Table of Contents
ABSTRACT 2
INTRODUCTION 2
MECHANICS 2
STUDY OF CURRENT MECHANICAL PROCEDURE 6
CURRENT MEASURING PROCEDURE 8
POSSIBLE ALTERNATE PROCEDURES 10
STRAIN GAUGES 10
ROTARY ANGLE TRANSDUCER 11
INFEROMETRIC TECHNIQUES 11
STANDARD 2DDIC 12
MATERIALS 12
PRELIMINARY BUCKLING TESTS 13
METHOD AND RAW DATA 14
PROCESSING OF DATA 16
ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 17
STEEL 17
ALUMINUM 19
OUT OF PLANE MOTION 21
GRIPPING PROBLEMS 22
DISCUSSION AND SUGGESTIONS 22
CONCLUSIONS 23
APPENDIX A: PROCEDURE 2.0 FOR THE SHEAR TESTER 24
APPENDIX B. DEVELOPED SOFTWARE CODE 29
INTERPOLATION PROCEDURE 29
STATISTICS CALCULATION 31
ESSENTIAL SELECTION FROM THE STRAIN EXTRACTION ALGORITHM 33
REFERENCES 37
2
Abstract
The aim of this bachelor thesis is to simplify the testing procedure of the Shear Tester
constructed at MTM by Steven Van Boxel. Tests were conducted using the existing procedure
(measuring strain with 3D DIC); the results were compared to tests conducted with the
proposed new procedure (measuring strain with 2D DIC). It is shown that the new procedure
can replace the old one and an updated manual detailing the new procedure has been written.
Also some data processing software was developed.
Introduction
In order to correctly predict how sheet metal deforms under different loads, complex
constitutive equations are required that take texture, strain rate, strain path, and prestraining
into account. Many models require information from a shear test performed on the material in
order to determine the parameters to these constitutive equations. [Flores; 2005]
Unlike the tensile test, the shear test does not have internationally agreed upon standards,
hence every setup and way of measurement is different. The machine constructed at MTM to
perform shear tests deals with a few design flaws. The result is that the time necessary to set
up one test and the complexity of the way to measure the strain field discourages the use of
the machine. Also, the results of the tests are strongly influenced by small changes in the set
up. The time span allotted to this thesis is too short to fix all the design flaws. However, an
attempt is made to make the machine more attractive to use, by testing whether the
complicated strain measurement procedure can be replaced by a simpler procedure.
Mechanics
Simple shear is a distortion where the net effect is that the top edge of a rectangular sample
has moved a distance s relative and parallel to the bottom edge. Figure 1.1 shows simple shear
in two dimensions.
Deformation zone
Clamping zone
Clamping zone
w
s
h
Figure 1.1 shows an idealized 2D simple
shear. The thickness t is omitted in the
diagram
Fs
FN
3
To characterize the motion of material points, two sets of axes are defined: xyz is the global
orthogonal coordinate system while XYZ are axes pinned to the material. It is clear that
x = X +Y tan()
y =Y
z = Z
(
(
(
(
x
y
z
(
(
(
(
=
1 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
(
(
(
(
X
Y
Z
(
(
(
(
x
y
z
(
(
(
(
= F
X
Y
Z
(
(
(
(
F is the material deformation tensor and
= tan() is the technical shear strain [Khan,
1995] . maps the material coordinates to the world coordinates.
There are many ways to define strain. Whereas material experiences necking and thus failure
at small strains in tensile tests, this is not the case in shear. Large deformations may be
realized and hence the rotation and stretching of the material axes becomes significant. Hence
describing the deformation with infinitesimal strain is not appropriate. Instead, Green
Lagrange strain is used; this tensor is rotation independent and can be used for large strain
deformations such as shear [Khan, 1995]. It can be related to
F:
E =
1
2
(F
T
F I) =
0
2
0
2
2
2
0
0 0 0
(
(
(
(
Here I denotes the identity matrix. GreenLagrange strain is the type of strain calculated by
the DIC software. The above expression is what the data should look like if the material is
truly undergoing simple shear; if the
E
11
entry is nonzero in a point, then the deformation
cant be simple shear. To compare shear strains,
E
12
is used. Taking an average of
E
12
over
the whole deformation zone and doubling this value should give the macroscopically
observable technical shear strain.
Stresses in the sample are difficult to describe, as well as very difficult to measure. To
balance the forces, the shear stress in the sample is should be given by
t
xy
=
F
s
wt
However, the force
F
s
also introduces a torque, and the force
F
N
must counterbalance this to
prevent the sample from rotating. This force varies in a nonlinear way along the edge of the
sample and is most outspoken near the edges; this results in an edge effect due to large
normal stresses. Due to the normal stress, the above expression for shear stress is no longer
valid. Finite element simulations show that it is only an average value over the width; the
shear stress near the edges is different, as shown in figure 1.2.
F
4
A corrected stress in the center of the deformation zone is given by
t
max
=
t
xy
1 f
e
h
w
This is the stress that relates to the strain in the center of the sample. The factor f
e
corrects for
the edge effect and is dependant on material parameters and some geometrical features. It is
determined through a finite element simulation. [Vegter, 2008] In this work however, edge
effects are neglected and the simple expression for the shear stress is assumed to be true.
Since tests are always conducted on samples with the same geometry, this should have no
influence on the ability of comparing different ways of measuring strain.
Until appreciable deformations, a simple shear resembles a pure shear. Pure shear is shown in
figure 1.3.
Figure 1.2. Shear stress and shear strain
along the edge of the deformation zone
[Vegter, 2008]
2
Y
X
x
y
Figure 1.3. Pure Shear deforms the
square to a rhombus
5
Pure shear is the deformation that occurs when only shear stresses act on the sample. A
simple shear is a combination of pure shear and a constraint that prevents displacement in the
direction perpendicular to the shear direction. The GreenLagrange strain tensor can be
constructed for pure shear. With the condition that the area must remain the same
(conservation of mass and hence conservation of volume in a solid), it is found that the length
of one unit in the material axes system is extended to
f =
1
cos
2
2
( )
sin
2
2
( )
Now that the length of the material axes are known after the deformation, it can be seen that
x = f cos
2
( )
X + f sin
2
( )
Y
y = f sin
2
( )
X + f cos
2
( )
Y
z = Z
Hence the material deformation tensor is given by
F =
f cos
2
( )
f sin
2
( )
0
f sin
2
( )
f cos
2
( )
0
0 0 1
(
(
(
(
The GreenLagrange strain can be calculated the same way as before.
E =
1
2cos ( )
1
2
tan ( )
2
0
tan ( )
2
1
2cos ( )
1
2
0
0 0 0
(
(
(
(
This is not identical to the simple shear case. It demonstrates that simple shear is not simply
pure shear with an applied rotation (as GreenLagrange strain would not be affected by the
rotation). The
E
12
and
E
21
elements are the same however.
Pure shear can be represented on a yield surface. Due to the normality rule, the principal
strains vector must be normal to the yield surface in the point that represents the principal
stresses [Van Houtte, 2010]. Figure 1.4 shows the principal stress and strain states in pure
shear. The principal axes lie along the diagonal of the deformation zone. From doing a shear
test and constructing a shear stress versus shear strain curve, determining the yield shear
stress gives a point on this surface [Vegter, 2008]. Simple shear can approximate pure shear
at very small strains in the center of the deformation zone where the normal stresses arent too
great [Vegter, 2008]. Yielding happens at very low strains; hence the simple shear yield point
is interchangeable with the pure shear yield point.
Knowledge of the mechanics of the shear deformation can also provide an estimate for the
yield shear stress given only the tensile yield stress. This can be achieved using a theoretical
model for yield such as the von Mises yield criterion. Using this criterion, one can estimate
that
6
t
y
=
o
y
3
where
t
y
is the yield stress in pure shear and
o
y
is the yield stress in tension. Depending on
which yield criterion is used, the estimate will be drastically different. In Trescas model, the
yield stress in shear is only half that of the yield stress in shear. This is why it is important to
obtain experimental data on shear to find more accurate yield models.
