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IPCC climate report: humans 'dominant cause' of warming

A landmark report says scientists are 95% certain that humans are the "dominant cause" of global warming since the 1950s. The report by the UN's climate panel details the physical evidence behind climate change. On the ground, in the air, in the oceans, global warming is "unequivocal", it explained. It adds that a pause in warming over the past 15 years is too short to reflect long-term trends. The panel warns that continued emissions of greenhouse gases will cause further warming and changes in all aspects of the climate system. To contain these changes will require "substantial and sustained reductions of greenhouse gas emissions".
After a week of intense negotiations in the Swedish capital, the summary for policymakers on the physical science of global warming has finally been released.

For the future, the report states that warming is projected to continue under all scenarios. Model simulations indicate that global surface temperature change by the end of the 21st Century is likely to exceed 1.5 degrees Celsius, relative to 1850. Prof Sir Brian Hoskins, from Imperial College London, told BBC News: "We are performing a very dangerous experiment with our planet, and I don't want my grandchildren to suffer the consequences of that experiment."
IELTS Reading: paragraph questions

There are 2 types of questions that ask you about paragraphs:


1. Paragraph headings - match the sub-headings with the paragraphs. 2. Specific information - which paragraph contains the following information? Try an example: IELTS Reading: Which paragraph?

For 'paragraph headings' questions, you need to find the main idea of each paragraph. I usually recommend starting with the shortest paragraph first. For 'specific information' questions, remember that one paragraph can contain more than one piece of information (e.g. "paragraph A" could be the answer for questions 1 and 2). Some paragraphs may not contain any information, so it doesn't help to start with the shortest one.

Both types of question are easier if you do the other question sections first (gap-fill, true/false/not given etc.). You will then be more familiar with the text, and you might even remember where some of the 'paragraph' answers are.

IELTS Reading: finding and understanding

IELTS reading is really a test of 2 things:


1. Can you find the part of the text that contains the answer? 2. Do you understand that part of the text?

Finding You need to be able to find the right part of the text quickly. I practise this a lot with my students: we decide which words in the question we need to search for, then we try to locate those words (or words with the same meaning) in the text. Understanding When you have found where the answer is, you need to read that part of the text carefully. Read the sentences before and after the keywords that you found. Then it becomes a test of your vocabulary knowledge: if you don't understand the words that you are reading, it will be difficult to get the right answer.

IELTS Reading: true, false, not given

Read the following passage about the scientist Michael Faraday. Michael Faraday, (1791 - 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. Although Faraday received little formal education he was one of the most influential scientists in history, and historians of science refer to him as having been the best experimentalist in the history of science. The young Michael Faraday, who was the third of four children, having only the most basic school education, had to educate himself. At fourteen he became the apprentice to George Riebau, a local bookbinder and bookseller. During his seven-year apprenticeship he read many books, including Isaac Watts' The Improvement of the Mind, and he enthusiastically implemented the principles and suggestions contained therein. In 1812, at the age of twenty, and at the end of his apprenticeship, Faraday attended lectures by the eminent English chemist Humphry Davy. Faraday subsequently sent Davy a three-hundred-page book based on notes that he had taken during these lectures. Davy's reply was immediate, kind, and favourable. When one of the Royal Institution's assistants was sacked, Davy was asked to find a replacement, and appointed Faraday as Chemical Assistant at the Royal Institution. Are the following statements true, false or not given?
1. Many experts regard Faraday as the foremost experimentalist of all time. 2. Faraday educated himself by reading books that were recommended to him by George Riebau. 3. Faraday came to the attention of a famous chemist after he wrote a book based on the chemist's lectures.

CORRECT ANSWERS FROM SIMON: 1. True 2. Not given 3. True This is how I deal with questions from the Reading exam that asks for T/NG/F answer: 1) True Many experts regard Faraday as the foremost experimentalist of all time. (historians of science refer to him as having been the best experimentalist in the history of science.) "experts" = historians of science "the foremost experimentalist" = the best experimentalist "in the history of science" = of all time

2) Not Given Faraday educated himself by reading books that were recommended to him by George Riebau. (...had to educate himself. At fourteen he became the apprentice to George Riebau, a local bookbinder and bookseller. During his seven-year apprenticeship he read many books, including Isaac Watts' The Improvement of the Mind, and he enthusiastically implemented the principles and suggestions contained therein.) "educated himself" = had to educate himself "by reading books" = he read many books

