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130502: Fluid

Flow Operations

G. Patel College of Engineering and Technology Fluid Flow Operations (130502) Academic Year: 2011-12 (1st Semester)
List of the Experiments Sr No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

H.

Name of the Experiments Verification of the Bernoullis theorem. Measurement of coefficient of discharge for the venturimeter. Measurement of coefficient of discharge for the orifice meter. Calibration of rotameter. Types of fluid flow. Determination of discharge coefficient of a V-notch. Determination of viscosity using Stokes law. Measurement of viscosity using efflux time method. Effect of Reynolds number on friction factor for pipe flow. Effect of Reynolds number on friction factor of flow through annulus. Development of characteristics curves for a given centrifugal pump. Study the relationship between friction factor and R e ynolds number for Packed column.

13.

Study of the resistance offered by various pipe fittings.

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130502: Fluid Flow Operations

Experiment No. 1 Verification of Bernoullis Theorem Aim: - To verify the Bernoullis theorem. Apparatus: - Bernoullis theorem equipment, stopwatch, and measuring cylinder. Theory: The total energy of a fluid in motion consists of the following components: internal, potential, pressure and kinetic energies. Each of these energies may be considered with reference to an arbitrary base level. Summing these components, the total energy E per unit mass fluid is given by the equation (1) where each term has the dimensions of force times distance per unit mass, i.e., (ML/T2)L/M or L2/T2. W W
i

1 2 E

1 E
2

q Consider fluid flowing from point 1 to point 2 as shown in Figure above. Between these two points, let the following amounts of heat transfer and work be done per unit mass of fluid: heat transfer q to the fluid, work Wi, done on the fluid and work W0, done by the fluid on its surroundings. Assuming the conditions to be steady, so that there is no accumulation of energy within the fluid between points 1 and 2, an energy balance can be written per unit mass of fluid as (2) E 2 = E 1 + q + Wi W0 If no heat transfer to the fluid takes place, q = 0. For these conditions, equation (2) may

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130502: Fluid Flow Operations

be combined and written as

(3) For an inviscid fluid, ie frictionless flow, and no pump, equation (2) becomes

(4) Department of Chemical Engineering

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Equation (4) is known as Bernoullis equation. Bernoullis equation is based on the principle of conservation of energy and in the form in which the work terms are zero; it states that the total mechanical energy remains constant along a streamline. Fluids flowing along d i f f e r e n t s t r e a m l i n e s h a v e d i f f e r e n t total e n e r g i e s . F o r laminar flow in a horizontal pipe, the pressure energy and potential energy for an element of fluid flowing in the centre of the pipe will be virtually identical to those for a element flowing near the wall, however, their kinetic energies are significantly different because the velocity near the wall is much lower than that at the centre. Dividing throughout by g, these equations can be written in a slightly different form. For example, equation (4) can be written as (5) In this form, each term has the dimensions of length. The terms z, P/(g) and v2/(2g) are known as the potential, pressure and velocity heads, respectively. In terms of pressure head equation (5) can be written as (6) Notations: v fluid velocity at a point on a streamline g acceleration due to gravity h height of the point above a reference plane P pressure at the point density of the fluid at all points in the fluid z height of the liquid Procedure: Fill the tube with water and allow it to overflow from tank. At that time, the entire capillary will show some level of water in it. Keep the flow rate constant and note down the height of water in capillary tubes. Measure the flow rate by using measuring cylinder and calculate the flow rate. Repeat the procedure for different flow rate

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Schematic Diagram:-

1. Piezometric tubes (Capillaries) 2. Continuous varying area 3. Reservoir 4. Valve 5. Pump 6. Collection tank Observations: 1. Volume of water collected = 2. Area of capillary 1 (a1) = 3. Area of capillary 2 (a2) = 4. Area of capillary 3 (a3) = 5. Area of capillary 4 (a4) = 6. Area of capillary 5 (a5) = 7. Area of capillary 6 (a6) = 8. Area of capillary 7 (a7) = 9. Area of capillary 8 (a8) = Observation Table: (1) Discharge flow rate = Height of water in capillaries (m) 1 2 Department of Chemical Engineering (m3/s) (2) Velocity of water = m/s m3 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2

v
2

3 4 5 6 7 8

Graph: (1) (2) Height of water in capillaries verses distance from the inlet Calculations:

Result Table: Discharge (m3 /flow s) rate h+

2 v

Conclusion: Industrial Application: Exercises:1. Write down the statement of Bernoullis theorem. 2. What down the assumptions required for development of Bernoullis equation? 3. What is the differential form of Bernoullis equation? Explain each term with unit. Department of Chemical Engineering

4. Express the Bernoullis equation for (a) fluid friction and (b) flow of incompressible fluid assuming that a centrifugal pump is installed between the two pressure stations.

