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Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method

CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION
Convective flow through porous media is an area of research undergoing rapid growth in
the fluid mechanics and heat transfer field, due to its broad range of scientific and engineering
applications. It is associated with petroleum and geothermal processes, fiber and granular
insulation materials, high performance insulation buildings. In filtration studies, the main concern
is to determine how fluid moves, through the porous structure, leaving behind unwanted
material.In the study of seepage of water through river beds and investigation of underground
water resources, various types of convection through porous media are encountered. All these
processes require thorough understanding of convective transport in porous media. A nice review
about the heat transfer in geothermal system has been presented in Cheng (1978).
By a porous medium we mean a material consisting of a solid matrix with an
interconnected void. We suppose that the solid matrix is either rigid (the usual situation) or it
undergoes small deformation. The interconnectedness of the void (the pores) allows the flow of
one or more fluids through the material. In the simplest situation (single phase flow) the void is
saturated by single fluid. In two phase flow a liquid and a gas share the void space.
In a natural porous medium, the distribution of pores with respect to shape and size is
irregular. Examples of natural porous media are beach sand, sandstone, limestone, rye bread,
wood, and the human lung (Fig.i). On the pore scale (the microscopic scale) the flow quantities
(velocity, pressure, etc.) will clearly be irregular. But in typical experiments the quantities of
interest are measured over areas that cross many pores, and such space-averaged (macroscopic)
quantities change in a regular manner with respect to space and time, and hence are amenable to
theoretical treatment.
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 1
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
1.1 EXAMPLES OF NATURAL POROUS MATERIALS
Figure (i) Top: A) Beach sand, B) sandstone, C) Limestone, D) Rye bread, E) Wood, and F)
Human lung (Collins, 1961, with permission from Van Nastrand Reinhold). Bottom:
Granular porous materials used in the construction industry, 0.5 cm Liapor Spheres
(left), and 1 cm-size crushed limestone (right) (Bejan, 1984)
1.2 POROSITY
The porosity of a porous medium is defined as the fraction of the total volume
of the medium that is occupied by void space. Thus 1- is the fraction that is
occupied by solid.
For natural media, does not normally exceed 0.6. For beds of solid spheres of uniform diameter can vary
between the limits 0.2545 (rhombohedral packing) and 0.4764 (cubic packing). Non uniformity of grain size tends to
lead to smaller porosities than for uniform grains, because smaller grains fill the pores formed by larger grains.
Table 1.1 shows a compilation of porosities and other properties of common
porous materials.
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 2
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
Table 1.2 Properties of common porous materials [based on data compiled by Scheidegger
(1974) and Bejan Large (1991)].
Material Porosity

Permeability
K[cm
2
]
Surface per unit
yolume [cm
-1
]
Agar-agar
Black slate powder
Brick
Catalyst (Fischer-Tropsch, granules
only)
Cigarette
Cigarette filters
Coal
Concrete (ordinary mixes)
Concrete (bituminous)
Copper powder (hot-compacted)
Cork board
Fiberglass
Granular crushed rock
Hair (on mammals)
Hair felt
Leather
Sand
Silica grains
Soil
0.57 - 0.66
0.12 - 0.34
0.45
0.17 - 0.49
0.02 - 0.12
0.02 - 0.07
0.09 - 0.34
0.88 - 0.93
0.45
0.95 - 0.99
0.56 - 0.59
2 x 10
-10
- 4.4 x 10
-9
4.9 x 10
-10
- 1.2 x 10
-9
4.8 x 10
-11
- 2.2 x 10
-9
1.1 x 10
-5
1 x 10
-9
- 2.3 x 10
-7
3.3 x 10
-6
- 1.5 x 10
-5
2.4 x 10
-7
- 5.1 x 10
-7
8.3 x 10
-6
- 1.2 x 10
-5
9.5 x 10
-10
- 1.2 x 10
-9
7 x 10
3
- 8.9 x 10
3
5.6 x 10
5
560 - 770
1.2 x 10
4
- 1.6 x 10
4
150 220
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 3
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
0.37 - 0.50
0.65
0.43 - 0.54
2 x 10
-7
- 1.8 x 10
-6
2.9 x 10
-9
- 1.4 x 10
-7
1.3 DARCY'S LAW: PERMEABILITY
Henri Darcys investigations in to the hydrology of the fountains of Dijon and his experiments on
steady state unidirectional flow in a uniform medium revealed proportionality between flow rate
and the applied pressure difference. In modern notation this is expressed by,


K P
u g
x

(1.3a)
Here
p
x

is the pressure gradient in the flow direction and u is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid.
The co-efficient K is independent of the nature of the fluid but it depends on the geometry of the
medium. It has dimensions (length)
2
and is called the specific permeability or intrinsic permeability of the medium.
In the case of single phase flow we abbreviate this to permeability. The permeabilities of common porous materials are
summarized in table 1.2. In three dimensions, this equation generalizes to values of K for natural materials vary widely.


1
.( ) v K P g

(1.3b)
Darcy equation
K
p

V
is linear in the seepage velocity V and it holds when V is
sufficiently small. In other words, Darcy equation holds well when the Reynolds number
Re
p

of the flow based on the typical pore or particle diameter is of order unity or smaller. As V
increases the transition to non - linear drag is quite smooth; there is no sudden transition as
Re
p
is
increased in the range 1 to 10. At such small Reynolds number, the flow in the pores remains to
be still laminar. The break down in linearity is due to the fact that the form drag due to solid
obstacles is now comparable with the surface drag due to friction. Hence the Darcy equation is to
replaced by
1/ 2
f f
p c K
K

V V V , where
f
c
is a dimension less form drag constant. It
was found that
f
c
does vary with the nature of the porous medium and can be as small as
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 4
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
0.1 in the case of foam metal fibers. The researchers showed that the bounding walls, width,
height of the bed and the diameter of their spheres could have significant effect and the
f
c
varies as
1

for

(porosity) less than 0.61. This model is called as Forchheimer model.


