CHAPTER1
INTRODUCTION
Convective flow through porous media is an area of research undergoing rapid growth in
the fluid mechanics and heat transfer field, due to its broad range of scientific and engineering
applications. It is associated with petroleum and geothermal processes, fiber and granular
insulation materials, high performance insulation buildings. In filtration studies, the main concern
is to determine how fluid moves, through the porous structure, leaving behind unwanted
material.In the study of seepage of water through river beds and investigation of underground
water resources, various types of convection through porous media are encountered. All these
processes require thorough understanding of convective transport in porous media. A nice review
about the heat transfer in geothermal system has been presented in Cheng (1978).
By a porous medium we mean a material consisting of a solid matrix with an
interconnected void. We suppose that the solid matrix is either rigid (the usual situation) or it
undergoes small deformation. The interconnectedness of the void (the pores) allows the flow of
one or more fluids through the material. In the simplest situation (single phase flow) the void is
saturated by single fluid. In two phase flow a liquid and a gas share the void space.
In a natural porous medium, the distribution of pores with respect to shape and size is
irregular. Examples of natural porous media are beach sand, sandstone, limestone, rye bread,
wood, and the human lung (Fig.i). On the pore scale (the microscopic scale) the flow quantities
(velocity, pressure, etc.) will clearly be irregular. But in typical experiments the quantities of
interest are measured over areas that cross many pores, and such spaceaveraged (macroscopic)
quantities change in a regular manner with respect to space and time, and hence are amenable to
theoretical treatment.
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 1
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Nondarcy porous medium using finite difference method
1.1 EXAMPLES OF NATURAL POROUS MATERIALS
Figure (i) Top: A) Beach sand, B) sandstone, C) Limestone, D) Rye bread, E) Wood, and F)
Human lung (Collins, 1961, with permission from Van Nastrand Reinhold). Bottom:
Granular porous materials used in the construction industry, 0.5 cm Liapor Spheres
(left), and 1 cmsize crushed limestone (right) (Bejan, 1984)
1.2 POROSITY
The porosity of a porous medium is defined as the fraction of the total volume
of the medium that is occupied by void space. Thus 1 is the fraction that is
occupied by solid.
For natural media, does not normally exceed 0.6. For beds of solid spheres of uniform diameter can vary
between the limits 0.2545 (rhombohedral packing) and 0.4764 (cubic packing). Non uniformity of grain size tends to
lead to smaller porosities than for uniform grains, because smaller grains fill the pores formed by larger grains.
Table 1.1 shows a compilation of porosities and other properties of common
porous materials.
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 2
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Nondarcy porous medium using finite difference method
Table 1.2 Properties of common porous materials [based on data compiled by Scheidegger
(1974) and Bejan Large (1991)].
Material Porosity
Permeability
K[cm
2
]
Surface per unit
yolume [cm
1
]
Agaragar
Black slate powder
Brick
Catalyst (FischerTropsch, granules
only)
Cigarette
Cigarette filters
Coal
Concrete (ordinary mixes)
Concrete (bituminous)
Copper powder (hotcompacted)
Cork board
Fiberglass
Granular crushed rock
Hair (on mammals)
Hair felt
Leather
Sand
Silica grains
Soil
0.57  0.66
0.12  0.34
0.45
0.17  0.49
0.02  0.12
0.02  0.07
0.09  0.34
0.88  0.93
0.45
0.95  0.99
0.56  0.59
2 x 10
10
 4.4 x 10
9
4.9 x 10
10
 1.2 x 10
9
4.8 x 10
11
 2.2 x 10
9
1.1 x 10
5
1 x 10
9
 2.3 x 10
7
3.3 x 10
6
 1.5 x 10
5
2.4 x 10
7
 5.1 x 10
7
8.3 x 10
6
 1.2 x 10
5
9.5 x 10
10
 1.2 x 10
9
7 x 10
3
 8.9 x 10
3
5.6 x 10
5
560  770
1.2 x 10
4
 1.6 x 10
4
150 220
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 3
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Nondarcy porous medium using finite difference method
0.37  0.50
0.65
0.43  0.54
2 x 10
7
 1.8 x 10
6
2.9 x 10
9
 1.4 x 10
7
1.3 DARCY'S LAW: PERMEABILITY
Henri Darcys investigations in to the hydrology of the fountains of Dijon and his experiments on
steady state unidirectional flow in a uniform medium revealed proportionality between flow rate
and the applied pressure difference. In modern notation this is expressed by,
K P
u g
x
(1.3a)
Here
p
x
is the pressure gradient in the flow direction and u is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid.