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Experiment No. 2 Measurement of coefficient of discharge for the venturimeter


Aim: - To obtain the coefficient of discharge for the given venturimeter and obtain its relationship with Reynolds number. Apparatus: - Venturimeter, pump, tanks, measuring cylinder, and stopwatch. Chemicals: - Mercury and CCl 4 for menoimeter

Theory: - Venturimeter is a full-bore type of meter. It is constructed from a flanged inlet section consisting of a short cylindrical portion and a truncated cone. In the upstream section, at the junction of the cylindrical and conical portions, an angular chamber is provided, and a number of small holes are drilled from the inside of the tube into the annular chamber. The annular ring and the small holes constitute a piezometer ring, which has the function of averaging the individual pressures transmitted through the several h o l e s . The a v e r a g e p r e s s u r e i s t r a n s m i t t e d t h r o u g h t h e u p s t r e a m p r e s s u r e connection. A second piezometer ring is formed in the throat section by an integral annular chamber. The accuracy of the meter is reduced if the throat is not carefully machined to close tolerances. In the venturimeter, the velocity is increased, and the pressure decreased, in the upstream cone. The pressure drop in the upstream cone is utilized to measure the rate of flow through the instrument. The velocity is then decreased, and the original pressure largely recovered, in the downstream cone. To make the pressure recovery large, the angle of downstream cone is small, so boundary layer separation prevented and friction minimized. Since separation does not occur in contracting section, the upstream cone can be made shorter than the downstream cone. The basic equation for the venturimeter is obtained writing the Bernoullis equation for incompressible fluids between the two pressure stations. Friction is neglected, the meter is assumed to be horizontal, and there is no pump.

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If Va and Vb are the average upstream and downstream velocities, respectively then 2 bV b 2 c a p
=2

g p

b aV a The continuity relation can be written, since the density is constant, as 2 2 a V = (D / D


b a

Where, Da=diameter of pipe Db=diameter of throat of meter = Ratio of venturi throat to pipe diameter. If Va is eliminated from the equations, the result is _ b = 4 g c a b 2

(
p

)/
p

V
b

Where,

= kinetic-energy correlation factor at a and b station.

This equation applies strictly to the frictionless flow of non compressible fluids. To account for the small friction loss between locations a and b, this equation is correlated by introducing an empirical factor Cv and writing bV = ? ? Cv
4

? ?

2g c ( pa pb )

? ? ? ? 1

The small effects kinetic-energy factors a and b are also taken in to consideration in the definition of Cv. The coefficient Cv is determined experimentally. It is called the venturi coefficient. Procedure: -

Connect the tubes of the manometer (CCl4 or mercury) according to the flow rate of water. Check whether the manometer limbs show zero difference or not. Start the pump at low flow rate, when flow becomes stable, measure the pressure difference by manometer (CCl4). Note down the time required for the tank to fill between two marks. Measure the volume of water using a measuring cylinder and calculate the Department of Chemical Engineering

volumetric flow rate of water. Repeat the procedure by increasing the flow rate of water. Note: For lower flows rate use CCl4 manometer and for higher flows rate use mercury manometer Schematic Diagram:

1. Venturi meter 2. Manometer 3. Pump 4. Valve 5. Reservoir 6. Collection tank Observations: 1. Inside diameter of pipe (Da) = m m

2. Diameter of the venture meter throat (Db) =

o 3. Average temperature of water = C 4. Viscosity of water at average temperature = kg / m.s 5. Volume collected between two mark in calibrated tank = m3

Observation Table: Volume collected (m3) Manomet er reading, Rm (m) Volumetr ic flow rate (m3/s) Veloci ty (m/ s)

Time (s)

N R

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Calculations: 1. Area, So = (Db2/4) = ------- m2 2. 3. Volumetric flow rate, Q = Volume collected / Time = Velocity, v = Q/So = (m/s) (m3/s)

Graphs: - (1) Plot NRe vs Cv using log-log graph paper. Result Table: Velocity of water (m/s) Reynolds number N Discharge coefficient C

Conclusion: Industrial Application: Exercises: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Can discharge coefficient be greater than unity? Write down the two full-bore measuring devices other than venture meter. What is the function of piezometric ring? How can you calculate the sonic velocity of a gas stream? Explain the pressure recovery method in venture meter. Explain the disadvantages of the venture meter. What types of flow measurement devices are best for slurries?
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Experiment No. 3 Measurement of coefficient of discharge for the orifice meter


Aim: - To obtain the coefficient of discharge for the given orifice meter and obtain its relationship with Reynolds number. Apparatus: - Orifice meter, pump, tanks, measuring cylinder, stopwatch. Chemicals: - Mercury and CCl 4 for menoimeter Theory: - The principal of orifice is identical with that of venturi. The reduction of cross section of the flowing stream in passing through the orifice increases the velocity head at the expense of the pressure head. Bernoullis equation provides a basis for correlating the increase in velocity head with the decrease in pressure head. One important complication appears in the orifice meter that is not found in the venturi. Because of the sharpness of the orifice, the fluid stream separates from the down streamside of the orifice. The jet is under the control of the solids walls, as in the case of the venturi, and the area of the jet varies from that of the opening in the orifice to the vena contracta (the point where jet diameter minimizes).