Study of Current Mechanical Procedure
Following is a brief overview of the existing test apparatus and procedure as described by
[Shore, 2010]. Figure 2.1 is a diagram of the machine. This is also the procedure that was
followed to conduct the 3D tests. The speckled test sample with geometry t<<h<w is mounted
into the machine by the use of hydraulic grips that can hold a pressure of 350 bar. This is
done carefully so that the initial tensile and shear forces read by the load cells are as close to
zero as possible. The test is started at the click of a button when shear distance and speed are
specified in the software. When familiar with the procedure, setting up each sample in the
machine takes on average 2030 minutes. Readings from the load cells and the displacement
sensor are saved to a DATfile.
c
1
,o
1
c
2
,o
2
c
o
Figure 1.4 shows an arbitrary yield surface
and the stress and strain state in pure
shear.
7
Figure 2.1: A diagram of the Shear Tester [Van Boxel, 2010]
Fixing a sample in the machine takes a long time. This is because the initial design of the
machine experienced some problems. Finetuning of the machine resulted in a more
complicated procedure. Following is a list of the problems and how they were solved.
 The grips by themselves dont exert sufficient pressure near the bottom and top edges
of the deformation zone. As such, the sample slips out easily, particularly near the left
and right edges where the tensile forces are greatest. This has been remedied by
inserting thin sheets of aluminum behind the grip claws. However, due to large
frictional forces on the sheets, little dust and turnings get lodged in between the grips
and the hydraulic wedge grip, causing the grips to get stuck after only a few tests. The
cleaning procedure to get the grips working again is time consuming. Perhaps better
dimensioned grips or a permanent layer of metal printed on the existing grips could
provide a solution.
 The shear force is not exerted directly on the clamps, but instead on the upper base
plane, which must then pass on the force through the rather thin base of the hydraulic
wedge grip. What followed out of the initial research by [Van Boxel, 2010] was that
the elastic deformation of the machine is not negligible. To minimize the deformation
of the machine itself, a supporting frame was built that tries to stabilize the wedge
grips as much as possible. Installing and removing the lateral fastening screws is time
consuming and the frame makes it hard to access the sample. This issue can only be
resolved by making the motor act directly on the clamps (as was done by the machine
built by [Flores, 2005]) since testing without the frame can damage the machine.
This investigation is mostly concerned with the way strain is measured. It should be
considered to solve these problems in the future.
8
Current Measuring Procedure
The machine is equipped with an ultra high accuracy displacement sensor. The initial plan
when the machine was designed was to use this to measure s and hence obtain the shear strain
directly. However, due to the elasticity of the machine, the displacement sensor can not be
trusted for accurate results. Hence it was opted to measure strain with the Limess 3D setup.
Two highspeed CCD video cameras are both level with the deformation zone and pointed at
the sample. The cameras are approximately .5m apart and the point in the middle of the
camera is .51m away from the deformation zone [Shore, 2010]. This is shown in Figure 3.1.
Figure 3.1: The setup consists of 2 cameras, both getting a different view of the surface
[Gom, 2001]
Before they are used, the cameras must be calibrated. This is achieved by taking various
images of a calibration plate plate, shown in figure 3.2.
Figure 3.2 A calibration plate
The dots are arranged in columns and rows and their size and separation are known. The
plaque is held in one spot as best as possible and rotated around on small angles. From the
different views the cameras obtain of the grid of points, the software can calculate the relative
position and orientation of the cameras as well as some other parameters [Ortheu, 2008]. This
is a difficult geometrical problem described in more detail in [Lava et al., 2010].
.51m
.5m
9
Every second (this number can be altered in the software, VIC Snap), an image is recorded of
the deformation zone from both cameras. Ideally, the recording is started simultaneously with
the test, since the recording software and machine software are different and run on different
computers. This is because there is currently no suitable analog output signal from the shear
tester to use for synchronization with the DIC system. The software developed for this work
attempts to compensate for this.
In a 2D DIC algorithm as explained by [Pan et al., 2009], two grayscale images (one
considered undeformed, the other deformed) are compared and from this the displacement
field is calculated. Figure 3.3 represents one step in the image correlation. First both images
are stored as a matrix of grayscales, in which the gray value of every pixel is stored. Next, an
interpolation procedure finds gray levels between the pixels. The type of interpolation used
(linear, Bspline) affects how accurate the correlation will be. The first image is subdivided
into facets (subsets). For each facet, which has a certain gray level distribution, a
corresponding area is found in the deformed image. In order for the gray level distribution to
be recognized, there must be enough contrast between pixels. This is realized with a random
black speckle pattern on a white background. The correspondence between the areas is
evaluated using a correlation coefficient. Many different coefficients exist and the optimal
coefficient will depend on the specific experiment. The search algorithms are very complex as
can be seen in [Bruck et al., 1987]. When the corresponding areas for all facets are found in
both images, local displacement gradients can be determined by finding the displacement
vector between the center of gravity of the undeformed and the deformed facet. The larger the
facets, the more certain the correlation, but the less local the information becomes.
Figure 3.3: A representation of 2DDIC [Pan et al., 2009]
The 3D DIC algorithm, as described by [Lava et al., 2010], is an extension of the 2D DIC
algorithm. It is described here briefly and represented in Figure 3.4.
In 3D DIC, 4 images are now to be compared: 1 image from each camera in the undeformed
state and 1 image from each camera in the deformed state. The undeformed image from
camera 1 is chosen as a reference image. A 2Dcorrelation is run between the reference and
the undeformed image from camera 2. This should be possible given that the grayscale
distribution and lighting is approximately the same for both cameras [Ortheu, 2008]. From the
calibration parameters determined earlier and with a process called triangulation, 3D positions
XYZ can be calculated for each point on the surface. Next a 2D correlation is run between the
reference and the deformed image from camera 1. This will find how much each point has
moved according to camera 1. A 3
rd
and last correlation is run between the reference and the
deformed image from camera 2. Since the cameras have not moved, the same triangulation
process can be used to compare the points in both deformed images. This yields the 3D
positions of the points in the deformed state XYZ. Comparing the 3D positions in the
deformed and undeformed state yields the 3D displacement field.
10
Figure 3.4: Representation of the 3D DIC algorithm [Lava et al., 2010]
From this, the displacement gradient tensor as well as strains can be calculated.
Possible Alternate Procedures
There many different ways to measure strain. Below are some that were initially considered.
Strain Gauges
The principle of a strain gauge is that it measures the change in distance between two points.
From this, the local strain may be estimated. Many physical phenomena are used to measure
this change in distance. There exist contact and noncontact (using lasers for example)
gauges. The most common strain gauge is one that uses change in electrical resistance as the
gauge extends to calculate the extension. [VTI] Two strain gauges glued to the center of the
deformation zone was suggested to calculate the shear strain, since most of the literature
suggests the simple shear deformation zone is mostly homogeneous. However, strain gauges
can only be accurate in cases of small strains, such as in tensile tests; strains associated with
shear are far too large for contact strain gauges. Also, due to the shearing, the glue would
easily come undone. There is also the question of efficiency, as gluing on the strain gauges is
arduous. Hence the idea of strain gauges was discarded.
11
Rotary Angle Transducer
This kind of device shown in figure 4.1 was used in the papers and developed by [Vegter and
An, 2008 and 2009]. A small metal fork with two pins is pressed onto the center of the
deformation zone. The fork is connected to a rotary strain guage, which can give an angle
read out over time. The authors of these papers showed that when the deformation zone is
sufficiently homogeneous, one value read from the center of the deformation zone is
sufficient to characterize the material behavior. This method would have great benefits in
terms of conducting tests more efficiently, analyzing them in a shorter timespan, and having
to store less data on a computer. As a reference, one 3D test can take up more than 1Gb on a
harddrive. Implementing the device on the MTM machine is however not evident. The
device is expensive as the rotary strain guage can cost up to 1000 euro. The pins of the fork
must also be precisely machined. Making a design of the mounting mechanism must be well
thought out. It must be made sure the pins fit onto the sample perfectly but arent loaded too
much, so alignment of the grips must be flawless. The fact that one side of the sample stays
stationary but the other moves means that the metal fork must also move a tiny bit for it not to
bend. All these considerations made implementation of the device within the given timeframe
unrealistic. If the shear tester proves useful, perhaps future work can implement the device.