The coefficient K is independent of the nature of the fluid but it depends on the geometry of the
medium. It has dimensions (length)
2
and is called the specific permeability or intrinsic permeability of the medium.
In the case of single phase flow we abbreviate this to permeability. The permeabilities of common porous materials are
summarized in table 1.2. In three dimensions, this equation generalizes to values of K for natural materials vary widely.
1
.( ) v K P g
(1.3b)
Darcy equation
K
p
V
is linear in the seepage velocity V and it holds when V is
sufficiently small. In other words, Darcy equation holds well when the Reynolds number
Re
p
of the flow based on the typical pore or particle diameter is of order unity or smaller. As V
increases the transition to non  linear drag is quite smooth; there is no sudden transition as
Re
p
is
increased in the range 1 to 10. At such small Reynolds number, the flow in the pores remains to
be still laminar. The break down in linearity is due to the fact that the form drag due to solid
obstacles is now comparable with the surface drag due to friction. Hence the Darcy equation is to
replaced by
1/ 2
f f
p c K
K
V V V , where
f
c
is a dimension less form drag constant. It
was found that
f
c
does vary with the nature of the porous medium and can be as small as
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 4
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Nondarcy porous medium using finite difference method
0.1 in the case of foam metal fibers. The researchers showed that the bounding walls, width,
height of the bed and the diameter of their spheres could have significant effect and the
f
c
varies as
1
for
+ V V %
where
%
is an effective viscosity. Brinkman set
%
=
which has been introduced by Vanier and Tien (1968) [39]
with a view to predict the heat transfer results in the case of water for temperatures between
0
0 C and
0
20 C . Using the parabolic density  temperature relationship, stability analysis of
horizontal liquid layers with a density maximum were made by Vernois (1963) [40] and Tien
(1960) [36]. Sun et al. (1972) [33] used the cubic density  temperature relation to discuss the
effect of density maximum on the onset of convection in a Darcy porous medium. Yin Chao
Yen (1974) [43] conducted an experimental study to investigate the effect of density inversion
on free convective heat transfer in a porous layer heated from below ( glass beads in water
composed the porous medium ) and the analysis was made by using the cubic density 
temperature relation ship. It was reported that the on set of convection was found to be dependent
on the parameters representing the fluid density temperature relation.
In industrial and chemical engineering processes which involve multi component fluid,
concentrations vary from point to point, resulting in mass transfer. Heated jets or diffusion flames
created by blowing combustible gas from a vertical pipe are controlled by forced convection in the
initial region and by buoyancy forces far from the jet or pipe exist. Industrial smokestacks usually
have a significant momentum flux to assist the initial rise of the contaminant plume. The simplest
physical model of such a flow is two dimensional laminar flow along a vertical flat plate. Recent
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 10
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Nondarcy porous medium using finite difference method
applications of this model can be found in the area of reactor safety, combustion flames and solar
collectors as well as building energy conservation.