An alternative to Darcys equation is Brinkmans equation given by
2
p
K

+ V V %

where
%
is an effective viscosity. Brinkman set
%
=

though in general they are approximately


equal. This equation demands that the porosity should be greater than 0.6. This requirement is
highly restrictive since, most naturally occurring porous media have porosities less than o.6.
Experimental checks for Brinkmans theory have been indirect and few in number. The basic draw
back is that it is not possible to rigorously justify the Brinkmans model except when the porosity
is near to unity. It has not been possible to determine the effective viscosity experimentally,
because all the available experimental data pertain to media whose porosity is out side the range
for which the rigorous theories are valid In order that the Brinkmans equation to be valid the
porosity must be very large and there is some uncertainty about the validity of the Forchheimer
law at such large porosity. Since, most naturally occurring porous media have porosities less
than 0.6, Forchheimer flow model is used.
The study of free convection Heat transfer is defined as energy transferred by virtue of a temperature
difference or gradient. There are three distinct modes in which heat transmission can take place:
conduction, convection and radiation. Conduction refers to heat transfer between two bodies or
two parts of the same body through molecular vibration. Convective heat transfer / mass transfer
is the transport of energy / solute from a surface by both conduction and gross fluid movement.
The conversion of the internal energy of a substance into radiation energy is referred to as radiation
heat transfer. It propagates by means of electro - magnetic waves depending on the temperature and on the optical properties of
the emitter. In a physical situation if the fluid motion is induced by some external agent (pump, blower, etc.) the process is called
forced convection. If the fluid motion arises from external force fields, such as gravity is induced
by some external agent (pump, blower, etc.) the process is called, acting on density gradients
induced by the transport process itself, it is called natural convection. In the forced convection,
flow field can be solved independently and this can be used in the energy, concentration
equations to obtain the non - dimensional temperature and concentration. Whereas, in the natural
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 5
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
convection, the governing equations become coupled. In the mixed convection the order of the
magnitude of the buoyancy force is comparable with the externally maintained pressure drop to
drive the flow. Flow, heat and mass transfer in porous media is an interesting area where there
are extensive applications to different fields of science and engineering. In filtration studies, the
main concern is to determine how fluid moves through the porous structure leaving behind
unwanted material. The porosity of the system is continuously changing and altering the pressure
drop characteristics of the system. In the study of seepage of water through river beds and
investigation of underground water resources, various types of convection through porous media
are encountered. A better understanding of the convective transport through porous media is
necessary in several applications.
Convection about a vertical impermeable surface in a saturated porous medium has many
important geophysical and engineering applications. For example, it has been speculated that hot
dike complexes in a volcanic region can provide an energy source for the heating of ground -
water, which can then be utilized for power generation Thus the study of heat transfer rate and the
size of the hot water zone around a dike would provide some insight into the assessment and
evaluation of geothermal resources. The convective heat transfer coefficient obtained in the study
will also be useful in estimating the cooling rate of vertical intrusives, trapped in an aquifer as
well as the rate of heat loss from under ground energy transport and storage systems.
While discussing the buoyancy induced boundary layer flows in geothermal reservoirs it has been
reported that with a maximum temperature of
0
1200 C , the intrusives are most likely to be cooled.
Coupled heat and mass transfer in porous media is gaining attention due to its interesting
applications. The flow is relatively complex rather than that of pure thermal convection process.
Due to applicability of these studies in many geo - technological processes, it is vital to have
good theoretical understanding of the processes occurring in double diffusive flows in porous
media. Interesting facts arise as the diffusion rates of heat and solute are usually different.
The basis of Boussinesq approximation is that there are flows in which the temperature
varies a little, and therefore the density varies a little, yet in which the buoyancy drives the
motion. Thus the variation in density is neglected everywhere except in the buoyancy term. It is
known that the temperature - dependence of fluid properties (dynamic viscosity, density, thermal
conductivity) vary extensively with the increase of temperature. For example, the density
temperature relationship is linear for air whereas in water this relationship is linear at high
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 6
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
temperatures and non - linear at low temperatures. For heating a fluid, the effect of temperature
dependent viscosity is to decrease transport in air and to increase transport in water. The opposite
occurs while cooling the fluid. Hence, definitely it is not suitable to represent the density
temperature relation ship linearly.
The relationship between the two buoyancy effects that drives the flow, namely the
density difference caused by temperature variations and the density difference caused by
concentration variations, has many important applications: For example, the migration of
moisture through the air contained in the fibrous insulations and grain storage installations, and
the dispersion of chemical contaminants through water saturated soil.
1.4 THERMOPHORESIS:
Thermophoresis is a phenomenon by which sub-micrometer sized particles suspended in a
non-isothermal gas acquire a mean speed relative to the gas in the direction of decreasing
temperature. The thermophoretic force experienced by small particles is caused by the
differential molecular bombardment giving rise to radiometric forces. This phenomenon is of
considerable importance for particles having radii as large as 10 m in fields with temperature
gradients of order of 5 K/mm. Some of the applications of thermophoresis are in removing small