(as you see, there has been no direct reference from the passage that the books read by Faraday were recommended to him by George Riebau)

3) True Faraday came to the attention of a famous chemist after he wrote a book based on the chemist's lectures. (Faraday attended lectures by the eminent English chemist Humphry Davy. Faraday subsequently sent Davy a three-hundred-page book based on notes that he had taken during these lectures. Davy's reply was immediate, kind, and favourable...Davy was asked to find a replacement, and appointed Faraday as Chemical Assistant at the Royal Institution.) "came to the attention of a famous chemist" = Davy's reply was immediate, kind, and favourable...Davy was asked to find a replacement, and appointed Faraday as Chemical Assistant at the Royal Institution. "he wrote a book based on the chemist's lectures." = Faraday attended lectures by the eminent English chemist Humphry Davy. Faraday subsequently sent Davy a three-hundred-page book based on notes that he had taken during these lectures.

IELTS Reading: true, false, not given

Read the following excerpt from a book review: What constitutes the good life? What is the true value of money? Why do we work such long hours merely to acquire greater wealth? These are some of the questions that many asked themselves when the financial system crashed in 2008. This book tackles such questions head-on. The authors begin with the great economist John Maynard Keynes. In 1930, Keynes predicted that within a century peoples basic needs would be met, and no one would have to work more than fifteen hours a week. Clearly, he was wrong: though income has increased as he envisioned, our wants have seemingly gone unsatisfied, and we continue to work long hours. The authors explain why Keynes was mistaken. Then, arguing from the premise that economics is a moral science, they trace the concept of the good life from Aristotle to the present and show how our lives over the last half century have strayed from that ideal. Finally, they issue a call to think anew about what really matters in our lives and how to attain it. Are the following statements true, false or not given?
1. Before 2008, people were less concerned about economics. 2. Keynes prediction about working hours was wide of the mark. 3. The book asks us to consider what is important in life.

CORRECT ANSWERS FROM SIMON: 1. NG 2. T 3. T Note: a few people asked about the phrase "wide of the mark". It means "not correct" and is quite a normal phrase / idiom in English.

IELTS Reading: multiple choice

Read the following short text, and answer the question below.

The Eiger is a mountain in the Bernese Alps in Switzerland. Since 1935, at least sixty-four climbers have died attempting the Eigers north face, earning it the German nickname Mordwand, literally "murder wall" - a pun on its correct title of Nordwand (North Wall). Before it was successfully climbed, in 1938, most of the attempts on the face ended tragically and the Bernese authorities even banned climbing it and threatened to fine any party that should attempt it again. Since the first successful attempt, the north face has been climbed many times, but even today it is regarded as a formidable challenge. Which TWO of the following statements are true according to the text? A) The Eiger is the most dangerous mountain in the Bernese Alps. B) The north face of the mountain has an infamous history. C) The Nordwand was finally conquered in 1938. D) The Bernese authorities fined climbers who attempted the north face. E) Climbers consider the north face to be the worlds most challenging climb. CORRECT ANSWERS FROM SIMON: B and C A is wrong because we don't know whether it's the MOST dangerous - there is no comparison with other mountains B is correct. Infamous means 'famous for bad reasons' (e.g. the deaths, known as "murder wall" etc.) C is correct - it was successfully climbed in 1938 D is wrong because we only know that they 'threatened' to fine people. E is wrong - similar to 'A' - there is no comparison with other mountains. I hope you liked the exercise! B is too obvious. For C: Before it was successfully climbed, in 1938, =re-paraphrase: Until 1938, it was not successful to climb in = during: it was successfully climbed during 1938.