CHAPTER3
GOVERNING EQUATIONS
Fig.(3.1): Diagrammatic Representation of present problem
Consider the problem of non  Darcy natural convection from a flat surface embedded in a
fluid saturated non  Darcy porous medium. The temperature difference and the concentration
difference between the plate and the medium are assumed to be large. Hence the convection region
is thick. The X  axis is taken along the plate and the Y  axis is normal to it. We assume that the
fluid and the porous medium have constant physical properties. The fluid flow is moderate and
the permeability of the medium is low so that the Forchheimer flow model is applicable. The
governing equations for the boundary layer flow from the wall to the fluid saturated porous
medium can be written as:
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 11
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Nondarcy porous medium using finite difference method
0
U V
X Y
+
(3.1)
2
( )
c K K p
U U
X
(3.2)
2
( )
c K K p
V V g
Y
+ +
(3.3)
(3.4)
( )
( )
t
X
CV C C C C
U V D
e
X Y Y X X Y Y
_
+ + +
,
(3.5)
Along with the boundary conditions
0, 0, ,
w w
Y V T T C C (3.6)
, 0, , Y U T T C C
(3.7)
Here U and V are the velocity components along X and Y directions, T is the temperature, C
is concentration,
c
is the inertial coefficient, K is the permeability constant,
0, 1
are the
coefficients of thermal and
2, 3
are the coefficients of solutal expansions,
is the kinematic
viscosity,
is the density,
g
is the acceleration due to gravity,
X
+ + =
( )
K p
X
(3.8)
2 2
U U V +
can be written as
2 2
U U V +
=
2 2 2
1 ( )
V
U U
U
+ Chen and Ho (1986). Substituting in equation (3.8)
we have
2
( )
c K K p
U U
X
Differentiating equations (3.2), (3.3) with respect to , Y X respectively, the pressure term is
eliminated. Now 0
p
Y
+
(3.10)
(3.11)
( )
t
CV C C C
U V D
e
X Y Y Y Y
_
+ +
,
(3.12)
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 13
( )
T T T
U V
e
X Y Y Y
+
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Nondarcy porous medium using finite difference method
By invoking the Boussinesq approximation, we get
2 2
0 1 2 3
[1 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ] T T T T C C C C
(3.13)
2
2 2
0 1 2 3
[ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ]
U c K U Kg
T T T T C C C C
Y Y
+ + + +
(3.14
)It is suggested that the effective thermal diffusivity in a saturated porous medium can be
expressed as
e d
+
, where
has been investigated by several authors; see for example the review article by Fried and
Combarnous (1976). It is assumed that
d
=
dU
where d is the dimension of the particle or pore
diameter,
can be written a , U V
Y X
. This representation is valid since the expressions for velocity
components clearly satisfy the continuity equation. Using the similarity transformation
1/ 2 1/ 2
, ( ) , ( ) , and ( )
X X
T T C C
Y
Ra f Ra
X T T C C
w W
the set of partial differential equations (14), (11), (12) are transformed into ordinary differential
equations along with the boundary conditions.
// / // / 1 1/ 2 3/ 2 /
[
2
] (1 ) (1 )
X X
X
Ra Ra f F f f
Gr
A A N
Ra
+ + + +
(3.15)
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 14
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Nondarcy porous medium using finite difference method
/ / // // / //
1
( ) 0
2
f Ra f f
+ + + (3.16)
// / / / // //
( ) 0
2
Pr
2
' ' '' '
Le
f LeRa f f
Lek
N
N
t
t
+ + + +
1
+
1
+
1
+ ]
(3.17)
The boundary conditions are
0 : 0, 1, 1 f
(3.18)
/
: 0, 0, 0 f
(3.19)
In the above
2c K
F
X
d
Ra Ra
represents
thermal and solutal dispersion respectively,
0
Kg d
w
Ra
d
is the diffusivity
ratio (Lewis number),
T w
f
s p w
Dk
D
C C
+
(3.20)
We have ( )
w
q h T T
(3.21)
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 15
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Nondarcy porous medium using finite difference method
/
X
Nu hX k (3.22)
Here k is the effective thermal conductivity,
e
k
is the thermal conductivity of the porous
medium, h is the heat transfer coefficient,
q
is the local surface heat flux. Using the equations