particles from gas streams, in determining exhaust gas particle trajectories from combustion
devices, in studying the particulate material deposition on turbine blades, etc. It has also been
demonstrated recently that thermophoresis is the dominant mass transfer mechanism in the
modified chemical vapour deposition (MCVD) process used in the fabrication of optical fiber
performs. This subject is also important in view of its relevance to postulated accidents by
radioactive particle deposition in nuclear reactors. The fact that scrubbing is more effective when
the dusty air is preheated has been ascribed to thermophoresis. The reverse effect of
thermophoresis, namely, the repulsion of particles from a hot wall and the formation of a
particle-free layer around hot objects, has also been observed.
Despite the practical importance of thermophoresis, there have been only limited reports
regarding the calculation of particle concentration in a flow field.. Goren [18] gives a detailed
analysis of thermophoresis over a plate. Apart from these, there are reports regarding the lasen
modification of thermophoretic deposition in tube flow applied to MCVD process used in
manufacturing of graded index optical fiber performs.
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 7
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
The thermal dispersion and solutal dispersion are discussed in the literature survey. But the
results are not obtained under the effect of the temperature - concentration - dependent density
relation. For the design of the thermal system to be optimum, non - dimensional heat and mass
transfer coefficients must be determined more accurately which depends on the velocity of the
fluid. In fluidized bed technology fluid is passed through a perforated or porous plate and then a
bed of particles of wide size distribution. To achieve the desired thermal performance, the velocity
of the air passing through the bed of particles is to be calculated exactly. Some of the thermal
systems needs transpiration cooling (cooling of the electronic components, turbine blades) or
drying of the surface (warm air is blown along the surface to raise the local air temperature and to
evaporate water droplets and films). When the determination of non dimensional heat and mass
transfer coefficients are not accurate, the transpiration process or drying of the surface is continued
simply. This will increase the rate of clogging and thermophoretical deposition rates Cengel
(2003) [7]. In this process all kinds of contaminants that are present in the fluid, such as lint, dust
moisture and even oil are deposited on the surface. These contaminants can pile up on the
components and plug up narrow passage ways, causing overheating. It should be remembered that
the dust that settles on the electronic components acts as an insulation layer that makes it very
difficult for the heat generated in the components to escape. Verms (1979) [41] has studied the
deposition rates in cooled and uncooled turbines cascades. It was found that temperature
difference between the wall and the gas could cause a fifteen fold increase in deposition rate as
compared with the case of adiabatic cascade. In order to minimize the deposition of contaminants
on the surface, suction / injection of the fluid through the surface is to be controlled. This is
possible only when we have the knowledge of accurate determination of velocity of the fluid, non
dimensional heat and mass transfer coefficients using the temperature - concentration -
dependent density relation.
In view of the applications stated above, it is relevant here to analyze the effect of the temperature
- concentration - dependent density non - linear relation on convective transport in a non
Darcy porous medium.
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 8
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
CHAPTER-2
LITERATURE REVIEW
The porous medium inertial effects have been proved to be important for moderate and fast flows.
That is when the pore diameter dependent Reynolds number is greater than the order of unity. For
low porosity media, the Forchheimer flow model has been proved to be appropriate and it has
been widely used in the works of Vafai and Tien (1981, 1982) [37][38]; Whitaker (1997) [42].
Mixing and recirculation of local fluid streams occur as the fluid moves through tortuous paths in
packed beds. This hydrodynamic mixing of fluid at pore level causes thermal and solutal
dispersion in porous medium. When the inertial effects are prevalent, the thermal and solutal
dispersion effects become important and these effects are significant in forced and mixed
convection flows and in vigorous natural convection flows as well. Thermal dispersion effects
have been studied at length by Plumb (1981) [30]; Kvernvold and Tyyand (1980) [24]; Hong and
Tien (1983) [21]; Hong et al. (1987) [21] [22]. Kvernvold and Tyvand (1980) [24] argued that
better agreement between the theoretical prediction and experimental data can be obtained, when
thermal dispersion effects are taken into consideration appropriately.
The detailed discussion of the limitations of the Darcys law and non Darcy flow models is
presented by Nield and Bejan ( 2006 ) [27]; Bear (1972) [6].
From a technological point of view, free convection study of fluids with known physical
properties is always important since it can reveal hitherto un known physical properties of fluids
of practical interest. Assuming that the density varies linearly with temperature variations, Cheng
and Minkowcyz (1977) [10] ; Cheng (1977) [9] ; and Bejan and Khair (1985 ) [4] made an
analysis of natural convection. They assumed that the convection took place in a very thin layer
around the heating surface. However when the temperature and concentration difference between
the plate and the ambient fluid is appreciably large, the non - linear density temperature variation
will have a direct impact on the convective transport.
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 9
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
Several researchers have used the quadratic or cubic density temperature relation
depending on the physical applications. Goren (1966) [18] has obtained a similarity solution of
the boundary layer equations of the free convection flow from a semi infinite plate of uniform
temperature to water at
0
4 C . In this study, he has established the necessity of using in the
buoyancy force term, the quadratic density - temperature variation namely
2
( )
s
T T .
Sinha (1969) [32] has investigated the fully developed laminar convection flow between two
parallel vertical plates, taking into account after Goren (1966), the quadratic density - temperature
variation. To estimate the temperature dependence of