Figure 4.1 Shows the rotary strain guage (a). The fork is hidden
Inside the block in which the shear test happens. Angle
o is measured
Inferometric Techniques
When a grid is slightly deformed and the undeformed and deformed grids are overlaid, an
interference pattern appears. From this pattern strains can be measured. This is the basis of
Moir inferometry. There exist many kinds of inferometric techniques all reliant on this basic
principle. [Post et al., 2008] Inferometric techniques can be more accurate than DIC, but tends
to be more complex and sensitive [Pan et al., 2008]. Since the aim is to simplify the procedure
and since 3D DIC is already significantly accurate, the idea of inferometric techniques was
discarded.
12
Standard 2DDIC
It is not obvious why [Van Boxel, 2010] decided to use 3D DIC to measure strain for this
essentially 2Dproblem. Possibly [Flores, 2005] inspired him, as he used 3D DIC to check
whether the grips on his machine were properly aligned.
The working of 2D digital image correlation was explained earlier in order to explain the
working of 3D image correlation. In some situations, 2D DIC has advantages over 3D DIC.
Computation time is drastically reduced. Assuming that the camera can be mounted perfectly
perpendicular to the sample, it has been found by [Lava et al., 2010] that it is more accurate
as well. Even though 3D DIC may correct for possible out of plane motion and non
perpendicularity, the 3 correlation runs per step cause an accumulation of error that is much
greater than a simple 2D setup. In fact, it is shown in the same study that the inplane strain
measurements have an error about 3 times greater than standard 2D DIC. There would also be
no need to calibrate the camera, only a scale would have to be given as input. 2D DIC runs a
faster test, a faster analysis and is possibly more accurate if planarity of displacement is
assumed and the camera is positioned perpendicular to the deformation zone. In fact,
according to [Pan et al, 2008], an angle difference less than 5 degrees from the normal to the
plane still only results in an error of .01 pixels in displacement error. It is recommended by
[Lava et al., 2010] and [Pan et al., 2008] to position the 2D camera set up as far away from
the sample as possible for best results. The issue of image resolution limits the distance hence
an optimum must be found.
Since cameras and software for standard 2DDIC are readily available, it was chosen to
compare this to the existing procedure.
Materials
Two plate materials were selected to compare 3DDIC and 2DDIC: an IFBADC06 steel and
AA6016 aluminum. Some approximate properties of the materials are listed in Table 5.1
(planar isotropy is assumed). The Gmodulus is calculated using the formula
G =
E
2 1+v ( )
with a Poisson ratio of .3. The yield stress in shear is calculated using the von Mises criterion.
Property Steel Aluminum
Emodulus 200 GPa 70 GPa
Gmodulus 77 GPa 26 GPa
o
y
140 MPa 160 MPa
t
y
80 MPa 93 MPa
Thickness .7 mm 1 mm
Table 5.1. Some properties of the materials used
13
Preliminary Buckling Tests
Buckling is a form of failure of a material that is characterized by unpredictable deformations.
A classical example of elastic buckling is the bending out of an elastic beam when a high
enough load is placed along the beam axis. Buckling in a sheet happens also under certain
loading conditions; elastic buckling behavior can be deduced mathematically for sheet
material [Marder et al, 2007]. Plastic buckling however is nonlinear and difficult to treat.
In shearing, buckling happens when the sample geometry allows for it. For the purpose of this
study, buckling is an unwanted effect since it causes out of plane deformations to occur. This
is then no longer a simple shear test. Some approximate geometrical constraints [Van Boxel,
2010] arrived at to prevent buckling were
t
h
>
2t
max
1v ( )
3t
2
Gq
w
h
> 7.5
Here
t
max
is the shear stress that can be attained before the sample buckles. A typical value
for
q is .01 [Van Boxel]. If no buckling can occur before
t
max
=100 then the
thickness/height ratio in aluminum must be at least .13 whereas in steel it has to be .077.
Hence if a height of 6 mm was chosen, a width of 45 mm would suffice and thicknesses of
.76 mm for aluminum and .46 mm for steel.
[Shore, 2010] suggests taking a deformation zone height of 3 mm. To be able to measure the
strain with a contact method such as the rotary angle transducer (if such a device were ever
installed) a larger deformation zone is necessary.
At the earliest stage of the project, the camera system was not available. However, since the
mechanical procedure complex, it was worthwhile to conduct some tests for qualitative data
and gain familiarity with the practicalities of the experimental method. Tests were conducted
on steel samples of varying width; they were sheared with
h =6mmto a maximum value of
s. It was attempted to estimate with the naked eye at what s the sample started buckling. This
attempt was unsuccessful, as the buckling seems to happen gradually. Also, the out of plane
deformation could only be noticed by running a finger across the surface; it couldnt be
noticed visibly. Even then it was difficult to detect. The tests were interrupted when slipping
out of the grips became evident, typically at a displacement of 20 mm. Figure 6.1 shows an
image of 4 marked up samples. All samples look very different; this is because at this stage of
the investigation many variables were altered at once to observe their effect. An example was
conducting a test without aluminum shims.
Figure 6.1: Samples of different widths tested for buckling with a height of 6mm
14
Some observations include:
 Buckling was not noticeable in the force vs. time plots. This points to plastic buckling
happening very gradually.
 Buckling was only noticeable in the two smallest samples by running a finger across
the surface. No noticeable buckling occurred on the two larger ones, at least not with
this course method.
 The size of the slip zone seems to be larger on one side when one of the clamping
zones is smaller. To minimize this effect, the deformation zone should be marked and
lie as close to the middle as possible.
 The slip zone expands as deformations get larger. It expands most in the corners
where there is tension.
 The aluminum shims inserted between the grips and the clamp are necessary. The
40mm width test shows that the slip zone is significantly larger when no shims are
used.
 The recorded normal force seems to vary randomly for the first few minutes of the
test before rising monotonously. Positive values denote tension.
There was no evidence to conclude on whether or when buckling was happening. The finger
method was too rough. To be safe, it was decided to trust the criteria by Van Boxel and
continue testing on samples of width 50mm. Also it was decided to end the test at
s =8mm.
In an ideal test, this would already be an engineering strain of 133% and a shear angle of
= tan
1
8
6

\

.
 = 53.1; this is more than enough to compare tests and it reduces the time for
one test significantly. Due to the large slip zones however, such large deformations can never
be reached.
Method and Raw Data
Tests were conducted first using the procedure outlined in [Shore, 2010]. Then tests were
conducted using the new procedure, outlined in Appendix A. First steel was tested. The raw
data of displacement, shear force and tensile force readouts over time is written to a DATfile
by the computer connected to the machine. Figure 7.1 shows shear load and tensile load of 4
tests on steel. Graphs of tests on aluminum looked very similar.
15
Figure 7.1 Force versus time in steel for 4 tests. Tensile loads are represented by blue curves,
shear loads by pink.
Between tests, the shear load over time looks approximately the same, but tensile load always
looks very different. As long as the tensile force remains much smaller than the shear force,
the impact should be minimal. It shows however that even though careful reproduction of
starting conditions for tests still doesnt produce the same results for each test. So a test
conducted in the shear tester is very sensitive to starting conditions.
The computer connected to the camera initially just saves images at certain points in time. An
analog.csv file is created as well to document when each image was recorded. To conduct a
3D analysis, 2 images are taken at once with two different cameras, while 2D analysis
requires only 1 image. The images are then loaded into software that analyses the
development of the speckle pattern. After the analysis, the displacement field and strains are
calculated for various points in every image. All this information can then be exported as
CSVfiles. For each image, the software produces a color map as shown in Figure 7.2 for
every calculated value. Figure 7.2 shows
E
12
of the Lagrangian strain tensor over the
deformation zone in the last image of two tests; the first was a test on steel, the second a test
on aluminum.