IELTS Reading: multiple choice

Read the following text and choose the best answer for each question. The term "IQ" comes from German "Intelligenz-Quotient", coined by the German psychologist William Stern in 1912, who proposed a method of scoring children's intelligence tests. Since the early 20th century, scores on IQ tests have increased in most parts of the world. The phenomenon of rising score performance means that if test-takers are scored by a constant standard scoring rule, IQ test scores have been rising at an average rate of around three IQ points per decade. This phenomenon was named the Flynn effect in the book The Bell Curve after James R. Flynn, the author who did the most to bring this phenomenon to the attention of psychologists. 1. IQ refers to

A) a type of intelligence test for children B) a means of rating intelligence tests C) an area of psychology 2. Flynn noticed that A) IQ scores were constant around the world B) IQ was a global phenomenon C) intelligence scores had gradually risen over several decades CORRECT ANSWERS FROM SIMON: 1. B 2. C 1. a means of rating intelligence tests = a method of scoring (children's) intelligence tests 2. intelligence scores had gradually risen over several decades = IQ test scores have been rising at an average rate of around three IQ points per decade

IELTS Reading: multiple choice

Look at the following question (from Cambridge IELTS 5) and the section of text that contains the answer. I've underlined the key words. Question: The writer suggests that newspapers print items that are intended to A) educate readers B) meet their readers' expectations C) encourage feedback from readers D) mislead readers Passage: A third source of confusion is the attitude of the media. People are clearly more curious about bad news than good. Newspapers and broadcasters are there to provide what the public wants. That, however, can lead to significant distortions of perception. Task: Which keywords in the passage match the keywords in the question? What is the correct answer? Why? CORRECT ANSWER FROM SIMON: B meet readers' expectations = provide what the public wants Answer: B

On the question, the phrase "newspapers print items that are intended to" has the same context as "Newspapers...are there to provide" from the passage. Also, on the passage, the phrase "what the public wants" has the same context as "meet their readers' expectations", which therefore makes B the correct choice. Choice D cannot be the answer because it is the forseen possible consequence of the real purpose of newspapers as stated on the passage. The leading word on the passage for this would be "however." The phrase "can lead to significant distortions of perception" on the passage has the same meaning as "mislead readers." This is a tricky question. The answer seems like B or D. The right answer goes this way: People are curious about bad news.(fact) Media provides what people want.(fact)--B intends to meet expectation It can lead to significant distortions of perception.(possibility)--D mislead So the correct answer is B. Because B is a fact which means 100% sure and D is not.

IELTS Reading: choose the title

Read the following passage and choose the best title from the list below. Future Shock is a book written by the futurist Alvin Toffler in 1970. In the book, Toffler defines the term "future shock" as a certain psychological state of individuals and entire societies. His shortest definition for the term is a personal perception of "too much change in too short a period of time". The book became an international bestseller, selling over 6 million copies, and has been widely translated. Toffler argued that society is undergoing an enormous structural change, a revolution from an industrial society to a "super-industrial society". This change overwhelms people, he believed, the accelerated rate of technological and social change leaving people disconnected and suffering from "shattering stress and disorientation" - future shocked. Toffler stated that the majority of social problems are symptoms of future shock. In his discussion of the components of such shock he popularized the term "information overload." A) A shocking vision of the future. B) What is future shock? C) The career of the futurist Alvin Toffler. D) A changing society. CORRECT ANSWER FROM SIMON: B is correct. A is wrong because the passage is about people's reaction to the future, not a particular vision of the future. C is wrong because there is nothing about his whole career. D is too general - the passage is about a specific reaction to change. We really need something about Toffler or future shock in the title. B is the best title because both paragraphs talk about future shock: the first paragraph contains a definition, and the second paragraph explains how future shock can occur.

My answer is B. The first paragraph tells the Toffler's definition of future shock and the second expresses how the shock take place in the future. I'll go for answer B because the entire passage is explaining about what the "future shock" means. First, he says it is the name of the book and also a particular mental state. In the second paragraph, he even gives it a more detailed explanations and samples about the "future shock", and adds "the majority of social problems are symptoms of future shock."

IELTS Reading: choose the heading

Choose the best heading for the following paragraph from the list below. Big data is a term being used more and more by politicians. It refers to the concept that any problem from underperforming pupils to failing hospitals can be solved by collecting some tightly focused data, crunching it and making tweaks, such as moving pupils or changing nurses shifts, rather than dealing with bigger issues, such as poverty or spending cuts. This is an approach that focuses narrowly on what works without ever troubling to ask: works for whom? Its watchword is smart, which can easily be appreciated, rather than right, which cant. Putting trust in highly educated technocrats, it is naturally less interested in public debate. A) How data can be used to improve society. B) Big data: a smart approach to politics that works for everyone. C) A sceptical perspective on big data. D) Why the public trusts technocrats more than politicians.