(3.20), (3.21) and (3.22), the heat transfer coefficient in non  dimensional form is written as
1/ 2 / /
/ [1 (0) ] (0)
X X
Nu Ra Ra f
+ (3.23)
Similarly, the mass transfer coefficient in non  dimensional form is written as
1/ 2 / /
/ [1 (0) ] (0)
X X
Sh Ra Ra f
+ (3.24)
CHAPTER4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Ordinary differential Equations (3.15 3.17) are solved using the following implicit finite
difference scheme. Here,
' 1
=
i i
f f
f
x
+
(4.1)
" 1 1
2
2
i i i
f f f
f
x
+
+
(4.2)
' 1 i i
x
(4.3)
'' 1 1
2
2
i i i
x
+
+
(4.4)
' 1 i i
x
(4.5)
'' 1 1
2
2
i i i
x
+
+
(4.6)
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 16
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Nondarcy porous medium using finite difference method
In equation (3.15) the second term in L.H.S causes nonlinearity. The product
i
f
*
1 i
f
+
is treated as
2
i
f .Similarly the product
i
f
*
1 i
f
is also treated as
2
i
f .This is due to the only reason that, when
the iterations are run from 1 to 1000 the numerical difference between i
th
and (i+1)
th
term is equal
to 0.000001.Therefore the equation reduces to the form
A
1 i
f
+ B
i
f
+ C
1 i
f
+
= 0 (4.7)
Similarly the other two equations are reduced as follows
A
1 i
+ B
i
+ C
1 i
+
= 0 (4.8)
A
1 i
+ B
i
+ C
1 i
+
= 0 (4.9)
When i is allowed to run from 1 to 1000, this will result in 1000 equations and 1002
variables. The extra two variables are given the values using boundary conditions mentioned in
Governing Equations. Using Gaussian Elimination Method the results are obtained accurate up to
four decimal places. Extensive calculations have been performed with different values of
parameters to obtain the flow, temperature, concentration fields inside the boundary layer.
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 17
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Nondarcy porous medium using finite difference method
0 1 2 3 4 5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=1,Ra
=3, Ra
=3, A=2
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
(
)
Integration length ()
Fig. 1: Variation of with when N
t
=100 and
for different values of k
k=0.1
k=1
k=2
k=3
0 1 2 3 4 5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
F=0.5, N
t
=500, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=1,Ra
=3, Ra
=3, A=2
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
(
)
Integration length ()
Fig. 2: Variation of with when N
t
=500 and
for different values of k
k=0.1
k=1
k=2
k=3
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 18
0 1 2 3 4 5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
F=0.5, Pr=1, Le=100, N=1,
Ra
=3, Ra
)
Integration length ( )
Fig. 3: Variation of with when k=3 and
for different values of N
t
N
t
=50
N
t
=100
N
t
=500
N
t
=1000
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Nondarcy porous medium using finite difference method
0 1 2 3 4 5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0 F=0.5, Pr=1, Le=100, N=1,
Ra
=3, Ra
)
Integration length ()
Fig. 4: Variation of with when k=1 and
for different values of N
t
N
t
=50
N
t
=100
N
t
=500
N
t
=1000
0 1 2 3 4 5
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
F=0.5, Pr=1, Le=100 N=1,
Ra
=3, Ra
)
Integration length ()
Fig. 5: Variation of with when K=1 and
for different values of N
t
N
t
=50
N
t
=100
N
t
=500
N
t
=1000
0 1 2 3 4 5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
F=0.5, Pr=1, Le=100 N=1,
Ra
=3, Ra
)
Integration length ()
Fig. 6: Variation of with when K=0.1 and
for different values of N
t
N
t
=50
N
t
=100
N
t
=500
N
t
=1000
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 19
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Nondarcy porous medium using finite difference method
0 1 2 3 4 5
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=1, Ra
=3,Ra
=3, k=0.1,
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
(
)
Integration length ()
Fig. 7: Variation of with when K=0.1 and
for different values of A
A=0.1
A=5
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=0.72, Le=1
N=1,Ra
)
Integration length ( )
Fig. 8: Variation of with when Le=1 and