Figure 7.2 Color map of
E
12
in a test on steel and on aluminum
16
In the first image, the colors range from .006 in the red to .186 in the magenta. In the second
image the colors range from .018 in the red to .27 in the magenta. This is read on the color
legend that isnt shown on the image; the numbers were too small to read. Hues follow the
logical rainbow color order; red is the highest value and shades of purple are the lowest. The
reason the values are negative is because the shear angle is clockwise. It is interesting to note
that .186 and .27 correspond to a technical shear angle of 20.4 and 28.4 respectively. This
is the maximum value in the deformation zone and is nowhere near the expected 53. This
large difference is due to the sample slipping and deforming inside the grips. These slip zones
were already observed in Figure 6.1. This makes the deformation zone much larger than 6mm
and hence a displacement over 8 mm results in a smaller technical shear strain than expected.
Measurement with a protractor of the approximate deformation zone plus slip zones on
aluminum and steel samples did seem to agree with an approximate shear angle of 15.
A second observation is that the strain fields of all the steel tests were not symmetrical like in
the aluminum tests. A magenta spot appeared either in the lower right corner or in the upper
left corner. Possibly this was due to more slipping out of the grips because steel is much
stiffer than aluminum or due to unobserved and unexpected buckling.
The numerical data obtained at this point is the DATfile with force data, a csv file for every
analyzed picture and an analog.csv file stating when each picture was taken. This is valid for
both 2D and 3D DIC. The only difference is that the correlation algorithm is different. Further
processing of data can hence be done the same way for 2D as for 3D DIC.
Processing of Data
In order to compare the effectiveness of 2D and 3D DIC, the force data and strain data must
be combined. It was chosen to construct stressstrain curves, using the
E
12
entry for strain
and
t =
F
s
wt
for stress.
t is calculated from the force data by dividing by the initial width and
thickness of the sample. Finding a representative
E
12
is more difficult, since it is variable
across the deformation zone.
An algorithm employed by Van Boxel (reimplemented in Python by Shore) for the shear
tester was used to read in all csv files and produces one csv file giving an average
E
12
for
every image. The process by which this is done is as follows (repeated for every image):
1) It is possible the sample is rotated relative to the cameras viewing plane. This results in
simple shear happening parallel to an axis at an angle with the xaxis according to the
camera. The software can check whether this is the case by comparing the first frame and
another frame very early on in the deformation when the deformation field should be very
homogeneous. For all the points, an average 2Ddisplacement vector is calculated. Then
the angle necessary to rotate this average vector onto the xaxis is calculated. The rotation
is then applied to all the points.
2) The software then goes on to filter out points that have a value of
F
11
deviating too much
from 1. In simple shear, this value must be exactly 0, so points that deviate too much
from this are no longer undergoing simple shear.
3) The points that qualify for the simple shear criterion are averaged. This value is written to
the new csv file.
Some software developed in Matlab by the author then takes this AvgShear.csv file, the
analog file and the DATfile and combines the stress and the strain by interpolation. This is
necessary because the computer steering the machine and the computer steering the cameras
run on different clocks. The final product is a csv file with a strain and corresponding stress
column. The code developed by the author and essential excerpts from the python code are
given in appendix B.
17
Analysis and Discussion
All 3D and 2D stressstrain curves were combined on one graph. Also, a script was written
that samples the curves and calculates statistics about them. It is included in appendix B.
Steel
Figure 9.1. Stress versus strain in DC06 Steel
Figure 9.1 shows the stress strain curves of steel tests all overlaid on one graph. The curves
all follow the same general shape but flare out slightly. From this it is difficult to deduce
whether there is a difference in measurement (mean) or a difference in spread (standard
deviation) between 3D and 2D. With the sampling script, a plot was constructed depicting the
mean stress of both 3D and 2D at various strains. Also a plot of the standard deviation at
various strains was constructed. These graphs are depicted in figure 9.2.
Figure 9.2 Mean Stress in steel versus strain for 2D and 3D
18
The means practically coincide as the blue markers are mostly hidden behind the red. It
indicates that 2D and 3DDIC have about the same level of accuracy for this type of test.
Sample standard deviation of the sample was also plotted for various strains. The result is
shown in figure 9.3. It seems as though the standard deviation of the 3D tests is consistently
larger. It must be noted however that these tests were conducted first, so larger differences
between tests could have resulted simply from unfamiliarity with the machine. Variance is
Chisquared distributed and a hypothesis test at a .05 significance level showed no difference
between the standard deviations of 2D and 3D. Hence it is assumed the standard deviations
are the same.
Figure 9.3 Standard deviation of stress in steel versus strain for 2D and 3D
A confidence interval can hence be constructed for the difference in mean using a pooled
standard deviation. A 95% confidence interval band is shown in figure 9.4. The difference in
mean line always lies very close to 0. The confidence interval is quite narrow especially
compared to the large stresses that are reached. Hence based on this data, there is no reason to
conclude 2D measures any different than 3D for the shear test.
Figure 9.4 Difference in mean stress (2D3D) and 95% confidence interval versus strain
19
The main question arises from the reliability of the test. The Gmodulus is defined as the
engineering shear stress over the engineering shear strain. Doubling the values on the xaxis
of the stressstrain plots converts them to approximately the engineering shear strain. Then
finding the slope of the tangent to this curve at the origin gives a Gmodulus of only 30 GPa
compared to the expected 77 GPa. Also, finding
t
0.2%
by plotting a line with this slope and
seeing where it intersects results in a value of about 60 MPa, much lower than the expected
80 MPa. Its important to note however that this literature value was calculated from the yield
stress in tension with the von Mises Criterion; depending on which yield criterion is used, a
different value is obtained. Hence an experimental value is necessary. Most likely the large
experimental error in the steel tests are due to severe slipping out of the grips, already at very
low deformations. It could also be due to unexpected out of plane motion such as buckling,
which makes the plate appear much weaker in shear.
Aluminum
Figure 9.5 Shear stress versus strain in Al AA6016
As with the steel, the stress strain curves all follow approximately the same shape. However,
the elastic zone seems a lot narrower and better defined. Once the nonlinear part has passed,
the curves flare out. In figure 9.6, the standard deviations for 2D and 3D are plotted. From
this it is evident that the curves seem to spread out slightly as the deformation increases, since
the standard deviation shows a slight positive trend, unlike in the tests on steel. However, a
large difference between 2D and 3D standard deviation is not observed.
20
Figure 9.6 Standard deviation of stress in Aluminum versus strain
Figure 9.7 shows sampled means at various strains for the 2D and 3D tests. The means for 2D
tests lie generally higher than the 3D tests. This is most likely due to a slight change in
procedure that occurred between those tests. For the 3D tests, the whole sample was painted
and placed into the machine. For the 2D tests, only the deformation zone was painted. Also
the shims were replaced. The 2D tests hence had optimal resistance against slipping out of the
grips. Figure 9.8 shows the difference in mean and a 95% confidence band. The confidence
band moves below 0 indicating that indeed the means are different. The strain is plotted on a
logarithmic scale to show there is a small region where the means are not different. Probably
this is the elastic zone. Again this demonstrates that slight alterations in the procedure can
have drastic effects on the results.
Figure 9.7 Mean stress in Aluminum versus strain for both 2D and 3D
21
Figure 9.8 Difference in mean stress (3D2D) versus strain and 95% confidence interval
In terms of reliability, the tests on aluminum are much better than the tests on steel. A line
fitted to the start of the stress strain curves revealed a Gmodulus of around 25 GPa, which is
around the literature value. Also, using the .2% offset method,
t
y
was calculated to be around
100 MPa. Since this is an agehardening alloy, and the tensile properties were tested a few
months ago, its possible 100 MPa is an accurate value since the material became stronger
since. Possibly, because aluminum is a softer material, the grips have a better grip on the test
sample than on the steel. Less slip means more accurate results. Also, its possible that
because the aluminum sheet was thicker, it experienced less out of plane motion.