, Brown (1975) [5] has used the linear


relation
( )
s
T T
in the study of laminar free convection heat transfer from a constant
temperature vertical flat plate. Glipin (1975) [19] has used the density temperature relation,
2
0 1
( ) ( )
s s
T T T T


which has been introduced by Vanier and Tien (1968) [39]
with a view to predict the heat transfer results in the case of water for temperatures between
0
0 C and
0
20 C . Using the parabolic density - temperature relationship, stability analysis of
horizontal liquid layers with a density maximum were made by Vernois (1963) [40] and Tien
(1960) [36]. Sun et al. (1972) [33] used the cubic density - temperature relation to discuss the
effect of density maximum on the onset of convection in a Darcy porous medium. Yin Chao
Yen (1974) [43] conducted an experimental study to investigate the effect of density inversion
on free convective heat transfer in a porous layer heated from below ( glass beads in water
composed the porous medium ) and the analysis was made by using the cubic density -
temperature relation ship. It was reported that the on set of convection was found to be dependent
on the parameters representing the fluid density -temperature relation.
In industrial and chemical engineering processes which involve multi component fluid,
concentrations vary from point to point, resulting in mass transfer. Heated jets or diffusion flames
created by blowing combustible gas from a vertical pipe are controlled by forced convection in the
initial region and by buoyancy forces far from the jet or pipe exist. Industrial smokestacks usually
have a significant momentum flux to assist the initial rise of the contaminant plume. The simplest
physical model of such a flow is two -dimensional laminar flow along a vertical flat plate. Recent
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 10
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
applications of this model can be found in the area of reactor safety, combustion flames and solar
collectors as well as building energy conservation.

CHAPTER-3
GOVERNING EQUATIONS
Fig.(3.1): Diagrammatic Representation of present problem

Consider the problem of non - Darcy natural convection from a flat surface embedded in a
fluid saturated non - Darcy porous medium. The temperature difference and the concentration
difference between the plate and the medium are assumed to be large. Hence the convection region
is thick. The X - axis is taken along the plate and the Y - axis is normal to it. We assume that the
fluid and the porous medium have constant physical properties. The fluid flow is moderate and
the permeability of the medium is low so that the Forchheimer flow model is applicable. The
governing equations for the boundary layer flow from the wall to the fluid saturated porous
medium can be written as:
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 11
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
0
U V
X Y

+

(3.1)
2
( )
c K K p
U U
X

(3.2)
2
( )
c K K p
V V g
Y

+ +

(3.3)

(3.4)

( )
( )
t
X
CV C C C C
U V D
e
X Y Y X X Y Y

_
+ + +


,
(3.5)
Along with the boundary conditions
0, 0, ,
w w
Y V T T C C (3.6)

, 0, , Y U T T C C


(3.7)

Here U and V are the velocity components along X and Y directions, T is the temperature, C
is concentration,
c
is the inertial coefficient, K is the permeability constant,
0, 1

are the
coefficients of thermal and
2, 3

are the coefficients of solutal expansions,

is the kinematic
viscosity,

is the density,
g
is the acceleration due to gravity,
X

is the effective thermal


diffusivity in X direction,
e

is the effective thermal diffusivity in Y direction,


X
D
is the effective
solutal diffusivity in X direction,
D
e
is the effective solutal diffusivity in Y direction,
T
k
is the
thermal diffusion ratio,
,
p s
C C
are the specific heat at constant pressure and concentration
susceptibility.
From experimental and numerical studies on convective heat and mass transfer in
saturated porous medium, it is clear that the thermal boundary layer and concentration
boundary layer exist adjacent to the heated or cooled walls. When the thermal boundary
layer and concentration boundary layer is thin, ( i.e. when X f f Y
T

and Xf f Y
C

.
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 12
( ) ( )
X
T T T T
U V
e
X Y X X Y Y


+ +

Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
T

is the thermal boundary layer thickness and


C

is concentration boundary layer


thickness ) boundary layer approximation analogous to classical boundary layer theory can
be applied( Nield and Bejan (2006) [27] ). Near the boundary layer the normal component
of seepage velocity is small compared with the other component of the seepage velocity,
and the derivatives of any quantity in the normal direction are large compared with
derivatives of other quantities in the direction of the wall.
The Forchheimer equation in its virginal form is
2 2
c K
U U U V

+ + =
( )
K p
X

(3.8)

2 2
U U V +
can be written as

2 2
U U V +
=
2 2 2
1 ( )
V
U U
U
+ Chen and Ho (1986). Substituting in equation (3.8)
we have
2
( )
c K K p
U U
X


Differentiating equations (3.2), (3.3) with respect to , Y X respectively, the pressure term is
eliminated. Now 0
p
Y

Under the above assumptions, the equations (3.1) (3.5) become


0
U V
X Y

+

(3.9)
2
( )
U c K U Kg
Y Y X



+

(3.10)

(3.11)

( )
t
CV C C C
U V D
e
X Y Y Y Y
_
+ +


,
(3.12)
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 13
( )
T T T
U V
e
X Y Y Y


+

Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method

By invoking the Boussinesq approximation, we get
2 2
0 1 2 3
[1 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ] T T T T C C C C

(3.13)

2
2 2
0 1 2 3
[ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ]
U c K U Kg
T T T T C C C C
Y Y




+ + + +

(3.14
)It is suggested that the effective thermal diffusivity in a saturated porous medium can be
expressed as
e d
+
, where

is constant thermal diffusivity,


d

is dynamic diffusivity due to


mechanical dispersion. From volume averaged continuum representation of a porous medium, it
is seen that the macroscopic content of thermal dispersion is due to the local temperature and
velocity deviations Hong and Tien (1987). The general form of the dispersion diffusivity
d


has been investigated by several authors; see for example the review article by Fried and
Combarnous (1976). It is assumed that
d