The equation for the orifice is,


u = C0

a
2( p

pb

------------------- (1)

where,

uo

14 = velocity through the orifice


o

= ratio of orifice diameter of pipe diameter pa, pb = pressure at stations a and b. Co is the orifice Coefficient. It corrects for the contraction of the fluid jet between the Co is

orifice and the vena contracta, for friction kinetic-energy factors. Coefficient

always determined experimentally. It varies considerably with changes and with


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Reynolds number at the orifice defined by, . Department of Chemical Engineering

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130502: Fluid Flow Operations


2 o NRe,o = d u

Procedure: -

4m = d
2

---------------------- (2)

Connect the tubes of the manometer (CCl4 or mercury) according to the flow rate of water. Check whether the manometer limbs show zero difference or not. Start the pump at low flow rate, when flow becomes stable, measure the pressure difference by manometer. Note down the time required for the tank to fill between two marks. Measure the volume of water using a measuring cylinder and calculate the volumetric flow rate of water. Repeat the procedure by increasing the flow rate of water. Note: For lower flows rate use CCl4 manometer and for higher flows rate use mercury manometer.

Schematic Diagram:

130502: Fluid Flow Operations

1. Orifice meter, 2. Manometer, 3. Pump, 4. Valve, 5. Reservoir, 6. Collection tank Observations: 1. Inside diameter of pipe (d1) = m m

2. Diameter of the venture meter throat (d2) =

o 3. Average temperature of water = C 4. Viscosity of water at average temperature = kg / m.s 5. Volume collected between two mark in calibrated tank = m3

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Observation Table: Volume collected 3 (m ) Manomet er reading, Rm (m) Volumetr ic flow rate (m3/s)

Time (s)

Velocit y (m/ s)

R e,o

Calculations: 1.

Area, So = (Db2/4) = ------- m2 Volumetric flow rate, Q = Volume collected / Time = Velocity, v = Q/So = (m/s) (m3/s)

2. 3.

Graphs: - (1) Plot NRe,o vs Co using log-log graph paper. Result Table: Velocity of water (m/s) Reynolds number N Discharge coefficient C

Conclusion: Industrial Application: Department of Chemical Engineering

Exercises: 1. What is the advantage of the orifice meter over the venturimeter? 2. What are the major disadvantages of orifice meter? 3. Can the orifice plate be used to measure the flow of slurries? 4. What will be the effect on manometer reading if orifice venturimeter? 5. How can you determine the choked or sonic flow in an orifice? 6. What factors influence the discharge coefficient? 7. At what conditions Co can be considered constant?

met er

replac es

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Experiment No. 4 Calibration of rotameter Aim: To calibrate the given Rotameter. Apparatus: Rotameter, bucket, measuring cylinder. Theory: -In the orifice meter, the variation of the flow rate through a constant area generates a variable pressure drop, which is related to the flow rate. For a given flow rate, the equilibrium position of the float in a rotameter is established by a balance of the three forces: (1) the weight of the float, (2) the buoyant force of the fluid on the float, (3) the drag force of the float. Force 1 act downward, and forces 2 and 3 acts upward.

For a given meter operating on a certain fluid, the right hand side of above equation (2) is constant and independent of the flow rate. Therefore, Fd is also constant, and when the flow rate increases, the position of the float must change to keep drag force const. The drag force, Fd can be expressed as drag coefficient times the projected area of the Department of Chemical Engineering

velocity past the float, which occurs at the largest diameter edge of float.

With low or moderate viscosity fluids, the maximum velocity stays the same with increasing flow rate, and the total flow rate is proportional to the annular area of the between the float and the wall:

Therefore Rota meters tend to have a linear relationship between flow and position of the float, compared with a calibration curve for an orifice meter, for which the flow rate is proportional to the square root of the reading. Procedure: Fill the water tank with water. Switch on the pump and adjust the flow rate. Note down the time taken for tank to fill between two marks. Measure the volume of the water using a measuring cylinder. Calculate the volumetric flow rate. Note down the flow rate as indicated by the rotameter. Repeat the procedure for other volumetric flow rate.