My answer is (C): 1st+2nd sentences: describing "big data"/defining it. 3rd+4th sentences: its drawbacks. So "A)How data can be used to improve society" is to general "B) Big data: a smart approach to politics that works for everyone." obviously contrasts with the information presented in the text. "D) Why the public trusts technocrats more than politicians." was not mentioned in the text. The only suitable answer is(C)
sceptical = having doubts, not convinced about something

Big data is a term being used more and more by politicians. Putting trust in highly educated technocrats, it is naturally less interested in public debate. the first sentence uses " more and more", but last one uses " less interested in" therefore, I chose C

My answer is C

Because the writer express many susceptible options along the paragraph (rather than, which, appropriate).

IELTS Reading: paragraph headings

Read the following passage about a chess-playing computer. A) On February 10, 1996, Deep Blue became the first machine to win a chess game against a reigning world champion (Garry Kasparov) under regular time controls. However, Kasparov won three and drew two of the following five games, beating Deep Blue by a score of 42. Deep Blue was then heavily upgraded and played Kasparov again in May 1997, winning the six-game rematch 32. Deep Blue won the deciding game six, becoming the first computer system to defeat a reigning world champion in a match under standard chess tournament time controls. B) After the loss, Kasparov said that he sometimes saw deep intelligence and creativity in the machine's moves, suggesting that during the second game, human chess players had intervened on behalf of the machine, which would be a violation of the rules. IBM denied that it cheated, saying the only human intervention occurred between games. The rules provided for the developers to modify the program between games, an opportunity they said they used to shore up weaknesses in the computer's play that were revealed during the course of the match. This allowed the computer to avoid a trap in the final game that it had fallen for twice before. Kasparov demanded a rematch, but IBM refused and dismantled Deep Blue. Choose the best heading for paragraphs A and B from the list below.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The first chess-playing computer Developers intervention is questioned Chess champion accepts defeat Program developers caught cheating A victory for artificial intelligence

CORRECT ANSWERS FROM SIMON: A) 5 B) 2

IELTS Reading: multiple choice

Read the following text and answer the questions below. The ethos of the aristocracy, as exemplified in the English public schools, greatly influenced Pierre de Coubertin. The public schools subscribed to the belief that sport formed an important part of education, an attitude summed up in the saying 'mens sana in corpore sano', a sound mind in a sound body. In this ethos, a gentleman was one who became an allrounder, not the best at one specific thing. There was also a prevailing concept of fairness, in which practising or training was considered tantamount to cheating. 1. De Coubertin agreed with the idea that: A) sport is an activity for gentlemen. B) schooling should promote both physical and mental health. C) sport is the most important part of a child's education. 2. In De Coubertin's view:

A) it is easier to be good at many sports, rather than the best at one sport. B) training is necessary if you want to be an all-rounder. C) training gives the athlete an unfair advantage. CORRECT ANSWERS FROM SIMON: 1. B (physical and mental health = a sound mind in a sound body) 2. C (training gives an unfair advantage = practising or training was considered tantamount to cheating) "tantamount to" means "the equivalent of" or "almost the same as"
1. B (a sound mind in a sound body) 2. C (a prevailing concept of fairness = unfair)

IELTS Reading: match the phrases

The phrases below come from Cambridge IELTS 5 (test 3, passage 1). Match the similar phrases from the two lists, and look up any new vocabulary in a dictionary. 1) a cross-section of socio-economic status 2) positive outcomes 3) supplied support and training 4) insufficient funding 5) scored highly in listening and speaking 6) bore little or no relationship to A) too little money was invested B) had nothing to do with C) a variety of poor and wealthy families D) the results were phenomenal E) guidance was provided F) were more advanced in language development CORRECT ANSWERS FROM SIMON: 1 - C 2 - D 3 - E 4-A 5-F 6-B

My students and I did test 2, passage 2 in Cambridge IELTS book 8 ('The Little Ice Age'). This is quite a tricky test because one or two of the questions are not in order in the passage. Here are some of the keywords that helped us to get the correct answers:

Note: 'far from' can be used to mean 'the opposite of' e.g. "I am far from happy" means "I am not happy at all".