for different values of Ra
Ra
=1
Ra
=2
Ra
=3
Ra
=4
Ra
=5
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=1,Ra
)
Integration length ()
Fig. 9: Variation of with when Le=100 and
for different values of Ra
Ra
=1
Ra
=2
Ra
=3
Ra
=4
Ra
=5
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=1,Ra
=3, Ra
=1, A=0
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
(
)
Integration length ()
Fig. 10: Variation of with when Ra
=1 and
for different values of k
k=0.1
k=0.5
k=1
k=1.5
k=2
k=2.5
K=3
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 20
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Nondarcy porous medium using finite difference method
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0 F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=1,Ra
=3, Ra
=2, A=0
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
(
)
Integration length ()
Fig. 11: Variation of with when Ra
=2 and
for different values of k
k=0.1
k=0.5
k=1
k=1.5
k=2
k=2.5
K=3
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=1,Ra
=3, Ra
=3, A=0
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
(
)
Integration length ()
Fig. 12: Variation of with when Ra
=3 and
for different values of k
k=0.1
k=0.5
k=1
k=1.5
k=2
k=2.5
K=3
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=1,Ra
=3,k=0.1, A=0
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
(
)
Integration length ()
Fig. 13: Variation of with when k=0.1 and
for different values of Ra
Ra
=1
Ra
=2
Ra
=3
Ra
=4
Ra
=5
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=1,Ra
)
Integration length ()
Fig. 14: Variation of with when k=2 and
for different values of Ra
Ra
=1
Ra
=2
Ra
=3
Ra
=4
Ra
=5
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 21
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Nondarcy porous medium using finite difference method
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=5, Le=100
N=1,Ra
=3, Ra
=3, A=0
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
(
)
Integration length ()
Fig. 15: Variation of with when Pr=5 and
for different values of k
k=0.1
k=0.3
k=0.5
k=0.7
k=1
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=2, Le=100
N=1,Ra
=3, Ra
=3, A=0
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
(
)
Integration length ()
Fig. 16: Variation of with when Pr=2 and
for different values of k
k=0.1
k=0.3
k=0.5
k=0.7
k=1
200 250 300 350 400 450 500
0.40
0.42
0.44
0.46
0.48
0.50
0.52
0.54
0.56
0.58
0.60
F=0.5, Pr=2, Le=100
N=1,Ra
Ra
=1
Ra
=3
Ra
=5
0 100 200 300 400 500
0.3
0.4
F=0.5, Pr=2, Le=100
N=1,Ra
=1, A=0.1
N
o
n
d
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
a
l
M
a
s
s
t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r
c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
S
h
x
/
R
a
x
1
/
2
Thermophoretic constant (k)
Fig. 19: Variation of Sh
x
/Ra
x
1/2
with k
for different values of Ra
Ra
=1
Ra
=3
Ra
=5
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=1,
N=1,Ra
=3, A=1, Ra
=3
N
o
n
d
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
a
l
M
a
s
s
t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r
c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
S
h
x
/
R
a
x
1
/
2
Thermophoretic constant (k)
Fig. 20: Variation of Sh
x
/Ra
x
1/2
with k
for different values of Le
Le=1
Le=10
Le=15
1 2 3 4 5
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=13,Le=100,
N=1,Ra
=3,k=0.1
N
o
n
d
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
a
l
M
a
s
s
t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r
c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
S
h
x
/
R
a
x
1
/
2
Solutal dispersion parameter (Ra
)
Fig. 21: Variation of Sh
x
/Ra
x
1/2
with Ra
for A=0.1
A=0.1
0 1 2 3 4 5
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5 F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=13, Le=100
N=1, Ra
=3, k=0.1
N
o
n
d
i
m
e
n
t
i
o
n
a
l
h
e
a
t
t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r
c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
(
N
u
x
/
R
a
x
1
/
2
)
Thermal dispersion parameter (Ra
)
Fig. 22: Variation of (Nu
x
/Ra
1/2
) with Ra
=3, k=1, Ra