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130502: Fluid Flow Operations

Schematic Diagram: -

1. Rota meter, 2. Pump, 3. Valve, 4. Reservoir, 5. Collection tank Obsrvation Table: Volume of water collected (m3) Ti me ( Volumetric flow rate, Qm (m3/ s) Rotamet er reading, Qr (m3/ s)

Calculations: 1. Volume of water collected = 2. Time = s 3. Volumetric flow rate, Qm = 4. Qr = m3/s. m3. m3 / s

Graph: - Construct the calibration plot (Qr vs. Qm).

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130502: Fluid Flow Operations

Result Table: Calculated volumetric flow rate, Qm (m3 / s) Rotameter reading, Qr (m3 /

Conclusion: Industrial Application: Exercises: 1. What do you mean by calibration plot? 2. What do you mean by variable area meter? 3. Differentiate between area meter and head meter? 4. Define Drag force. 5. Name the forces act on the rotameter when it is in operation and make a force balance for rotameter. 6. Can you install rotameter horizontally?

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130502: Fluid Flow Operations

Experiment No. 5 Types of Fluid Flow


Aim: - To determine the type of flow and critical Reynolds number. Apparatus: - Reynolds number equipment, measuring cylinder, and stopwatch. Chemicals: - KMnO4 solution or dye. Theory: - Reynolds studied the conditions under which one type of flow changes into the other. He found that the critical velocity, at which laminar flow changes into turbulent flow, depends upon four quantities: the diameter of the pipe, viscosity, density, and average linear velocity the liquid. Furthermore, he found that these four factors can be combined into one group and that the change in kind of flow occurs at a definite value of the group. The grouping of variables so found was Dv Dv N = = v -------------------- (1) Re where, D = diameter of pipe v = average velocity of liquid = viscosity of liquid = density of liquid v = kinematic viscosity of liquid The dimensionless number defined by the equation (1) is called the Reynolds number, N Re . The transition from laminar to turbulent flow actually may occur over a wide range of Reynolds number. In a pipe, flow is always laminar at NRe below 2100 and it is turbulent at NRe above 4000. Between 2100 and 4000 a transition region is found where the flow may be either laminar or turbulent, depending upon the conditions at the entrance of the pipe and on the distance from the entrance. Procedure: Fill the tank with water. Start flow of water at low flow rate and inject KMnO4 or dye into the pipe. Set the flow of water and KMnO 4 solution. Observe the flow pattern (At low flow rate the dye pattern is regular and formed a single line or stream similar to a thread. At sufficiently high flow rate, the thread of dye become dispersed and the pattern is very erratic) When the flow becomes constant measure the volume collected in tank and time

130502: Fluid Flow Operations

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taken to get the volumetric flow rate Repeat the procedure with higher flow rate of water. Schematic Diagram: -

1. KMnO4 dye, 2. Glass tube, 3. Tank 1, 4. Tank 2, 5. Reservoir, 6. Valve, 7. Pump, 8. Collection tank Observations: 1. ID of the pipe, di = ----------- m
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2.

Temperature of water =

Observation Table: Volume Collected (m3) Ti me ( Discharge flow ra te Velocit y (m/


N

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Calculations: 1. Volume = 3 m

2 2 2. Area = (d /4) = m i 3. Time = s 4. Discharge flow rate = (m3/s) 5. Velocity = (m / s) N = 6. Reynolds number, Re Result Table: Discharge flow rate (m3/s) Reynolds number (N Flow pattern of KMnO or dye
4

Type of flow

Conclusion: Industrial Application: Exercises: 1. What is the physical significance of Reynolds number? 2. What is the value of Reynolds number for an ideal fluid? 3. Write the Hagen Poiseuille equation for laminar flow through pipe. 4. What is critical Reynolds number? 5. A fluid X is flowing through a tube at a constant N = 5000. If another fluid, Re Y having a velocity 1.8 times X and density 0.9 times that of X is to flow through the same tube, with what velocity must the fluid flow so that N is Re maintained at 5000? 6. What is the critical Reynolds number when fluid flowing over a flat plate? 7. Sketch the velocity distribution of a flow in the tube for (a) laminar and (b) turbulent condition.
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Experiment No. 6 Determination of discharge coefficient of a V-notch Aim: - To determine the discharge coefficient of the given V-notch. Apparatus: - V-notch, pump, micrometer, water tank, measuring cylinder, and stopwatch. Theory: - Notches and weirs are generally used to measure the flow of liquids such as water. Both the head and area of the stream vary, but the area of the stream depends upon the head. Notches of triangular forms which may be V-notch or triangular, rectangular, trapezoidal, parabolic, or of other forms are designed to have a constant discharge coefficient or a head which is directly proportional to the rate of flow. V-notch weirs are particularly useful for measuring flow rates that vary considerably.

