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Animal Nutrition

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1. Animal nutrition(animals eat too!!) 2. NutritionThe process which animals consume and utilize food.Feed efficiency= rate of gainTo insure proper nutrition the feed must also have proper nutrients to support the life processes of the animal.The diet must also provide a balanced rationBalanced ration- Total amount of feed an animal gets in a 24-hour period

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3. 6 Essential nutrients 4. ImportanceNeeded to insure lifeProvide lots of energyWithout all 6: problems in reproduction, lactation, body mass, and maturity can occur

5. waterTHIS IS SUPER IMPORTANT to EVERY diet!Helps dissolve and carry nutrients the animal eatsHelps control body temperatureHelps chemical reactions take placeAnimal bodies are made up of 40%-80% of water

6. carbohydratesProvide ENERGY for body cells which powers muscular movements like heartbeat, walking, breathing, and digestive contractions.Produce the body heat to keep the animal warm.Extra carbs are stored in the body as fatSimple Carbs= sugars and starches (easily digested)Complex Carbs= cellulose and fiber (more difficult to digest)

7. Lipids and fatsProvide energy and body heatCarry the fat-soluble vitamins in the feedHas 2.5 times the energy value of carbsEasily digested by animalsComes from veggie and animal sourcesFeeds contain 1%-5% fat

8. ProteinSupply material to build body tissueEssential for fetal development Needed for hair, hooves, skin, internal organs, and musclesThere are 10 amino acids essential for swine and 4 for poultry13 nonessential are needed by animals, but are synthesized in the body from other amino acids(ruminants)Monogastric have to get amino acids in their feed

9. mineralsProvide material for bone, teeth, and tissue growthAid in muscular activity, reproduction, digestion, repair and formation of tissue, and release of energy for body heatMajor minerals= those needed in large amountsTrace minerals= needed in small amountsLack of minerals leads to deficiencyAll minerals are inorganic

10. vitaminsAids in disease resistanceCarries out body functionsFat soluble= vitamin A, D, E, KWater soluble= vitamin C, B*Needed only in very small amountsAll vitamins are organic

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11. 5 different diets 12. maintenanceKeep em just the way they areDiet

consists of high in carbs and fats, but low in protein, vitamins, and mineralsDogs and cats that are matured are usually on this diet

13. GrowthIncreasing the size of muscles, organs, and bonesDiet consists of protein, minerals, and vitaminsUsually not matured animals are on this diet such as dairy heifers and weight gaining animals

14. reproductionBreeding stage or when animal is pregnantDiet consists of vitamins, minerals, and proteinExamples of animals on reproductive diet is any pregnant animal

15. lactationMammals with a baby (nursing)Diet consists of fats, proteins, calcium, and phosphorusExamples of animals lactating are those producing eggs and milk

16. workAnimals used for laborDiet consists of salt, water, carbs, minerals, vitaminsExamples of these animals include a mule, donkey, or a horse