IELTS Reading: similar words

Here are some of the key words and phrases that helped my students to get the answers to reading test 4.1 in Cambridge IELTS book 7:

uncannily: means strangely or extraordinarily


IELTS Reading: more keywords

Here's my keyword table for test 1, passage 2 in Cambridge IELTS 7:

Do you make keyword tables like this when you do IELTS reading tests at home? The more practice you do, the better you'll get at noticing the keywords and finding the answers.

IELTS Reading: multiple choice

Read the following short text, and answer the question below. The Eiger is a mountain in the Bernese Alps in Switzerland. Since 1935, at least sixty-four climbers have died attempting the Eigers north face, earning it the German nickname Mordwand, literally "murder wall" - a pun on its correct title of Nordwand (North Wall). Before it was successfully climbed, in 1938, most of the attempts on the face ended tragically and the Bernese authorities even banned climbing it and threatened to fine any party that should attempt it again. Since the first successful attempt, the north face has been climbed many times, but even today it is regarded as a formidable challenge. Which TWO of the following statements are true according to the text? A) The Eiger is the most dangerous mountain in the Bernese Alps. B) The north face of the mountain has an infamous history. C) The Nordwand was finally conquered in 1938. D) The Bernese authorities fined climbers who attempted the north face. E) Climbers consider the north face to be the worlds most challenging climb.

IELTS Reading: how questions are made

The people who create the IELTS reading tests do so by paraphrasing parts of the passage for each question. In other words, they choose a word or phrase in the passage that they want to test you on, and they write a question using words which have a similar meaning. The table below shows the similar words from last week's exercise:

Note: The words highlighted in blue were the correct answers because the same meaning was expressed in the passage and the question. The phrases in black do not express exactly the same meaning (e.g. the fact that climbers have died does not mean that it is the most dangerous mountain). These answers were therefore wrong.

IELTS Reading: do tests without a time limit

As I've said before, IELTS reading is a vocabulary test. When studying, make sure you learn some new vocabulary from each practice test that you do. Use a dictionary, and don't worry about the time. Use the table below to help you with the test on page 60-63 of Cambridge IELTS book 1 (buy or borrow this book, or look for it on the Internet).

This test contains difficult words like "corpus" (a collection of written or spoken texts) and "lexicographical" (related to writing dictionaries). Here are some more words that you could look up in a dictionary:

incorporate (e.g. they are incorporating spoken English into their data) verbal / non-verbal (e.g. a verbal warning, non-verbal communication) portrayal (e.g. the portrayal of feelings) convey (e.g. to convey feelings, convey a message) an initiative (e.g. a Government initiative)

IELTS Reading: the importance of vocabulary

IELTS Reading is basically a vocabulary test. If you don't understand words or phrases in the text, it will be difficult to get the right answers. Try doing the test on page 46-49 of Cambridge IELTS book 4. Here is some of the key vocabulary from this test:

When I did this test with my students, nobody knew that a "chronic" illness means a "long-term" illness. The words "disillusioned" and "sceptical" also caused problems.

IELTS Reading: practice test

Find the reading test on page 74-77 in Cambridge IELTS book 4. Use the key vocabulary in the table below to help you with the test. Don't worry about the time; just try to get all of the answers right.

Try doing the test on page 50-53 in Cambridge IELTS book 4. Follow this advice for the 3 question sections: 1. Which paragraph contains: Always do these questions last. Do the other question sections first to become familiar with the text. 2. Which ideas are mentioned: Remember, you are looking for ideas that are mentioned in the text, not ideas that are true. 3. Match the names: This is a perfect task for scanning. Scan quickly to find and underline the names. Here is the key vocabulary that will help you to find the answers:

IELTS Reading: practice test

Below I've made a table of key vocabulary from a reading test in Cambridge IELTS Book 1 (page 40-43). Try doing the test using the vocabulary table below to help you.

IELTS Reading: matching similar words

To find answers in the reading test, look for words or phrases in the passage that are similar to words in the questions. In the test mentioned below, you need to know that 'exaggerate' is similar to 'overstate', or that 'urgent' is similar to 'pressing'. The table below shows similar words/phrases for the test on page 24 of Cambridge IELTS book 5.