where, Cd is the dimensionless discharge coefficient which is mainly a function of h, any height above the bottom of weir and . For satisfactory operation the value of should be from 35 0C to 120 0C. Procedure: Note down the angle of V-notch. Fill the water up to V-notch in tank. When the water level becomes steady, note down the initial height of water. Start the pump at very low speed so that the rate of overflowing water will be low. When the flow becomes steady, measure the height of water from the tip of Vnotch. Measure the volume of water overflowing from V-notch. Note down the time required to collect the water between two marks of the rectangular tank at down Department of Chemical Engineering
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stream. Repeat the above procedure for another five to six readings by increasing the flow rate gradually by increasing the speed of pump.

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1. V notch, 2. Micrometer screw gauge, 3. Water storage tank, 4. Calibrated tank, 5. Valve, 6. Water collecting tank, 7. Pump, 8. Stand Observations: 1. Angle of V-notch = 2. Datum reading = Observation Table: Time required for collection of water (s) Increase in the height of water level, H (m) Volumetric flow rate, Q (m3/s) Discharge coefficient, Cd m

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Calculations: 1. Volumetric flow rate, Q = (m3/s) 2. Discharge coefficient, Cd (using equation (1)) Graphs: - Plot Q vs Cd. Result Table: Volumetric flow rate (m3/s) Discharge coefficient, Cd

Conclusion: Industrial Application: Exercises: 1. What do you mean by notch? 2. Name the few notches used to measure the flow rate. 3. Differentiate between notch and weir. 4. What is the value of Cd when V-notch angle is 900? 5. Give few practical applications of V-notch other than industry.

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Experiment No. 7 Determination of viscosity of liquid using Stokes Law Aim: - To determine the viscosity of given liquids using stokes law apparatus. Apparatus: - Stokes law apparatus, scale, metal balls of three different diameters, stop watch. Chemicals: - Liquids with different viscosities. Theory: -The movement of a particle through a fluid requires external force acting on the particle. This force may come from a density difference between the particle and the fluid or it may be the result of electric or magnetic fields. In this section only gravitational or centrifugal forces, which arise from density differences, will be considered. Three forces acting on the particle moving through a fluid: (1) the external force, gravitational or centrifugal; (2) the buoyant force, which acts parallel with the external force but in the opposite direction; and (3) the drag force, which appears whenever there is relative motion between particle and the fluid. The drag force acts to opposite the motion and acts parallel with the direction of movement but in the opposite direction.

If the particles are falling in the viscous fluid by their own weight due to gravity, then a terminal velocity, also known as the settling velocity, is reached when this frictional force combined with the buoyant force exactly balance the gravitational force. The resulting settling velocity (or terminal velocity) is given by:

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In the general case, the direction of movement of the particle relative to the fluid may not be parallels with the direction of the external and buoyant forces, and the drag force then makes an angle with the other two. In this situation, which is called two-dimensional motion, the drag force must be resolved in to components, which complicates the treatment of particle mechanics. Department of Chemical Engineering

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If the particles are spheres of diameter Dp,

Procedure: The stocks law equipment consists of three tubes filled with three different liquids having different viscosities. Measure the length of the each tube for which you are measuring the time. Take metal balls of three different diameters. Drop them through each tube and
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calculate the time taken by the ball to travel the distance of the length earlier measured. Repeat this for all different liquids for all different balls. Perform the calculations. Schematic Diagram: -

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130502: Fluid Flow Operations

Liquid

R ed N
Re

Yello w N
Re

Oran ge N
Re

Ball B1 Ball B2 Ball B3 Result Table: Liquid

Viscosit y (kg/m.

Conclusion: Industrial Application:


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Exercises:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the unit of surface tension? What is Visco-elastic fluid? What is the effect of temperature on dynamic viscosity? What is apparent viscosity? Give relation of terminal velocity with particle diameter for both stocks & Newtons law. 6. Drag coefficient in hindered settling is larger than in free settling. True OR False? Why?

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130502: Fluid Flow Operations

Experiment No. 8 Measurement of viscosity using efflux time method


Aim: - To determine the viscosity of a given liquid by measuring efflux time of a given tank. Also determine the diameter of a given capillary and compare. Apparatus: - Efflux time apparatus, stopwatch, capillary of various diameters and one of them of unknown diameter. Chemicals: - Water, Ethylene glycol Theory: - The movement of a particle through a fluid requires external force acting on the particle. This force may come from a density difference between the particle and the fluid or it may be the result of electric or magnetic fields. In this section only gravitational or centrifugal forces, which arise from density differences, will be considered. Procedure: Fill the apparatus up to the given mark with liquid (Ethylene glycol). Now join the tank with capillary of known diameter in vertical position. Here the capillary is vertical, so the effect of gravity will be considered. Note down the initial height of liquid in the tank and allow the liquid to flow through capillary. Measure the time taken by fluid to come down to certain level. Take four to five readings for this set-up. Now change the position of known diameter capillary (horizontal) and do the same procedure. Now take another unknown diameter capillary and keep it in horizontal position and do the same procedure.