Out of Plane Motion
If out of plane motion is occurring, that is the speckled surfaces dont remain planar, the
strain measurement should barely be affected. The out of plane motion will be very small and
hence speckles will appear to move approximately the same distance in the xdirection.
However, measurements of stress may become highly unreliable. As the plate folds, the plate
can locally bend in favor of shearing. Far less energy is required for this type of deformation
and hence force readings are a great underestimate. To what extent buckling of the sheet
produces inaccurate results can be a topic of further study.
For further investigations, it would be best if out of plane motion were avoided altogether.
Possibly an indication of whether significant displacements in the Z direction are occurring
can be given through the 3D DIC data. Whereas the displacements u and v in the plane of the
sample are calculated, w is not. U V and W are calculated, but these are relative to axes fixed
to the view of the camera, not the sample. Plotting W over the deformation zone can give
limited qualitative information about out of plane motion. In figure 9.9, this is done for the
last image of a test on steel and aluminum respectively
22
Figure 9.9 W plotted over the deformation zone for steel and aluminum respectively
The color scheme should be interpreted carefully. The blues and reds dont necessarily
indicate regions of most out of plane motion; they indicate regions that moved away from the
camera most. It is reasonable then that if the viewing plane was at an angle to the deformation
zone, the top edge of the deformation zone underwent a larger Zdisplacement than the lower
edge. What is most remarkable however are differences in Zdisplacement on the same
horizontal line. This is most likely an indication of out of plane motion. How large this effect
is, when it occurs, how to calculate it and how to prevent it should be investigated further.
Gripping Problems
The most important factor jeopardizing reliability of the tests are gripping problems. It is very
difficult to reproduce the exact same gripping conditions for each test. Even the dimensions,
positioning and lubrication of the shims has a large impact on the results of the test.
Especially the bottom grip had difficulty properly gripping the sample, as was indicated by an
absence of teeth marks on the sample.
Bad gripping encourages slip and makes the stressstrain relationship less certain because
extra energy is dissipated through friction and the sample will deform differently inside the
grips than outside the grips. If work on this machine is to be continued, a permanent solution
to the grips need to be found. In the meantime, all tests must be conducted with carefully
dimensioned and positioned grips as to make the risk of slip as minimal as possible.
Discussion and suggestions
Overall, it is evident that 2DDIC gives very comparable results to 3DDIC. The
measurements are about the same, as well as the deviations between tests. Most of the error
and deviations between tests will result from slight differences in setting up each test. 2D
DIC testing is much easier and faster. It is not easy to quantify out of plane motion because
the Limess software doesnt provide the z displacement in a convenient form. Writing code
to remap the data is out of the scope of this project. Perhaps it may be worthwhile in a future
investigation to test whether out of plane motion truly has a large impact on the properties
tested in simple shear; it is possible the majority of the error comes from the problem with the
grips. To be safe when testing a new material, either a few tests can be conducted using 3D
DIC to test for out of plane motion or, when in doubt, the deformation zone height can be
reduced.
Most of the error comes from variations in the setup and problems with the gripping. To
increase test accuracy and precision, the actual machine should be analyzed and upgraded,
with emphasis on the grips.
23
Conclusions
In this investigation, the shear test was analyzed with 2D and 3D DIC for two reference
metals, aluminum and steel, with the goal of simplifying the procedure of measuring strain.
The mechanics and significance of simple shear and pure shear were explained in theory. A
discussion of the machine at MTM tried to clarify how simple shear would be achieved and
measured. The strengths and weaknesses of the machine were discussed. Test results showed
that 3D and 2D measurements are about equally accurate. It was therefore concluded the 2D
measurement procedure could replace the 3D procedure. Caution must always be exercised
when there is suspicion of slipping out of the grips or out of plane motion.
24
Appendix A: Procedure 2.0 for the Shear Tester
1) Turning the machine on (2 min)
a) Plug in the machine with the thick cable. This is done at a high voltage power outlet
near the white door.
b) Turn the machine on, first by turning the red button 90 degrees, then pressing the
green button.
c) Start the computer up with password Labohall. Start the Shearpanel software.
2) Setting up the camera (20 min)
a) Make sure the tripod is leveled, set up so that one leg is pointing backwards and two
towards the machine.
b) Eye it so that the main camera (the labeled one, the other is not used) will face the
deformation zone perpendicularly. Also it should sit straight up as much as possible.
c) The camera should be at a .51m distance from the deformation zone. This will
ensure minimal effects from potential slight nonperpendicularity, whilst optimizing
resolution.
d) Make sure the correct large lens is on the camera that will be used
3) Connecting the camera (5 min)
a) Start up the laptop with either password KUL or no password.
b) Connect all the cables by the laptop as shown. Make sure everything is plugged into
the power (the station should also have one big plug that can plug into the socket
splitter connected to machine) and the power button on the leg of the computer table
lights up orange.
25
c) Connect the wide and round cable as shown. The wide cable should have a white
label. If all is correctly connected, the green light on the camera should be on. If the
LimShot software is started on the laptop, the red/orange light should also light up
and the view from the camera should be visible on the laptop.
d) Troubleshooting: if nothing shows up in the LimShot software, check whether the
lens cap is off and whether all connections were properly made. The view may also
just be too dark, try to point the cameras at light and increasing the exposure. If all
this is done, consider a reboot of the computer.
4) Preparing a sample (5 min)
a) Mark the size of the deformation zone with a permanent marker. It should be
approximately in the center so the clamping zones are equal. Tape off the clamping
zones with masking tape.
b) Go upstairs to the composites lab. One of the fumehoods is covered with black paper
on the inside. Lay down a sample and spray it white. It should be completely white,
but the paint layer on the deformation zone shouldnt be too thick, otherwise it will
take too long to dry and crumble. Once the paint has had about a minute to dry spray
small black speckles over the white. This is achieved by holding the black spray can
at about a meter distance. The white and black paint spray cans are stored in the
cabinet to the left of the fumehood.
c) Once the sample is painted, remove the masking tape
d) Turn the spray cans upside down and spray until no more paint comes out. This is to
keep the nozzles clean.
e) Dont prepare multiple samples at once, the paint gets too dry and the test
5) Mounting the sample (20 min)
a) Ensure the upper grip is aligned with the lower grip by checking whether the
displacement reading is around 0. If it is not, start control on shearpanel, then jog
control, then align the grips with the jog control box.
26
b) Make sure the table bolts are loose, then crank down the table until a hand can fit
between the grips.
c) Turn the handle of the upper grip to clamp, hold the sample in the correct place and
slowly push down on the pedal. Dont grip it too hard yet, but it should just stay in
place. Take a piece of metal and push on the shim in the front so it stays in place,
then continue to drive up the pressure to the maximum. Release the pedal and turn the
handle to hold.
d) Zero the tensile and shear force by pressing the rst button
e) Put the side support of the upper grip in place. The supports should be each fastened
about 1/4
th
of a turn with the spanner.
f) Make sure the shear force hasnt changed too much; otherwise loosen the bolts a bit.
g) Crank the table up so that only the deformation zone is showing out of the grips. The
distance between the grips can be verified with a calibrated steel rod.
27
h) If the lower grip is in place, turn the lower grip handle to grip and press the pedal to
grip to the maximum. Also hold down the front shim with a piece of metal.
i) Play with the table height so the tensile force becomes 0 again.
j) Tighten the table bolts to 190 Nm with the spanner that is found in the lab with
fatigue tests. This should be done in a diagonal fashion: first tighten one bolt, then
walk around the machine and tighten the bolt furthest away from it.
k) Play with the table height again to zero the tensile load.
l) Put in place the side support for the lower grip. Tighten the bolts such that the shear
force is as near to 0 as possible.
6) Lighting and focusing (10 min)
a) Take one or two spotlights from somewhere and point them at the deformation zone.