IELTS Reading: gap-fill

Read the following passage about creative writing. New research, prompted by the relatively high number of literary families, shows that there may be an inherited element to writing good fiction. Researchers from Yale in the US and Moscow State University in Russia launched the study to see whether there was a scientific reason why well-known writers have produced other writers. The study analysed the creative writing of 511 children aged eight to 17 and 489 of their mothers and 326 fathers. All the participants wrote stories on particular themes. The stories were then scored and rated for originality and novelty, plot development and quality, and sophistication and creative use of prior knowledge. The researchers also carried out detailed intelligence tests and analysed how families functioned in the Russian households. Taking into account intelligence and family background, the researchers then calculated the inherited and the environmental elements of creative writing. They found what they describe as a modest heritability element to creative writing. Fill each gap in the summary below using a maximum of 2 words. Creative writing ability may be ______ from parents, according to a new study. Researchers compared ______ written by children and their parents, looking at elements such as originality and use of ______. After conducting intelligence tests and allowing for ______, they concluded that there is a ______ link between genetics and creative writing.

CORRECT ANSWERS FROM SIMON: 1. inherited 2. stories 3. prior knowledge

4. family background 5. modest

The question types

In fact there are two question types here:


1. True/False/Not given: fact based 2. Yes/No/Not given: opinion based

In each case you need to decide if the information in the text agrees with the information in the question. You should note that in the Yes/No/Not given questions, you are normally asked to look for the writers opinions rather than facts.
The key skill

The key skill here is to understand that you are interpreting the text and the question. This means that you need to read very closely and pay attention to what the writer means. Dont think of it as a skimming question, rather a question where you need to read the text and the question closely and decide what the writer means.
A difficulty Not Given

The Not Given variation is probably what makes this type of question so difficult. How can you deal with this problem? You need to understand that:

Not given does not mean Not mentioned. Typically, you will the NGanswers mentioned in the text they simply dont answer the question You cannot add information that is probably true: you can only use the information given in the text

example

Water has recently been found on Mars does not make There is life on Mars true. If there is no further information, the correct answer in Not Given.
An avoidable mistake only focussing on key words

The typical mistake that is made here is: you see a word in the question and match it with some words in the text. People who make this mistake tend to underline key words in the question: Look at this example and think about your answer:
question

The writer claims that women on maternity leave often consider entering some form of further education because they are unsure of their career path.
text

It is a sad fact that many women who take maternity leave find themselves stepping off the career ladder, even though they fully intend to full-time work after their maternity leave is over. For some this is no hardship and for those who do wish to return to work there is no issue as they have legal protection. The problem category is those who are in two minds about what to do. These need to sit down and ask themselves some hard questions:

Do I wish to return to full-time employment? What are about working from home?

Would I benefit from doing a second degree?

If we underline or highlight these words, we are almost certain to get the wrong answer: The writer claims that women on maternity leave often consider entering some form of further education because they are unsure of their career path. If we do this, the answer is probably Yes as we can match it with women on maternity leave, women in two minds about what to do and Would I benefit from doing a second degree?. Sorry. Thats wrong. There is nothing in the text to show that this is what the writer believes that these women often do. What he does is say that this something these women should or need to do. The only way to get that answer is to focus on the whole question.
answer

Not given
Some practical tips 1. Read the whole question. Do NOT focus on key words. Think about the meaning of the question. 2. Be especially careful with words such as often and some. They can change the meaning of the question dramatically. 3. Be careful with questions beginning The writer says: here you need to think about the writers opinions and not about facts. 4. The questions will follow the order of the text: if you cant find answer 12, you know it must be somewhere between 11 and 13. 5. Do not spend too long on any one question. If the answer is Not Given, there may be nothing for you to find. 6. One possibility is to mark all the True answers and all the False answers and then guess Not Given for the others. A suggested procedure

Here is my suggested procedure:


1. Read the instructions carefully and note whether you are being asked to look for facts or opinions. 2. Look at all the questions and see what topics they ask about. You may note key words here, but only to identify the correct part of the text to read. 3. Skim the text to identify which paragraphs you need to read more closely. Note that the questions will follow the order of the text and so the answer to question 10 will follow the answer to question 11 4. Mark on the question paper which paragraphs relate to which question: eg, write 11 against paragraph E 5. Refocus on the question and read the whole question: be careful with tricky words like usually 6. Underline the words in the text that give you the answer. This helps you concentrate and also allows you to change your mind, if you find a better answer later.

