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Lesson 7: Past Simple - Past Continuous

Lesson 7: Past Simple - Past Continuous The Past Simple Concept and Formation The Past Simple

The Past Simple

Concept and Formation

The Past Simple expresses:

1)

Single actions which happened in the past:

My Dad bought a new car last month

2)

Actions which happened on a regular basis in the past:

I played football almost every weekend last year

3)

A long continuous action in the past.

My aunt worked in the same company for nearly fifty years

Formation Past Simple

To make the Past Simple tense we usually add -ED to the infinitive form:

talk - talkED, work - workED, play - playED

If the the last letter of the infinitive is E, then we only add -D:

save - saveD, move - moveD, live - liveD

If the last three letters of the infinitive are: consonant vowel consonant:

we must double the last consonant:

e.g. shop, shoPed, plan - planNed, prefer - preferRed

If a verb has only three letters and ends in -ay, for example: say, then the Past Simple is formed with -AID:

say - sAID, pay - pAID, lay - lAID

But many verbs in English have an irregular spelling in the Past Simple. It is necessary to learn them individually, e.g. come came, bring brought, fight fought

Questions and negative statements

When we make questions and negations in the Past Simple we must use DID:

Did you catch a train to London? No, I didn’t catch a train, I caught a bus.

DID is the past tense of the auxiliary verb to do.

(Note: When we use DID, normally the verb stays in its infinitive form - without to.)

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Lesson 7: Past Simple - Past Continuous

Lesson 7: Past Simple - Past Continuous In the Present Simple we add S to form

In the Present Simple we add S to form the third person singular, e.g. he/she/it walkS. But in the Simple Past there is no change in the third person singular. It is the same for all the person, singular and plural. It doesn't matter if it is regular or irregular.

The past tense of the verb TO FINISH (a regular verb)

I lived, you lived, he lived, she lived, it lived, we lived, you lived, they lived (all the same, no changes)

The past tense of the verb TO GO (an irregular verb)

I went, you went, he went, she went, it went, we went, you went, they went(all the persons are the same)

And TO DO

I did, you did, he did, she did, it did, we did, you did, they did (no change in the past)

To convert an affirmative statement into a question, we must put the auxiliary verb DID before the subject. The form of the principal verb is in the infinitive (without to):

Affirmative Statement

Question

I finished

Did I finish?

You finished

Did you finish?

He finished

Did he finish?

She finished

Did she finish?

It finished

Did it finish?

We finished

Did we finish?

You finished

Did you finish?

They finished

Did they finish?

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Lesson 7: Past Simple - Past Continuous

Lesson 7: Past Simple - Past Continuous To convert an affirmative statement into a negative one,

To convert an affirmative statement into a negative one, we put DID NOT after the subject and then the infinitive (without to):

Affirmative Statement

Negative Statement

I ate

I did not eat

You broke

You did not break

He chose

He did not choose

She drank

She did not drink

It got

It did not get

We left

We did not leave

You sold

You did not sell

They wrote

They did not write

In spoken English, the contraction DIDN'T is usually used.

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Lesson 7: Past Simple - Past Continuous

Lesson 7: Past Simple - Past Continuous IRREGULAR VERBS The following is a list of the

IRREGULAR VERBS

The following is a list of the most used irregular verbs:

Present

Past

Present

Past

Present

Past

begin

began

break

broke

bring

brought

build

built

buy

bought

catch

caught

choose

chose

come

came

cost

cost

cut

cut

do

did

drink

drank

eat

ate

feel

felt

fight

fought

find

found

fly

flew

forget

forgot

get

got

give

gave

go

went

hear

heard

keep

kept

know

knew

leave

left

lose

lost

make

made

ring

rang

run

ran

see

saw

sell

sold

send

sent

sing

sang

sit

sat

sleep

slept

speak

spoke

spend

spent

swin

swam

take

took

teach

taught

tell

told

think

thought

understand

understood

wear

wore

win

won

write

wrote

       

TO BE

TO BE is the most used verb in the English language. But it is also the most unusual. This is because it has more changes than any other verb. All verbs in the past tense have only one form. TO BE has two:

I was, You were, He was, She was, It was, We were, You were, They were

Question form

The Past Simple of TO BE does not take an auxiliary verb to form questions and negative statements. The question form structure is the same as for the Present form, the verb comes first:

Was I?

Were you?

Was he/she/it?

Were we?

LINGUAPUNCTURE

Were you?

Were they?

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Lesson 7: Past Simple - Past Continuous

The negative form

Lesson 7: Past Simple - Past Continuous The negative form Negative sentences are formed in the

Negative sentences are formed in the same way in the Past Simple as in the Present Simple. We add NOT or

N'T:

I wasN’T

N’T = not

You wereN’T

He wasN’T

She wasN’T

Past Continuous

It wasN’T

We wereN’T

They wereN’T

Concept and Formation

The Past Continuous tense is formed by combining the past tense of the auxiliary verb BE with the ING form of a main verb.

One of the principal uses of the Past Continuous is to express actions that were in progress at a certain moment of time in the past:

She was drinking coffee when I saw her

- when we use the Past Continuous we usually say the time when the action happened:

at 10 a.m., in the evening, when I saw her, etc

- for simultaneous continuous actions in the past, we usually connect them with while

Bob was parking the car while Anne was going into the store Anne was cleaning the kitchen while Bob was cutting was the grass

The negative of the Past Continuous is formed by putting not between the verb TO BE and the principal verb:

I was not driving fast (or wasn’t)

A question is formed in the Past Continuous by putting the corresponding part of the verb be first:

Were you driving fast?

Continuous actions and sudden actions in the past

Sometimes an action is in progress and another action happens suddenly. In this case, we use the Past Continuous for the action that was already in progress and the Past Simple for the action that suddenly occurred.

We use when to join the two clauses

Bob was parking the car when Anne called him from the kitchen We were playing football when it started to rain

LINGUAPUNCTURE

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