Make sure no shadows appear on it. Also make sure the sample is sufficiently lit.
b) Open the aperture completely. This is done by rotating the thing at the front of the
lens. When the aperture is open, the view on the screen of the laptop should become
very bright with red spots all over the place. Turn down the exposure slider in the
program until no more red is in view.
c) Focus the camera by rotating the main cylinder on the lens. The speckles should be
perfectly visible in the view. Fasten the little screw so the focus is fixed.
d) Close the aperture completely. Turn up the exposure slider just before the point red
spots begin to appear on the deformation zone.
7) Start the test (5 min)
a) On Shearpanel, start control, measurement, new test. Give a name that makes the test
identifiable. Enter a final displacement as well as a test velocity. The velocity usually
stays 1 mm/min.
b) On the laptop, check into the options that the number of pictures taken isnt limited.
Also check the interval at which images are taken. Make sure the images will be
saved in the correct folder.
c) Start recording images by pressing the camera button. Make sure the counter is going
up. Then go start the test on Shearpanel.
8) After the test (20 min)
a) When the test is done depends on the final displacement entered and the test velocity.
Record a few more pictures and force values in time, then stop recording images and
stop the test.
b) Exit the recording software and open the 2DDIC software. One must have the
Limess USB key! In Project, open Speckle Image Folder and navigate to the folder in
which the images were taken. Mark off the deformation zone with the rectangle tool.
Then go to calibration, calibrate scale and with the second tool mark off the scale (the
width of the deformation zone should be known). Sometimes the rectangle marker
isnt shown. A reboot of the software should fix this problem.
28
c) Exit measurement and start jog control. Move the upper grip to a position so that the
shear force becomes 0.
d) Take off all the side support.
e) Loosen all the table bolts
f) Release both the grips to pressure 0
g) Take out the sample and label it
h) Move the upper grip all the way to position 0 with jog control.
i) When the analysis on 2DDIC is done go to Data, export Data and export as csv files.
Then close the program and start Limshot again.
j) For a new test, begin this procedure again at step 4 and skip 6 as long as the camera
doesnt move.
9) Every 46 tests, the grips should be cleaned and relubricated. Do this following the
procedure described by [Shore, 2010].
29
Appendix B. Developed Software Code
Interpolation procedure
%uses force.dat analog.csv and AvgShear.csv to construct
%a stress strain table that is exported as StressStrain.csv.
clc;
clear;
%width and thickness of the sample in meters
w=.05;
t=.0007;
%import strains (always in the second column of the csv)
strains=csvread('AvgShear.csv',0,1);
tilwhen=size(strains);
%import the times going along with strain measurements. Depending on whether 2 cameras were used or 1 (3D or 2D),
the times are in col 3 or col 2
coltimes=3;
times=csvread('analog.csv', 1, coltimes, [1 coltimes tilwhen(1,1) coltimes]);
%Construct [time (s) strain (greenlagrange)]
%divide timestrain by 1000 only in 2D not in 3D!!
timestrain=zeros(1,2);
for n=1:tilwhen
timestrain(n,1)=times(n,1);
timestrain(n,2)=strains(n,1);
end
rwstrain=size(timestrain);
%Recording of strain typically happened before the test was actually started. Therefore the 0 values must be taken
out at the beginning. There are slight fluctuations so => less than 10^3 except the first one. Since strain values
happen to be negative, check for whether it's smaller than 10^3. Also take off the first value of time so it
starts recording at 0 time.
accurac=2*10^4;
%construct a temporary storage matrix
timestrainc=zeros(1,2);
for n=1:rwstrain(1,1)
%check whether strain is larger than .001
if timestrain(n,2)<accurac && n>1;
%copy time strain to the temp matrix only from where the test started
timestrainc=[timestrain(n1:rwstrain(1,1),1), timestrain(n1:rwstrain(1,1),2)];
%set first strain value at 0
timestrainc(1,2)=0;
break
end
end
rwss=size(timestrainc);
inistr=timestrainc(1,1);
for n=1:rwss(1,1)
%subtract the beginning time from each time
timestrainc(n,1)=timestrainc(n,1)inistr;
end
%The test doesn't end when the set distance is reached, so an end point must be determined. This is seen
approximately in the dat file when the displacement ceases to increase.
%import the dat file
force=dlmread('force.dat', '\t', 1, 0);
%keep only [time, motor position, linear position, shear force]. Use motor position to check when test is done. Acc
is the interval between motor positions used to check.
acc=.001;
timestressc=[force(:,2), force(:,3), force(:,4), force(:,5)];
rws=size(timestressc);
timestress=zeros(1,4);
%only rows are copied where the machine hasn't stopped
for n=1:rws(1,1)
%difference between the current element of motor pos and the next
valy=timestressc(n+1,2)timestressc(n,2);
%check whether difference exceeds acc
if abs(valy)>acc && n<rws(1,1)1;
%if so copy the row into the real matrix of force
timestress(n,:)=[force(n,2), force(n,3), force(n,4), force(n,5)];
else
break
end
end
rws=size(timestress);
for n=1:rws(1,1)
%convert all values of force to MPa
timestress(n,4)=timestress(n,4)/10^3/w/t;
end
%Now the timestrain is truncated to the time when the test ended
timestrain=zeros(1,2);
for n=1:rwss(1,1)
%find the row where the strain recording time stays smaller than the force recording time when the test
30
ended. Copy rows until then.
if timestrainc(n,1)<timestress(rws(1,1),1);
timestrain(n,:)=timestrainc(n,:);
else
break
end
end
rwsstrain=size(timestrain);
%Do the interpolation procedure here.
stressstrain=zeros(1,2);
largestval=floor(timestress(rws(1,1),1));
%the end point in the strain data (how many rows)
endpoint=rwsstrain(1,1);
%interpol is the wanted strain value. Interpolation happens based on the force times.
interpol=0;
for k=1:rws(1,1)
%accuire the first time value
tx=timestress(k,1);
%loop over the strain values
for n=1:endpoint
if n>1
%determine the times where the stress time tx lies in between
tmin1=timestrain(n1,1);
tt=timestrain(n,1);
if tt>tx
%find the new strain value based on linear interpolation
interpol=(timestrain(n,2)timestrain(n1,2))/(tttmin1)*(txtt)+timestrain(n,2);
break
end
else
tmin1=0;
tt=timestrain(n,1);
if tt>tx
interpol=(timestrain(n,2))/(tttmin1)*(txtt)+timestrain(n,2);
break
end
end
end
%[strain, stress]
stressstrain(k,2)=timestress(k,4);
stressstrain(k,1)=abs(interpol);
end
xlswrite('StressStrain.csv', stressstrain);
31
Statistics calculation
%this script should take in the stressstrain csv data from a few %tests, both 2D and 3D and automatically produce
the analysis
%prerequisit: the csv should be set up so that 2D tests are first %then 3D tests. Also, tests should start at row
0. If the csv was %constructed with 3D tests first then note this in the script. The %data should also be ordered!
clc;
clear;
matr=csvread('stressstrain.csv', 0, 0);
s=size(matr);
s=s(1,1);
%number of 2D tests
n2=5;
%number of 3D tests
n3=7;
%vector of strain values to check at
vec=[.0005; .001; .0015; .002; .003; .004; .005; .01; .02; .03; .04; .06; .08; .1; .12];
leng=size(vec);
leng=leng(1,1);
%matrix with interpolated values
vals=zeros(1, n2+n3);
%loop over the tests
for k=1:(n2+n3)
%var that runs over vec
stran=1;
%loop over one test
for n=1:s
%check whether there are still values to the test if %there are no more values in the test, it
could be the %row is just shorter than the longest one or the test %actually didn't record up
to that strain value. This %script has not been tested to deal with the second %type.