=1
N
o
n

d
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
a
l
w
a
l
l
T
h
e
r
m
o
p
h
o
r
e
t
i
c
d
e
p
o
s
i
t
i
o
n
v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
V
t
w
N
t
Fig. 23: Variation of V
tw
with N
t
for A=0.1
A=0.1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
F=0.5, Nt=100, Le=100
N=1, Ra
=3, k=1, Ra
=3
N
o
n

d
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
a
l
w
a
l
l
T
h
e
r
m
o
p
h
o
r
e
t
i
c
d
e
p
o
s
i
t
i
o
n
v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
V
t
w
N
t
Fig. 24: Variation of V
tw
with Pr
for different values of A
A=0.01
A=0.1
A=1
A=2
A=3
0 100 200 300 400 500
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
0.020
0.025
0.030
0.035
0.040
0.045
F=0.5, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=1, Ra
Ra
=1
Ra
=3
Ra
=5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
F=0.5, Nt=100, Le=100
N=1, Ra
Ra
=1
Ra
=3
Ra
=5
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 24
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Nondarcy porous medium using finite difference method
0 1 2 3 4 5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
Ra
=3, Ra
=3, F=0.5,
N
t
=100, N = 1, Le=100, A=2,Pr=0.72
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
(
)
Integration length ()
Fig. 27: Variation of with when N= 1 and
for different values of k
k=0.1
k=1
k=2
k=3
0 1 2 3 4 5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=1,Ra
=3, A=0.01,k=0.1
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
(
)
Integration length ( )
Fig. 28: Variation of with when N= 1, k= 0.1 and
for different values of Ra
Ra
=1
Ra
=3
Ra
=5
0 1 2 3 4 5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
F=0.5, N
t
=100, Pr=0.72, Le=100
N=1,Ra
=3, A=0.01,k=3
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
(
)
Integration length ( )
Fig. 29: Variation of with when N= 1, k=3 and
for different values of Ra
Ra
=1
Ra
=3
Ra
=5
0 1 2 3 4 5
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2 F=0.5, Pr=1, Le=100 N=1,
Ra
=3, Ra
)
Integration length ( )
Fig. 30: Variation of with when N= 1 and
for different values of N
t
N
t
=50
N
t
=100
N
t
=500
N
t
=1000
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 25
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Nondarcy porous medium using finite difference method
4.1 AIDING BUYOANCY
Distribution of Concentration with variation of
=5. By comparing
Fig.1 and Fig.2, the most remarkable property observed is that the effect of k on Concentration
distribution is nil for fixed value of N
t
=500.
From Figures 3, 4, 5 and 6, it is observed that for higher values of N
t
the boundary layer
length is less. In other words when N
t
is increased the concentration distribution decreases. By
comparing Fig.3 and Fig.4 we observe that the values of k in Fig.4 are less when compared to the
values of k in Fig.3. The Concentration distribution for the curves corresponding to N
t
=500 and
1000 gets unaffected. In other words the gap corresponding to N
t
=100 and 500 is more in Fig.3
when compared with fig.4. This is due to the reason that the value of k in Fig.4 is lesser than the
value in Fig.3.
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 26
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Nondarcy porous medium using finite difference method
By comparing Fig.5and 6 it is observed that when the value of k is more and when N
t
is
increased the distribution of concentration spreads significantly while for lesser values of k effect
of increase in N
t
on concentration distribution is marginal.
The effect of non linear convective parameter A on concentration distribution is clear
from Fig.7. For higher values of A the concentration distribution is more.
a distinct spectrum for
Ra
=1 and
Ra
the concentration distribution merge
together along a narrow path. Hence we can conclude that when Le is changed from 1 to 100 the
decrease in concentration can be clearly observed for different values of
Ra
. But beyond
Le=100 i.e., beyond this point increase in Le does not varies the values of concentration at all.