=
dU
where d is the dimension of the particle or pore
diameter,

is the dispersion coefficient which is a function of the structure of the porous


medium. This kind of representation is also supported by the previous experimental works Fried
and Combarnous (1976); De Wash and Fremont (1972). The solutal dispersion diffusivity can be
written as
D D dU
e
+
where

is solutal dispersion coefficient. For moderate and high peclet


number flows, a linear variation of the thermal and solutal dispersion with velocity has been
proved to be reasonable by Bear (1972). The velocity components in terms of stream function


can be written a , U V
Y X



. This representation is valid since the expressions for velocity
components clearly satisfy the continuity equation. Using the similarity transformation
1/ 2 1/ 2
, ( ) , ( ) , and ( )
X X
T T C C
Y
Ra f Ra
X T T C C
w W






the set of partial differential equations (14), (11), (12) are transformed into ordinary differential
equations along with the boundary conditions.
// / // / 1 1/ 2 3/ 2 /
[
2
] (1 ) (1 )
X X
X
Ra Ra f F f f
Gr
A A N
Ra
+ + + +
(3.15)
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 14
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method

/ / // // / //
1
( ) 0
2
f Ra f f

+ + + (3.16)

// / / / // //
( ) 0
2
Pr
2
' ' '' '
Le
f LeRa f f
Lek
N
N
t
t

+ + + +
1
+
1
+
1
+ ]
(3.17)

The boundary conditions are

0 : 0, 1, 1 f
(3.18)

/
: 0, 0, 0 f
(3.19)
In the above
2c K
F
X

is the inertial Parameter,


,
d
Ra Ra


d
Ra Ra


represents
thermal and solutal dispersion respectively,
0
Kg d
w
Ra
d

is the pore diameter dependent


Rayleigh number,
0
X
Kg
w
Ra
X

is the local Rayleigh number, Le


D

is the diffusivity
ratio (Lewis number),
T w
f
s p w
Dk
D
C C

is the Dufour number,


T w
r
s p w
Dk
S
C C

is the Soret number.


0 2
1 1 2 2
1 3
1/ , 1/
2 ( ) 2 ( )
w w
T T C C






are the parameters representing the non
linear temperature and concentration respectively.
The local surface heat flux is given by

0 0
( ) ( )( )
y e Y
T T
q k k Ud
Y Y



+

(3.20)
We have ( )
w
q h T T

(3.21)
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 15
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
/
X
Nu hX k (3.22)
Here k is the effective thermal conductivity,


e
k
is the thermal conductivity of the porous
medium, h is the heat transfer coefficient,
q
is the local surface heat flux. Using the equations
(3.20), (3.21) and (3.22), the heat transfer coefficient in non - dimensional form is written as
1/ 2 / /
/ [1 (0) ] (0)
X X
Nu Ra Ra f

+ (3.23)
Similarly, the mass transfer coefficient in non - dimensional form is written as

1/ 2 / /
/ [1 (0) ] (0)
X X
Sh Ra Ra f

+ (3.24)
CHAPTER-4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Ordinary differential Equations (3.15 3.17) are solved using the following implicit finite
difference scheme. Here,

' 1
=
i i
f f
f
x
+

(4.1)

" 1 1
2
2
i i i
f f f
f
x
+
+

(4.2)

' 1 i i
x

(4.3)

'' 1 1
2
2
i i i
x

+
+

(4.4)

' 1 i i
x

(4.5)

'' 1 1
2
2
i i i
x

+
+

(4.6)
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 16
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
In equation (3.15) the second term in L.H.S causes non-linearity. The product
i
f
*
1 i
f
+
is treated as
2
i
f .Similarly the product
i
f
*
1 i
f

is also treated as
2
i
f .This is due to the only reason that, when
the iterations are run from 1 to 1000 the numerical difference between i
th
and (i+1)
th
term is equal
to 0.000001.Therefore the equation reduces to the form
A
1 i
f

+ B
i
f
+ C
1 i
f
+
= 0 (4.7)
Similarly the other two equations are reduced as follows
A
1 i

+ B
i

+ C
1 i

+
= 0 (4.8)
A
1 i

+ B
i

+ C
1 i

+
= 0 (4.9)
When i is allowed to run from 1 to 1000, this will result in 1000 equations and 1002
variables. The extra two variables are given the values using boundary conditions mentioned in
Governing Equations. Using Gaussian Elimination Method the results are obtained accurate up to
four decimal places. Extensive calculations have been performed with different values of
parameters to obtain the flow, temperature, concentration fields inside the boundary layer.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 17
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
0 1 2 3 4 5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=1,Ra

=3, Ra

=3, A=2
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n

(

)
Integration length ()
Fig. 1: Variation of with when N
t
=100 and
for different values of k
k=0.1
k=1
k=2
k=3
0 1 2 3 4 5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
F=0.5, N
t
=500, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=1,Ra

=3, Ra

=3, A=2
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n

(

)
Integration length ()
Fig. 2: Variation of with when N
t
=500 and
for different values of k
k=0.1
k=1
k=2
k=3
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 18
0 1 2 3 4 5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
F=0.5, Pr=1, Le=100, N=1,
Ra

=3, Ra

=3, A=2, k=3


C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n

(

)
Integration length ( )
Fig. 3: Variation of with when k=3 and
for different values of N
t
N
t
=50
N
t
=100
N
t
=500
N
t
=1000
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method

0 1 2 3 4 5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0 F=0.5, Pr=1, Le=100, N=1,
Ra

=3, Ra

=3, A=2, k=1


C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n

(

)
Integration length ()
Fig. 4: Variation of with when k=1 and
for different values of N
t
N
t
=50
N
t
=100
N
t
=500
N
t
=1000
0 1 2 3 4 5
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
F=0.5, Pr=1, Le=100 N=1,
Ra