if isnan(matr(n,2*k1))==false
%check where to copy the stress from
if matr(n, 2*k1)>vec(stran,1)
%interpolating and filling in to vals
vals(stran,k)=(matr(n, 2*k)matr(n1, 2*k))/(matr(n, 2*k1)matr(n1, 2*k1))*(vec(stran,1)matr(n,
2*k1))+matr(n, 2*k);
stran=stran+1;
end
end
if stran>leng
break
end
end
end
% now vals should be produced. a table statt is constructed.
statt=zeros(1,1);
for i=1:leng
%mean 2D and 3D ALU > 3D first
statt(i,1)=mean(vals(i,1:n2));
statt(i,2)=mean(vals(i,(n2+1):(n2+n3)));
%difference in means
statt(i,3)=statt(i,1)statt(i,2);
%standard dev
statt(i,4)=std(vals(i,1:n2));
statt(i,5)=std(vals(i,(n2+1):(n2+n3)));
%Are variances same?
statt(i,6)=vartest2(vals(i,1:n2), vals(i,(n2+1):(n2+n3)), .05);
%calculate S if variances are the same
statt(i,7)=sqrt(((n21)*statt(i,4)^2+(n31)*statt(i,5)^2)/(n2+n32));
%95% conf int
coni=.05;
statt(i,8)=statt(i,3)tinv(1coni/2, n2+n32)*statt(i,7)*sqrt(1/n2+1/n3);
statt(i,9)=statt(i,3)+tinv(1coni/2, n2+n32)*statt(i,7)*sqrt(1/n2+1/n3);
statt(i,10)=statt(i,9)statt(i,8);
%probability of a type II error > H1 is correct but you don't notice it. You have a tdist over 0, this is
your
%null hypothesis. what is the probability that the difference actually
%is statt_3 > best estimate?
sigx1=0tinv(coni/2, n2+n32)*statt(i,7)*sqrt(1/n2+1/n3);
sigx2=0+tinv(coni/2, n2+n32)*statt(i,7)*sqrt(1/n2+1/n3);
if statt(i,3)<sigx1
statt(i,11)=1tcdf((sigx1statt(i,3))/(statt(i,7)*sqrt(1/n2+1/n3)),n2+n32);
end
if statt(i,3)>sigx2;
statt(i,11)=tcdf((sigx2statt(i,3))/(statt(i,7)*sqrt(1/n2+1/n3)),n2+n32);
else
statt(i,11)=0;
end
%if variances are not the same, you can only set up confidence
%intervals for the two tests
statt(i,12)=statt(i,1)statt(i,4)*tinv(1coni/2, n21)/sqrt(n2);
statt(i,13)=statt(i,1)+statt(i,4)*tinv(1coni/2, n21)/sqrt(n2);
statt(i,14)=statt(i,2)statt(i,5)*tinv(1coni/2, n31)/sqrt(n3);
statt(i,15)=statt(i,2)+statt(i,5)*tinv(1coni/2, n31)/sqrt(n3);
%copy the vector of strains
statt(i,16)=vec(i,1);
%copy number of 2D and 3D in there
statt(i,17)=n2; %with steel this is 2D
statt(i,18)=n3; %with steel this is 3D
%confidence interval std 1
statt(i,19)=sqrt((n21))*statt(i,4)/chi2inv(coni/2,n21);
statt(i,20)=sqrt((n21))*statt(i,4)/chi2inv(1coni/2,n21);
%confidence int std 2
statt(i,21)=sqrt((n31))*statt(i,5)/chi2inv(coni/2,n31);
statt(i,22)=sqrt((n31))*statt(i,5)/chi2inv(1coni/2,n31);
end
32
csvwrite('stats.csv', statt);
csvwrite('vals.csv', vals)
33
Essential Selection from the Strain Extraction Algorithm
Main Script
# get the list of data files
fileList = shearFunctions.GetFileList(pattern=filterPattern, extension=fileExtension)
noFiles = len(fileList)
if noFiles < 3:
raise Exception('Only {0} files found. Not enough DIC data to work with.'.format(noFiles))
print '{0} files found.'.format(noFiles)
referenceFileNum = int(frameCorrAtPercent*noFiles/100)
referenceFileName = fileList[referenceFileNum]
# get DIC data for the frame to be used for rotation correction
(colLabels, data) = shearFunctions.ReadCSVFile(fileName=referenceFileName)
# calculate rotation angle required using the given reference file
(rotationAngle, pointsUsedinCalc, totalNoCorrPoints) = shearFunctions.CalcRotation(colLabels=colLabels, data=data)
# create a mask to filter out inhomogenously deformed regions. Initially
# the array is set everywhere to True (ie. all points are good)
totalNoPoints = len(data)
filterMask = np.ones((totalNoPoints,1)) == 1.0
# average shear data
avgExyWholeField = []
avgExyCentreLine = []
avgExySmallCircle = []
# loop through all of the files
for counter in range(noFiles):
fileName = fileList[counter]
print 'Processing file {0} of {1} <{2}>'.format(counter, noFiles, fileName)
# read each DIC data file
(colLabels, data) = shearFunctions.ReadCSVFile(fileName=fileName)
noPointsCurFile = len(data)
if not noPointsCurFile==totalNoPoints:
raise Exception('The file {0} has {1} data points, which differs from the reference file ({2}
points).'.format(fileName, noPointsCurFile, totalNoPoints))
# apply rotation to strain and displacement fields in 2D (Z displacement is untouched)
correctedData = shearFunctions.RotateStrainDispFields(colLabels, data, angle=rotationAngle)
# update the filter by checking the homogenity criterion (ie. check if the
# deformation gradient component F11, see Van Boxel Thesis)
filterMask = shearFunctions.FilterByDeformGrad(colLabels=colLabels, data=correctedData,
tolerance=defGradientTolereance, oldMask=filterMask)
# check if too many points have not been correlated/ filtered out
remainingPoints = np.count_nonzero(filterMask)
print '{0} of {1} (successfully correlated) points meet homogeneity criterion.\n'.format(remainingPoints,
totalNoCorrPoints)
if remainingPoints < (minPercentRequired * totalNoCorrPoints / 100):
raise Exception('Less than {0}% correlated points have passed the homogeneity test.
Halted.'.format(minPercentRequired))
# calculate 'average' shear strain E12 (various methods)
avgExyWholeField.append(shearFunctions.AvgWholeField(correctedData, filterMask, colLabels, label=exyLabel))
# the following are not implemented yet
# avgShearCentreLine = []
# avgShearSmallCircle = []
# save the result to a CSV file
shearFunctions.SaveColumnCSV(fileName='AvgShear.csv', colData=avgExyWholeField, labels=fileList)
"""Shear tester machine output processing functions
"""
#  function definitions 
def CalcRotation(colLabels, data):
""" Calculate the rotation correction to be applied to the shear DIC displacement/ strain field
reference Frame.
This is done following Steven Van Boxel's method by determining the angle the 'average
displacement vector' makes with the initial reference frame x axis. This assumes that:
o no significant vertical displacement has occured at the time the reference
files refers to; that the deformation gradient can be assumed to have the form
 1 gamma 0 
F =  0 1 0  with gamma = tan(theta), theta = the simple shear angle
 0 0 1 
o the displacement field is 'homogenous enough' (it should be! if not something is likely
wrong with the test data or the deformation is too advanced at the stage to which the
reference displacement data corresponds)
The algorithm works as follows:
1) calculate the average displacement vector for all points in the displacement field
2) compare the displacement vector for each point to this average, eliminate those with
a difference greater than "outlierAngle"
3) Recalculate the average, and repeat the above comparison until either the difference
for all points falls below "convergenceTestAngle", or the iteration limit set by
"maxDispAngleIterations" is reached
34
Note that outlierAngle > convergenceTestAngle
"""
print 'Calculating rotation required..'