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130502: Fluid Flow Operations

Schematic Diagram: -

1. Reservoir, 2. Valve, 3. Centrifugal pump, 4. Main tank, 5. Viscosity measuring tank, 6. Collection tank. Observations: 1. Density of liquid = ----------- kg/m3 2. Length of the given capillary = ---------- m Observation Table: Position of capillary Range of height of liquid ( m Ti me ( s Diameter of capillary (

Calculations:

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130502: Fluid Flow Operations

Result Table: Viscosity of the given Liquid (kg/m.s) Diameter of unknown capillary (

Conclusion: Industrial Application: Exercises:1. What do you understand by means of Efflux time? 2. How the viscosity measured by Efflux time differs from the viscosity measured by Stokes law. 3. Name the few liquids for which the Efflux time method is used to determine the viscosity. 4. Define Viscosity. 5. What is the effect of temperature on the viscosity of gases?

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130502: Fluid Flow Operations

Experiment No. 9 Effect of Reynolds number on friction factor for pipe flow
Aim: - To determine relation between friction factor and Reynolds number for the given flowing fluid through circular pipe. Apparatus: - A test section of circular pipe with two pressure tapings, Another test section same as first one but made up of smooth circular pipe, manometer, pump, reservoir, stopwatch, calibrating tank. Chemicals: - Water, mercury, CCl 4 Theory: - Shear stress is present predominantly in boundary layer since; these are exerted in the direction opposite to the flow. When flow occurs in the closed conduit the shear at wall pressure gradient due to be that of the incompressible fluid through a conduit of constant cross-sectional area. Numerous studies on the frictional losses during that they are proportional to the kinetic energ y of the fluid per turbulent flow have indicated unit volume and the wall area is constant with fluid. Various expressions are for friction in the turbulent flow region is as given below,

Procedure: Fill the tank with water. Start the pump at a minimum speed. Adjust the flow rate and take the manometer reading. Switch between rough and the smooth pipe for the same flow rate and take the respective manometric readings. Repeat the process with difference flow rates.

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130502: Fluid Flow Operations

Schematic Diagram: -

1. Reservoir,2. Valve, 3. Pump, 4. PVC Pipe, 5. Galvanized Pipe, 6. Mercury manometer, 7. CCl4 manometer, 8. Collection tank, 9. Valve. Observations: 1. Diameter of the pipe = m 2. Center to center distance between two tapings = 3. Density of CCl ( ) = 1600 kg/m 3 4. Density of Hg (m) =13600 kg/m3 5. Density of water (f) = 1000 kg/m3 6. Viscosity of water (f) = 0.085 kg/m.s
7.
4

Volume of water collected =

m3

130502: Fluid Flow Operations

Observation Table: Fluid Type of pipe Manometr ic reading Rm (m) Ti me Tak en Volumetr ic flow rate Velocity u (m/ s)

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130502: Fluid Flow Operations

Calculations: -

Result Table: Type of Pipe Manometr ic Flu id Volumetr ic flow rate 2 N/m
N f

Re

OB S

T H

Conclusion: Industrial Applications: Exercises:1. If the observed pressure drop is greater than the calculated pressure drop, explain why it is so? 2. Are there any other losses to be taken into account? 3. How will the pressure drop due to friction vary with the diameter of the pipe? 4. How can one estimate how the friction factor changes in heat exchanger tubes with a change in temperature? 5. Explain the term (i) Fanning friction factor and (ii) Darcy friction factor.

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130502: Fluid Flow Operations

Experiment No. 10 Effect of Reynolds number on friction factor of flow through annulus
Aim: - To obtain relation between friction factor and Reynolds number for flow of water through annulus. Apparatus: - Annulus column with two tapings, water reservoir, Variable speed pump, and calibrated tank. Chemicals: Water. -

Theory: - The friction in long channels of constant noncircular cross section can be estimated by using the equations for circular pipes if the diameter in the Reynolds number is taken as an equivalent diameter, defined as four times the hydraulic radius. The hydraulic radius is denoted by r H and is defined as ratio of the cross-sectional area of the channel to the wetted perimeter of the channel:

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The simple hydraulic radius rule doesnt apply to laminar flow through noncircular sections. For, laminar flow through an annulus, for example, f and NRe, are related by equation