A variation is to mark the True answers first as they tend to be the easiest and then go back to the False and Not given later.

For those who have no idea what I am talking about, Ill explain this task has a statement, and your job is to say whether or not it is True, False or Not Given according to the reading passage. How do you attack this question type? First learn the rule: it is True it is False

it is Not Given For example: Smoking is dangerous and can lead to cancer T, F, NG 1) If the text clearly says that smoking is dangerous and leads to cancer then the answer is T. 2) If the text says that No research showed evidence that smoking is dangerous and leads to cancer then the answer is F. 3) If the text says The research included smokers of both genders of ages 30 to 45 and nothing else about smoking your answer is NG. Dont make these mistakes: Dont assume anything based on your knowledge and experience, read the text! It is the oldest trick in the book and they use it a lot in IELTS exams. Dont overthink your answer you could start building long logical sequences that will lead you to the wrong answer.

Score 1 2-3 4-9 10-15 16-22 23-28 29-35 36-38 39-40

Band 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Remember the test gets more difficult as it goes on so you will probably need more time for the questions at the end than for those at the start. Maybe a guideline could be: 17 minutes on section 1. 20 minutes on section 2. 23 minutes on section 3.

Below is a list of the types of question that you could meet in the IELTS Academic Reading Test. It's useful to read the list of course, but the only way to really be familiar with the types of question is through practice on good quaity IELTS practice tests.

Multiple choice questions Short answer questions Completion questions: Completing sentences Completing notes Completing a summary (no word bank) Completing a summary (with word bank) Completing a diagram Completing a flow chart Completing a table Matching a bank of headings to identify paragraphs or parts of text Matching a bank of writers' views/claims/information with the writer Identification of information in the text: yes/no/not given questions true/false/not given questions Matching lists/phrases Classification questions

Reading tricks:There are several ways to do the passage in the estimated time. But the tactics mentioned below is just to overcome the shortcomings of time management for the reading passage ( 40 questions in 60 min) 1. Solve the passage according to this flow chart. This method is just to analyse which passage will be done first. Science Economics History Geography Civic Literature Autobiography # first attempt the science passage then economics and so on.( this trick is followed because science passage consist less synonyms than others and literature and autobiography is always with SYNONYMS so it becomes typical to understand it and consumes lots of time.)

reading: part 1 was very difficult, took me 30 min to complete and it was about bio-chemistry and nature , questions were very difficult and indirect. part 2 was about Tasmania tigers , moderate finished in 11 mins part 3 was about marketing and advertisement... moderate to a little difficult finished in 15 mins

IELTS Reading Tips for True, False and Not Given


True, False and Not Given questions are probably the most confusing type of questions in IELTS Reading Tests. You can actually answer these questions without reading the IELTS Reading Passage. Here are couple of pointers that you can use to make sure you get the T,F,NG questions correct with minimum effort. Before you start the Reading Practice test Look what are the instructions asking for? Does it ask for? Yes, No, Not Given Or True, False or Not Given Does it ask for a sentence or a three word answer? Keeping these things in mind shall we get started? Direct Answers 1. If article sentence is repeated as a question directly (sentence in the article changed to question in the question section) NOT GIVEN Example: In the paragraph there is this sentence, Children are particularly at risk as the thick hollow stems and broad fan-like leaves lend themselves to a variety of games. In Question there is sentence, Are children particularly at risk as the thick hollow stems and broad fan-like leaves lent themselves to a variety of games? (Note: If you think its TRUE for a moment, do not even think about it; most of the students get it wrong. Most of the times these kinds of Paraphrase questions will be asked in IELTS to trap students. Remember when you see this type it is Not Given!) Strong Words 2. If the question contains should, must, swear, pledge, resolve, etc these kind of strong words Not Given Examples: In question, Organizations should be legally bound to instituonalize day dreaming processes. Most children must be given space to day dream. (Note: there is nothing in IELTS world which is sure. When you read the articles in the IELTS test you will find that 80 % of the time they use uncertain words that are: may, might, seems to, can, could, etc). Range of Numbers 3. If the article gives range of numbers but the question is a specific number which is in that given range