=3, Ra

=3, A=0.1, k=1


C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n

(

)
Integration length ()
Fig. 5: Variation of with when K=1 and
for different values of N
t
N
t
=50
N
t
=100
N
t
=500
N
t
=1000
0 1 2 3 4 5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
F=0.5, Pr=1, Le=100 N=1,
Ra

=3, Ra

=3, A=0.1, k=0.1


C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n

(

)
Integration length ()
Fig. 6: Variation of with when K=0.1 and
for different values of N
t
N
t
=50
N
t
=100
N
t
=500
N
t
=1000
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 19
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
0 1 2 3 4 5
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=1, Ra

=3,Ra

=3, k=0.1,
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n

(

)
Integration length ()
Fig. 7: Variation of with when K=0.1 and
for different values of A
A=0.1
A=5
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=0.72, Le=1
N=1,Ra

=3, k=1, A=0


C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n

(

)
Integration length ( )
Fig. 8: Variation of with when Le=1 and
for different values of Ra

Ra

=1
Ra

=2
Ra

=3
Ra

=4
Ra

=5
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=1,Ra

=3, k=1, A=0


C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n

(

)
Integration length ()
Fig. 9: Variation of with when Le=100 and
for different values of Ra

Ra

=1
Ra

=2
Ra

=3
Ra

=4
Ra

=5
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=1,Ra

=3, Ra

=1, A=0
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n

(

)
Integration length ()
Fig. 10: Variation of with when Ra

=1 and
for different values of k
k=0.1
k=0.5
k=1
k=1.5
k=2
k=2.5
K=3
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 20
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0 F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=1,Ra

=3, Ra

=2, A=0
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n

(

)
Integration length ()
Fig. 11: Variation of with when Ra

=2 and
for different values of k
k=0.1
k=0.5
k=1
k=1.5
k=2
k=2.5
K=3
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=1,Ra

=3, Ra

=3, A=0
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n

(

)
Integration length ()
Fig. 12: Variation of with when Ra

=3 and
for different values of k
k=0.1
k=0.5
k=1
k=1.5
k=2
k=2.5
K=3
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=1,Ra

=3,k=0.1, A=0
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n

(

)
Integration length ()
Fig. 13: Variation of with when k=0.1 and
for different values of Ra

Ra

=1
Ra

=2
Ra

=3
Ra

=4
Ra

=5
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=1,Ra

=3, k=2, A=0


C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n

(

)
Integration length ()
Fig. 14: Variation of with when k=2 and
for different values of Ra

Ra

=1
Ra

=2
Ra

=3
Ra

=4
Ra

=5
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 21
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=5, Le=100
N=1,Ra

=3, Ra

=3, A=0
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n

(

)
Integration length ()
Fig. 15: Variation of with when Pr=5 and
for different values of k
k=0.1
k=0.3
k=0.5
k=0.7
k=1
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=2, Le=100
N=1,Ra

=3, Ra

=3, A=0
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n

(

)
Integration length ()
Fig. 16: Variation of with when Pr=2 and
for different values of k
k=0.1
k=0.3
k=0.5
k=0.7
k=1
200 250 300 350 400 450 500
0.40
0.42
0.44
0.46
0.48
0.50
0.52
0.54
0.56
0.58
0.60
F=0.5, Pr=2, Le=100
N=1,Ra

=3, k=0.1, A=0.1


N
o
n

d
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
a
l

M
a
s
s

t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
S
h
x
/
R
a
x
1
/
2
N
t
Fig. 17: Variation of Sh
x
/Ra
x
1/2
with N
t

for different values of Ra

Ra

=1
Ra

=3
Ra

=5
0 100 200 300 400 500
0.3
0.4
F=0.5, Pr=2, Le=100
N=1,Ra

=3, k=0.1, A=1


N
o
n

d
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
a
l

M
a
s
s

t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
S
h
x
/
R
a
x
1
/2
N
t
Fig. 18: Variation of Sh
x
/Ra
x
1/2
with N
t

for different values of Pr
Pr=1
Pr=3
Pr=5
Pr=7
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 22
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=1, Le=100
N=1,Ra

=1, A=0.1
N
o
n

d
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
a
l

M
a
s
s

t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
S
h
x
/
R
a
x
1
/
2
Thermophoretic constant (k)
Fig. 19: Variation of Sh
x
/Ra
x
1/2
with k
for different values of Ra

Ra

=1
Ra

=3
Ra

=5
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=1,
N=1,Ra

=3, A=1, Ra

=3
N
o
n

d
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
a
l

M
a
s
s

t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
S
h
x
/
R
a
x
1
/
2
Thermophoretic constant (k)
Fig. 20: Variation of Sh
x
/Ra
x
1/2
with k
for different values of Le
Le=1
Le=10
Le=15
1 2 3 4 5
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=13,Le=100,
N=1,Ra

=3,k=0.1
N
o
n

d
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
a
l

M
a
s
s

t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
S
h
x
/
R
a
x
1
/
2
Solutal dispersion parameter (Ra

)
Fig. 21: Variation of Sh
x
/Ra
x
1/2
with Ra


for A=0.1
A=0.1
0 1 2 3 4 5
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5 F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=13, Le=100
N=1, Ra

=3, k=0.1
N
o
n

d
i
m
e
n
t
i
o
n
a
l

h
e
a
t

t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
(
N
u
x
/
R
a
x
1
/
2
)
Thermal dispersion parameter (Ra