Procedure: First fill the water in the reservoir tank. Start the pump at lowest speed and adjust the flow rate. Measure the length of the annulus column. Fixed the flow rate and calculate the volumetric flow rate. Similarly, repeat the procedure for the other readings. Schematic Diagram: - Observations: 1. Inside pipe diameter D = m i 2. Outside pipe diameter D = m o 3. Equivalent diameter D = D D = o i 4. Taping distance = m 2 5. Area of pipe = m 3 6. Volume of liquid taken = m 7. Viscosity of water = kg/m.s f

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8. Density of water = 1000 kg/ m

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Observation Table: Manometer Reading (Rm) Time taken ( s Volumetric flow ra te Velocit y (m/ s)

Calculations: -

Result Table: p N/m2 N R F o F

t he

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Conclusion: Industrial Application: Exercises:1. What is a quick way to calculate frictional pressure drops in carbon steel pipe? 2. What is a good estimate for the absolute roughness for epoxy lined carbon steel pipe? 3. How can one determine if a pipe is running full or is at its sealing flow rate?

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Experiment No. 11 Development of characteristics curves for a given centrifugal pump


Aim: - To study characteristics curves for a given centrifugal pump. Apparatus: - Centrifugal pumps, Techno meter, Stopwatch and Measuring cylinder. Theory: Head-Capacity Relation: The plots of actual head, total consumptions, and efficiency vs. volumetric flow rate are called the characteristics curves of a centrifugal pump. The difference between the theoretical and actual curves results primarily from circulatory flow. Other contributing factors to the head loss are fluid friction in the passages and channels of the pump and shock losses the sudden change in the direction of the liquid leaving the impeller and joining the stream of liquid traveling circumferentially around the casing. Friction is high at the maximum flow rate, shocks losses are a minimum at the rated level of pump and become greater as the flow is increased or decreased the rated level of pump. Power Cuts: Typical curve of fluid horse power and total horse power versus flow rate is a curve which increases with increase in flow rate but up to certain limit, after that the power increment will not be more. The difference between ideal and actual performance represents the power lost in the pump present in result from fluid friction and show losses of mechanical energy into heat and by leakage. Efficiency: When flow rate increases in small amount, the efficiency will increase much more but the increase of efficiency will be low as it reaches a maximum value in the region of the rated capacity of the pump, and then falls, as flow rate approaches the zero head value. Procedure: First take the reading of the energy meter after rotating one full revolution, note down the time required for that. Now fill the tank by water and start the centrifugal pump. Keep it at a constant value of volumetric flow rate. Note down the time required to fill the upper tank. Note down the manometer readings for both suction and delivery. Also measure the rpm of the pump using techometer. Then note down the reading of the energy meter and what time it takes to complete one revolution.
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Schematic Diagram: -

1. Collection tank, 2. Reservoir, 3. Valve, 4. Suction point, 5. Pump,


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6. Flow rate button, 7. Discharge point, 9. Energy meter. Observations: 1. Energy meter constant = Rev/kw 2. Height difference between suction and discharge pressure tapings= Observation Table: Suction pressure (m Hg) Dischar ge pressure (m Hg) Time required for one revolution of Energ y meter Time required to fill calibrated tank T2 (s) Volumetric flow rate Q (m3/ s)

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Result Table: Total head developed H (m) F HP (K w) Power consumpti on (Kw/h B HP (K w)

Conclusion: Industrial Application: th

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Exercises:1. What is a self priming pump? 2. How do the capacity, head developed and efficiency vary with the speed of the impeller? 3. Study all the information regarding pump and motor given on the name plate and explain the significance of each item. 4. Explain the term cavitations and NPSH. How does each influence the efficiency of the pump? 5. How does a centrifugal pump differ from a reciprocating pump? 6. What are the affinity laws associated with dynamics pumps? 7. How can I quickly estimate the horsepower of a pump? 8. How can I estimate the efficiency of a pump? 9. What is the significance of the minimum flow required by a pump? 10. How can I determine the largest impeller that a pump can handle? 11. How can I develop a pump curve for an existing system? 12. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using gear pumps? 13. What is the best way to control a positive displacement pump?

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Experiment No. 12 Study the relationship between friction factor and Reynolds number for packed column.
Aim: - To obtain the relationship between modified friction factor and Reynolds number for flow of fluid through packed column. Apparatus: - Packed column with two pressure tapings, manometer, stopwatch, water circulation system. Chemicals: - Water Theory: - In several chemical processes liquid or gas flows though beds of solid particles. To estimate the pressure drop required to maintain the flow of the fluid in a bed of solid method of converting fluid friction is the bed with geometry of the column. The property of fluid and condition of flow are desirable.