The analysis between Figures 10, 11 implies that for lesser values of
Ra
the effect of k is
more. In other words, the spectrum of concentration distribution is more visible for
1 Ra
while the same is not that much seen for
3 Ra
.
A comparative study between figures 13 and 14 establishes that, for higher values of k (in
Fig.14) irrespective of the
Ra
is observed in Fig.17. This marginal variation is due to the only fact that the Prandtl number
is fixed to be very less and hence the effect of N
t
is less. This fact is crystal clear from Fig.18. In
other words, in Fig.18, with variation of N
t
up to a critical point N
t
= 200, the variation in mass
transfer appears to be more significant for higher Prandtl number values. But the same situation
is not observed for the curve corresponding to Prandtl number 1.
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 27
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Nondarcy porous medium using finite difference method
From Fig.19 and Fig.20 the effect of k on mass transfer is very well established. Though, it is
very clear from the Figure that the mass transfer decreases with increase in k. The behavior of
Mass transfer curve is surprising depending on the values of
Ra
, Le, A (Non linear convective
parameter). It is clear from fig.19 that for lesser values of
Ra
it is
moderate.
From Fig.20 it is an established fact that Le serves to be a crucial factor (parameter) as far
as its significant effect on mass transfer is considered. In addition to the effect of Le on mass
transfer, the effect of k on mass transfer is that it decreases drastically for higher values of Le
with the increase of k. The most remarkable point is that when thermal diffusivity and solutal
diffusivity are balanced i.e. when Le=1, the effect of k remains to be still moderate.
it is clear that (Fig.21 ) a significant increase in mass transfer with increase of
Ra
for
fixed values of parameters show that, the effect of solutal dispersion on mass transfer should not
be neglected in the analysis.
The effect of nonlinear convective parameter A on heat transfer in the Fig.22 shows that, for
higher values of A, the magnitude of heat transfer will be more.
The behavior of wall thermophoretic deposition velocity V
tw
according to different values
of the parameters is clear from the Figures 23, 24 and 25. Fig.23 shows that with the increase of
N
t
wall thermophoretic deposition velocity decreases for higher values of Prandtl number.
Though, decrease in wall thermophoretic deposition velocity with increase of N
t
is observed
from the Fig.25, it is clear that for a fixed value of N
t
the magnitude of V
tw
is less for higher
values of Ra . The same point is established in Fig.26, i.e. for higher values of
Ra
the
magnitude of V
tw
is less. In other words, the Prandtl number, thermal dispersion parameter, N
t
,
they have a significant contribution towards the wall thermophoretic deposition velocity V
tw
.
4.2 OPPOSING BUOYANCY
The Concentration distribution with the variation of
it is moderate.
5. Le serves to be a crucial factor (parameter) as far as its significant effect on mass transfer is
considered. In addition to the effect of Le on mass transfer, the effect of k on mass transfer is that
it decreases drastically for higher values of Le with the increase of k. The most remarkable point
is that when thermal diffusivity and solutal diffusivity are balanced i.e. when Le=1, the effect of
k remains to be still moderate.
6. With the increase of N
t
concentration distribution decreases drastically if the thermophoretic
coefficient k is fixed a higher value while for lesser values of k effect of increase in N
t
on
concentration distribution is marginal.
7. With variation of N
t
up to a critical point N
t
= 200, the variation in mass transfer appears to be
more significant for higher Prandtl number values.
8. With the increase of N
t
wall thermophoretic deposition velocity decreases for higher values of
Prandtl number. Though, decrease in wall thermophoretic deposition velocity with increase of N
t
is observed it is to be noted that for a fixed value of N
t
the magnitude of V
tw
is less for higher
values of Ra .
9. The magnitude of NonDimensional Heat and mass Transfer coefficient is more for higher
values of A
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 30
Analysis of heat and mass transfer in a Nondarcy porous medium using finite difference method
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Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MCE, Hassan Page 35
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