)
Fig. 22: Variation of (Nu
x
/Ra
1/2
) with Ra

for different values of A


A=0.1
A= 1
A= 2
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 23
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
100 200 300 400 500
0.005
0.010
0.015
0.020
0.025
0.030
0.035
0.040
F=0.5, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=1, Ra

=3, k=1, Ra

=1
N
o
n
-
d
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
a
l

w
a
l
l

T
h
e
r
m
o
p
h
o
r
e
t
i
c

d
e
p
o
s
i
t
i
o
n
v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

V
t
w
N
t
Fig. 23: Variation of V
tw
with N
t
for A=0.1
A=0.1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
F=0.5, Nt=100, Le=100
N=1, Ra

=3, k=1, Ra

=3
N
o
n
-
d
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
a
l

w
a
l
l

T
h
e
r
m
o
p
h
o
r
e
t
i
c

d
e
p
o
s
i
t
i
o
n
v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

V
t
w
N
t
Fig. 24: Variation of V
tw
with Pr
for different values of A
A=0.01
A=0.1
A=1
A=2
A=3
0 100 200 300 400 500
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
0.020
0.025
0.030
0.035
0.040
0.045
F=0.5, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=1, Ra

=3, k=1, A=2


N
o
n
-
d
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
a
l

w
a
l
l

T
h
e
r
m
o
p
h
o
r
e
t
i
c

d
e
p
o
s
i
t
i
o
n
v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

V
t
w
N
t
Fig. 25: Variation of V
tw
with N
t
for different values of Ra

Ra

=1
Ra

=3
Ra

=5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
F=0.5, Nt=100, Le=100
N=1, Ra

=3, k=1, A=2


N
o
n
-
d
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
a
l

w
a
l
l

T
h
e
r
m
o
p
h
o
r
e
t
i
c

d
e
p
o
s
i
t
i
o
n
v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

V
t
w
Prandtl number (Pr)
Fig. 26: Variation of V
tw
with Pr
for different values of Ra

Ra

=1
Ra

=3
Ra

=5
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 24
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
0 1 2 3 4 5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
Ra

=3, Ra

=3, F=0.5,
N
t
=100, N = -1, Le=100, A=2,Pr=0.72
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n

(

)
Integration length ()
Fig. 27: Variation of with when N= -1 and
for different values of k
k=0.1
k=1
k=2
k=3
0 1 2 3 4 5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=-1,Ra

=3, A=0.01,k=0.1
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

(

)
Integration length ( )
Fig. 28: Variation of with when N= -1, k= 0.1 and
for different values of Ra

Ra

=1
Ra

=3
Ra

=5
0 1 2 3 4 5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=-1,Ra

=3, A=0.01,k=3
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

(

)
Integration length ( )
Fig. 29: Variation of with when N= -1, k=3 and
for different values of Ra

Ra

=1
Ra

=3
Ra

=5
0 1 2 3 4 5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2 F=0.5, Pr=1, Le=100 N=-1,
Ra

=3, Ra

=3, A=2, k=3


C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

(

)
Integration length ( )
Fig. 30: Variation of with when N= -1 and
for different values of N
t
N
t
=50
N
t
=100
N
t
=500
N
t
=1000
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 25
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
4.1 AIDING BUYOANCY
Distribution of Concentration with variation of

for different values of k and N


t
are well
represented in Figures 1 to 6.
It is clear from Fig.1 and Fig.2, with the variation of

the concentration distribution


decreases and approaches Zero, when

=5. It is clear that for higher values of k, the


concentration distribution is more near the plate and is almost nil when

=5. By comparing
Fig.1 and Fig.2, the most remarkable property observed is that the effect of k on Concentration
distribution is nil for fixed value of N
t
=500.
From Figures 3, 4, 5 and 6, it is observed that for higher values of N
t
the boundary layer
length is less. In other words when N
t
is increased the concentration distribution decreases. By
comparing Fig.3 and Fig.4 we observe that the values of k in Fig.4 are less when compared to the
values of k in Fig.3. The Concentration distribution for the curves corresponding to N
t
=500 and
1000 gets unaffected. In other words the gap corresponding to N
t
=100 and 500 is more in Fig.3
when compared with fig.4. This is due to the reason that the value of k in Fig.4 is lesser than the
value in Fig.3.
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 26
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
By comparing Fig.5and 6 it is observed that when the value of k is more and when N
t
is
increased the distribution of concentration spreads significantly while for lesser values of k effect
of increase in N
t
on concentration distribution is marginal.
The effect of non linear convective parameter A on concentration distribution is clear
from Fig.7. For higher values of A the concentration distribution is more.
a distinct spectrum for
Ra

=1 and
Ra

= 2 (Fig. 8 and 9) is observed when the value of Le


was changed from 1 to 100. But for
3, 4 5 Ra and


the concentration distribution merge
together along a narrow path. Hence we can conclude that when Le is changed from 1 to 100 the
decrease in concentration can be clearly observed for different values of
Ra