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Procedure: Fill the reservoir with water. Open the valve on suction line fully and start the pump till at low flow rate water flows through the packed column. Remove air bubble if any from pressure tapings. Note down the manometric reading. Note down the time required for water collected. Department of Chemical Engineering

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Schematic Diagram: -

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1. Collection tank. 2. Reservoir. 3. Valve. 4. Centrifugal pump. 5. Manometer. 6. Packed column. Observations: 1. Inside diameter of packing (D ) = Cm i 2. Outside diameter of packing (D ) = Cm o 3. Length of packing = Cm 4. Packing height of column = Cm 5. Porosity of bed ( ) = 6. Viscosity of water ( ) = cp 7. Inside diameter of column = 8. Weight of packed bed = gm 9. Density of packing = dm/cc 10. Volume of water = cc Cm

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Observation Table: Time Required (Sec) Manometric reading (Cm) Volumetric flow Rate (cc/sec)

u Velocity
(Cm/sec)

Result Table:
2

Dyne/Cm

Re

OBS

TH

Conclusion: th

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Industrial Application: Department of Chemical Engineering

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Exercises:1. Why is the packed tower not to be operated at flooding velocity? 2. Compare the experimental value of pressure drop with the calculated values. 3. How will the operating conditions of a packed column be affected if one of the fluids contained purely suspended solids? 4. What are the different types of packing used in industry and how do they compare with one another?

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Experiment No. 13 Study of the resistance offered by various pipe fittings


Aim: -To determine the resistance offered by various pipe fittings and express them in terms of equipment straight pipe length. Apparatus: - A test section is having fittings such as globe value, reducer, and expander with proper pressure tapings, manometer, and reservoir to supply test fluid, pump, and stopwatch. Theory: - The method used to join pieces or tubing depends on part of the properties of the material but primarily on the thickness of the wall. Thick-walled tubular products are usually connected by screwed fittings, by flanges, or by welding. Pieces of thin walled tubing are joined by soldering or by compression or flare fittings. Pipe made of brittle materials like glass or carbon or cast iron is joined by flanges or bel-spigot joints. When screwed fittings are used, the ends of the pipe are threaded externally with a threading tool. The thread is tapered, and the few threads farthest from the end of the pipe are imperfect, so that a tight joint is formed when the pipe is screwed into a fitting. Threading weakens the pipe wall, and the fittings are generally weaker than the pipe itself; when screwed fittings are used, so, a higher schedule number is needed than with other types of joints. Screwed fittings are standardized for pipe sizes up to 12 in., but because of the difficulty of threading and handling large pipe, they are rarely used in the field with pipe larger than 3 in. Flanges are matching disks or rings of metal bolted together and compressing a gasket between their faces. The flanges themselves are attached to the pipe by screwing them on or by welding or brazing. A flange with no opening, used to close a pipe, is called a blind flange or a blank flange. For joining pieces of large steel pipe in process piping, especially for highpressure service, welding has become the standard method. When a fluid passes through a pipe, resistance is offered by the pipe to the flow of fluid can be estimated by using Fannings equation. Various fittings are using piping to join two lengths of pipes, to change direction of flow. Fittings and valves disturb the normal flow lines and cause friction. In short lines with many fittings, the friction loss from the fittings may be greater than that from straight pipe. The friction loss from fittings is found from as equation similar to friction loss due to sudden expansion of cross section and friction loss from sudden contraction of cross-section as follows respectively,

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Procedure: Start the pump and run it at low speed so that water flows through the test section at a very low flow rate. Remove the air bubbles and attach the tapings to the respective manometers. The manometers for globe valve should contain Hg as all other may have CCl 4 as manometer fluid. Increase the flow rate through test section to such a flow rate that manometer reading is at least 1 cm. Measure the flow rate. Note down readings and repeat the procedure. Schematic Diagram: Observations: 1. Internal diameter of pipe = 2. Viscosity of water = cp 3. Volume of water = cc Observation Table: For straight pipe Rm (Cm)
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Cm

For elbow R (Cm)


m1

For reducer R (Cm)


m2

For expander Rm3 (Cm)

Time (sec)

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Calculations: -

Result Table: Equivalent length of Elbow Equivalent of Expander length Equivalent of Reducer length

Conclusion: Industrial Application: Exercises:1. How will the equivalent length of an elbow or a globe valve be affected if the liquid contains traces of solids suspended in the liquid? 2. Why is globe valve used in industry in spite of its high resistance to flow? 3. What is the function of Check Valve? 4. Why should the number of fittings employed in the piping system be a minimum? 5. What types of valves are recommended for slurry services? 6. Should slurry pipes be sloped during horizontal runs?
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