# get displacements and strains. Note the label names are set in the file "shearConfig.py"
# note numpy arrays are referenced with square brackets, eg element = data[row,col]
horizDisp = data[:,GetColumn(colLabels=colLabels, label=UdispLabel)]
vertDisp = data[:,GetColumn(colLabels=colLabels, label=VdispLabel)]
correlationFlag = data[:,GetColumn(colLabels=colLabels, label=correlationFactorName)]
totalNumPoints = len(data)
# generate a boolean mask to filter uncorrelated points
filterMask = correlationFlag != 1
# variables for filtering outliers
converged = False
iterationNo = 0
firstIteration = True
newMask = filterMask
# main algorithm loop
while(iterationNo < maxDispAngleIterations and not(converged)):
# copy result from last iteration, increment the counter
oldMask = newMask
# for the first iteration the value given in "outlierAngle" is used
# to eliminate points.
if firstIteration:
newMask = GetMaskFromAngleTests(horizDisp=horizDisp, vertDisp=vertDisp, testAngle=outlierAngle,
filterMask=oldMask)
firstIteration = False
# otherwise use the value of "convergenceTestAngle"
else:
newMask = GetMaskFromAngleTests(horizDisp=horizDisp, vertDisp=vertDisp, testAngle=convergenceTestAngle,
filterMask=oldMask)
# check for convergence by checking if the number of points in the current and
# previous filtering operations is the same (ie. no more filtering is occuring)
# Note: Python considers "False" to have the value zero, and "True" as nonzero
converged = np.count_nonzero(newMask) == np.count_nonzero(oldMask)
iterationNo += 1
# get some statistics
totalPoints = np.count_nonzero(filterMask)
pointsUsed = np.count_nonzero(newMask)
if not(silent):
print '{0} points of {1} are being used in the rotation calculation'.format(pointsUsed, totalPoints)
# give a warning if convergence didn't occur
if not(converged) and not(silent):
warnings.warn('Convergence did not occur in {0} iterations.'.format(iterationNo))
# return the angle,the number of points used in the calculation and total number of points
avgDispVector = CalcAvgVector(horizDisp=horizDisp, vertDisp=vertDisp, filterMask=newMask)
rotationAngle = np.degrees(np.arctan2(avgDispVector[1],avgDispVector[0]))
return (rotationAngle, pointsUsed, totalPoints)
def GetMaskFromAngleTests(horizDisp, vertDisp, testAngle, filterMask):
""" return a boolean mask which is "True" for every vector (ie. pair of elements in "horzDisp"
and "vertDisp") which is at an angle less than or equal to "testAngle", wrt. to the vector
"avgDisp". "filterMask" is used to ignore selected points (usually uncorrelated points)
"""
# calc average displacement vector (Not normalised!)
avgDispVector = CalcAvgVector(horizDisp=horizDisp, vertDisp=vertDisp, filterMask=filterMask)
# calc angles between vector for each point and the average vector
numPoints = len(horizDisp)
angles = [0.0]*numPoints
angleTestMask = [False]*numPoints
for currentPoint in range(numPoints):
# preivously excluded points are skipped in the angle calculation
if filterMask[currentPoint]:
currentVector = [horizDisp[currentPoint], vertDisp[currentPoint]]
angles[currentPoint] = CalcAngle(vectorA=currentVector, vectorB=avgDispVector)
# return boolean mask for points whose vector makes an angle less than "testAngle" with
# the average displacement vector. Note this mask is implicitly ANDed with the given
# "filterMask"
mask = np.array(angles) < (abs(testAngle))
return mask
def CalcAvgVector(horizDisp, vertDisp, filterMask):
""" calculate a vector based on the average of the horizontal and vertical displacements
"""
return np.array( [np.average(horizDisp[filterMask]), np.average(vertDisp[filterMask])], dtype=defaultPrecision)
def CalcAngle(vectorA, vectorB, smallestAngle=True, degrees=False):
""" return the angle between two ndimensional vectors (should be two nx1 or nx0 numpy column
matrices or arrays, or two nx0 or nx1 Python lists)
setting "smallestAngle"="True" returns the smallest angle between the two vectors
"""
35
dotProductOfNormedVectors = np.dot( (vectorA/np.linalg.norm(vectorA)), (vectorB/np.linalg.norm(vectorB)) )
# calculate the angle in radians
if smallestAngle:
angle = np.arccos(abs(dotProductOfNormedVectors))
else:
angle = np.arccos(dotProductOfNormedVectors)
# return the angle in radians or degrees, as required
if degrees:
return np.degrees(angle)
else:
return angle
def CalcAvgNormDispVector(horizDisp, vertDisp, filterMask):
""" calculate the average normalised displacement vector for the given points, filtering
out the uncorrelated points using the given boolean mask
"""
avgHorzDisp = np.average(horizDisp[filterMask])
avgVertDisp = np.average(vertDisp[filterMask])
vectorNorm = np.linalg.norm([avgHorzDisp, avgVertDisp])
return np.matrix([[avgHorzDisp/vectorNorm],[avgHorzDisp/vectorNorm]])
def FilterByDeformGrad(colLabels, data, tolerance, oldMask, returnMask=True):
""" return a mask which is False for every point for which the F11 component of the
deformation gradient is greater than "tolerance" away from 1
"""
noPoints = len(data)
# remove any uncorrelated points (flagged as 1 by the DIC system)
correlationFlag = data[:,GetColumn(colLabels=colLabels, label=correlationFactorName)]
uncorrelatedMask = correlationFlag != 1
# apply the deformation gradient criterion
Exx = data[:,GetColumn(colLabels=colLabels, label=exxLabel)]
F11 = np.abs(np.sqrt(2*Exx +1))
defGradMask = F11 < (1 + tolerance)
# combine all of the above
updatedFilterMask = oldMask.reshape(noPoints,1) * uncorrelatedMask.reshape(noPoints,1) *
defGradMask.reshape(noPoints,1)
updatedFilterMask = updatedFilterMask.reshape(noPoints,)
# return the filtered data, or just the filtering mask
if returnMask:
return updatedFilterMask
else:
return data[updatedFilterMask,:]
def RotateStrainDispFields(colLabels, data, angle):
""" returns the data with the strain values and displacements rotated
by the given angle in degrees, within the plane of X/Y U/V Exx/Eyy/Exy
(Z displacement and gamma as calculated by VIC are untouched)
"""
print 'Applying rotation...'
# find data to be manipulated
Ucol = GetColumn(colLabels=colLabels, label=UdispLabel)
Vcol = GetColumn(colLabels=colLabels, label=VdispLabel)
exxCol = GetColumn(colLabels=colLabels, label=exxLabel)
eyyCol = GetColumn(colLabels=colLabels, label=eyyLabel)
exyCol = GetColumn(colLabels=colLabels, label=exyLabel)
# break data into components
rotatedData = data
U = data[:,Ucol]
V = data[:,Vcol]
Exx = data[:,exxCol]
Eyy = data[:,eyyCol]
Exy = data[:,exyCol]
# make vector and tensor matrices
UVvector = np.vstack((U.transpose(), V.transpose()))
EmatrixLeftColTopRow = np.vstack((Exx.transpose(), Exy.transpose()))
EmatrixRightColBotRow = np.vstack((Exy.transpose(), Eyy.transpose()))
# build rotation matrix
#
# R =  c s 
# s c 
r11 = np.cos(np.radians(angle))
r12 = np.sin(np.radians(angle))
r21 = r12
r22 = r11
R = np.array([[r11,r12],[r21,r22]], dtype=defaultPrecision)
# apply vector rotation
rotatedUV = np.dot(R,UVvector)
# calculate strain tensor rotation
rotatedExx = r11*(Exx*r11 + Exy*r12) + r12*(Exy*r11 + Eyy*r12)
rotatedExy = r21*(Exx*r11 + Exy*r12) + r22*(Exy*r11 + Eyy*r12)
rotatedEyy = r21*(Exx*r21 + Exy*r22) + r22*(Exy*r21 + Eyy*r22)
# reassemble data and return
rotatedData[:,Ucol] = rotatedUV[0,:].transpose()
rotatedData[:,Vcol] = rotatedUV[1,:].transpose()
rotatedData[:,exxCol] = rotatedExx
rotatedData[:,eyyCol] = rotatedEyy
36
rotatedData[:,exyCol] = rotatedExy
return rotatedData
37
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