. But beyond
Le=100 i.e., beyond this point increase in Le does not varies the values of concentration at all.
The analysis between Figures 10, 11 implies that for lesser values of
Ra

the effect of k is
more. In other words, the spectrum of concentration distribution is more visible for
1 Ra



while the same is not that much seen for
3 Ra


.
A comparative study between figures 13 and 14 establishes that, for higher values of k (in
Fig.14) irrespective of the
Ra

values the concentration distributions coincide along a straight


line near the plate (i.e. 0.25 )
The Effect of Prandtl number on the concentration distribution for different values of k is
well presented in Fig.15 & Fig 16. The effect of k appears to be more, when Prandtl number is
more. In other words, when Prandtl number is very less irrespective of different values of k, the
concentration distribution spreads along almost a single curve.
The analysis of non-dimensional mass transfer co-efficient versus N
t
is available in Fig.17
& Fig.18. A marginal variation in non-dimensional mass transfer co-efficient for lesser values of
Ra

is observed in Fig.17. This marginal variation is due to the only fact that the Prandtl number
is fixed to be very less and hence the effect of N
t
is less. This fact is crystal clear from Fig.18. In
other words, in Fig.18, with variation of N
t
up to a critical point N
t
= 200, the variation in mass
transfer appears to be more significant for higher Prandtl number values. But the same situation
is not observed for the curve corresponding to Prandtl number 1.
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 27
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
From Fig.19 and Fig.20 the effect of k on mass transfer is very well established. Though, it is
very clear from the Figure that the mass transfer decreases with increase in k. The behavior of
Mass transfer curve is surprising depending on the values of
Ra
, Le, A (Non linear convective
parameter). It is clear from fig.19 that for lesser values of
Ra

the effect of k on mass transfer is


to decrease the mass transfer drastically. At the same time for higher values of
Ra

it is
moderate.
From Fig.20 it is an established fact that Le serves to be a crucial factor (parameter) as far
as its significant effect on mass transfer is considered. In addition to the effect of Le on mass
transfer, the effect of k on mass transfer is that it decreases drastically for higher values of Le
with the increase of k. The most remarkable point is that when thermal diffusivity and solutal
diffusivity are balanced i.e. when Le=1, the effect of k remains to be still moderate.
it is clear that (Fig.21 ) a significant increase in mass transfer with increase of
Ra

for
fixed values of parameters show that, the effect of solutal dispersion on mass transfer should not
be neglected in the analysis.
The effect of non-linear convective parameter A on heat transfer in the Fig.22 shows that, for
higher values of A, the magnitude of heat transfer will be more.
The behavior of wall thermophoretic deposition velocity V
tw
according to different values
of the parameters is clear from the Figures 23, 24 and 25. Fig.23 shows that with the increase of
N
t
wall thermophoretic deposition velocity decreases for higher values of Prandtl number.
Though, decrease in wall thermophoretic deposition velocity with increase of N
t
is observed
from the Fig.25, it is clear that for a fixed value of N
t
the magnitude of V
tw
is less for higher
values of Ra . The same point is established in Fig.26, i.e. for higher values of
Ra

the
magnitude of V
tw
is less. In other words, the Prandtl number, thermal dispersion parameter, N
t
,
they have a significant contribution towards the wall thermophoretic deposition velocity V
tw
.
4.2 OPPOSING BUOYANCY
The Concentration distribution with the variation of

for different values of k and for


different values of N
t
in the case of Opposing Buoyancy are picturised in the Figures 27 to 30. It
is observed in Fig.27 that for higher values of k the laminar boundary layer length is more, while
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 28
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
it is less for smaller values of k. This behavior is reversed with the increase of N
t
values. In other
words for higher values of N
t
the concentration boundary layer length is less.
The combined effect of k and
Ra

are well established by a comparative study between


the Figures 28 and 29. For lesser values of
Ra

, the concentration distribution is affected


significantly near the plate with the increase of k is seen.
In case of Opposing Buoyancy, with the variation of N
t
from 50 to 500 change in
concentration distribution is seen very clearly whereas no effect of N
t
is observed when N
t
is
increased beyond 500. i.e., the two curves corresponding to N
t
=500 and N
t
=1000 merge together.
CHAPTER-5
CONCLUSION
Using an implicit finite difference scheme the effect of thermophoresis on concentration
distribution for various set of parameters values is studied. The following is the conclusion
arrived in the aiding and opposing buoyancy.

1. In most of the cases it is observed that the concentration distribution increases with the
increase of k for lesser and moderate values of N
t
. That is, when Nt is fixed the value beyond
500 and if k is increased the concentration distribution is very less affected.
2. Though the magnitude of concentration distribution is more for higher values of
Ra
it is
observed that for lesser values of
Ra

the effect of k is more.


Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 29
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
3. The effect of k appears to be more, when Prandtl number is more. In other words, when
Prandtl number is very less irrespective of different values of k, the concentration distribution
spreads along almost a single curve.
4. for lesser values of
Ra

the effect of k on mass transfer is to decrease the mass transfer


drastically. At the same time for higher values of
Ra

it is moderate.

5. Le serves to be a crucial factor (parameter) as far as its significant effect on mass transfer is
considered. In addition to the effect of Le on mass transfer, the effect of k on mass transfer is that
it decreases drastically for higher values of Le with the increase of k. The most remarkable point
is that when thermal diffusivity and solutal diffusivity are balanced i.e. when Le=1, the effect of
k remains to be still moderate.
6. With the increase of N
t
concentration distribution decreases drastically if the thermophoretic
coefficient k is fixed a higher value while for lesser values of k effect of increase in N
t
on
concentration distribution is marginal.
7. With variation of N
t
up to a critical point N
t
= 200, the variation in mass transfer appears to be
more significant for higher Prandtl number values.
8. With the increase of N
t
wall thermophoretic deposition velocity decreases for higher values of
Prandtl number. Though, decrease in wall thermophoretic deposition velocity with increase of N
t
is observed it is to be noted that for a fixed value of N
t
the magnitude of V
tw
is less for higher
values of Ra .
9. The magnitude of Non-Dimensional Heat and mass Transfer coefficient is more for higher
values of A
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 30
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Non-darcy porous medium using finite difference method
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Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 35