2 3 3
zy y z y z z y z n y Z = +
Example 11: Solve the difference equation
n
n n n
y y y 2 12 7
1 2
= +
+ +
, given that 0
1 0
= = y y
Given
n
n n n
y y y 2 12 7
1 2
= +
+ +
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Taking Z transforms, ( ) [ ] ( ) 1 0
2 2
zy y z z y z 7
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 zy z y z
+12
( ) z y =
2 z
z
Applying boundary conditions and simplifying, we get
( ) ( ) z y z z 12 7
2
+
=
2 z
z
( )
( )( )( )
)
`
=
3 4 2
1
z z z
z
Z n y
Using partial fraction, we get
( )
n n n
n y 4
2
1
3 2
2
1
+ =
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