NOT GIVEN Example: In article, The Indian revolution started from 1942 to 1947, and India finally got independence in 1947. In the question, The Indian revolution started 1942, and India finally got independence in 1947. Range of Numbers- Cont Note: Pay attention to point 4 and 5 these are tricky!) 4. If the number in the question is over the given range of numbers in the article FALSE Example: In article, The Indian revolution started from 1942 to 1947, and India finally got independence in1947. In the question, The Indian revolution started from 1942 to 1947, and India finally got independence in1948. Range of Numbers- Cont 5. If the number in the article is over the given range of numbers in the question NOT GIVEN Example: In the article, In his recent published book, Flora Britannica (1998), Richard Mabey devotes a whole chapter to garden escapes. In the question, The Flora Britannica (1998) by Richard Mabey is devoted to garden plants. Example: In the article, The Indian revolution started in 1942, and India finally got independence in 1947. In the question, The Indian revolution started from 1942 to 1947, and India finally got independence in 1947. (Note: In the article it is just one chapter in the Britannica but in question it is the whole book, so the article is just focusing on a one chapter and the question is mentioning the whole Britannica). (Note: in second example, you can see that, article is just giving a number, while the question mentions the range of numbers). If in article and question there is only a single number which is mentioned, Locate the information first and then just find the number from the article. 6. If the numbers and information is same TRUE Example: In the article, Flora Britannica (1998) was published by Richard Mabey and the writer devotes a whole chapter to garden escapes. In the question, Flora Britannica was published by Richard Mabey in 1998 and writer devotes a whole chapter to garden escapes.

Range of Numbers- Cont. 7. If the numbers and information is different, FALSE Example: In the article, Flora Britannica (1998) was published by Richard Mabey and the writer devotes a whole chapter to garden escapes. In the question, Flora Britannica was published by Richard Mabey in 1997 and writer devotes a whole chapter to garden escapes. Irrelevant Questions 8. The information in the question never appeared in the article, NOT GIVEN Example: In the question, Of the three pieces of Hesses work described, the first is the writers favorite. In the article, The article did not mention anything about writers favorite work anywhere. Conditional Question Good News- These questions are 80% False 9. If there are A and B two set of information in the article, but the question only mention A OR B, FALSE Example: In the article, Deforestation and fumes from vehicles may lead to environmental imbalance and can cause disaster. In the question, Deforestation or fumes from vehicles may lead to environmental imbalance and can cause disaster. (Pay attention to this point, its very tricky) Example: In the article, Weeds can be removed by hand and without the use of herbicides, in order to encourage bio-diversity. In the question, Weeds can be removed by hand or without the use of herbicides, in order to encourage bio-diversity

Conditional Questions-Cont. 10. If in the article A appears with a restricted terms, but the question only mention A without that term, FALSE Example: In the article, Weeds can be removed by hand and without the use of herbicides only when bio-diversity is needed. In the question, Weeds can be removed by hand and without the use of herbicides.

(Note: Question did not mentioned the restricted term only when bio-diversity is needed) Conditional Questions-Cont. 11. In the article, the sentence is A + some conditions that is (unless or if or provided or but or for or except etc statement) than or that of B, but in the question only A no subordinate clause B, FALSE Example: In the article, When American economy is compared with Japanese economy, we find similar consumer behavior, provided the market is global. In the question, American economy is similar to Japanese economy in terms of consumer behavior. Tricky Questions 12. In the article using possibility words odd, opportunity, chances, many believe, possible, likely, probable, seems, appear to, one theory is. etc But question changes to certain words convinced, fact, definitely, invariably, absolutely, universally, accepted, well documented, unanimously, perceived, acknowledged, all of theories..etc FALSE Example: In the article, Many believe that percentages of people who are involved in accidents are found to be under the influence of alcohol. In the question, Percentages of people who are involved in accidents are found to be under the influence of alcohol had been well documented. Tricky Questions- Cont. 13. In the article appearing different, various, varied, versatile, a wide variety of , diversified.etc But in question only, unique, sole..etc FALSE Example: In the article, Researchers at Bell college of Technology selected different varieties of deeper-burrowing earthworm species for mineral content improvement. In the question, Researchers at Bell college of Technology selected unique variety of deeper-burrowing earthworm specie for mineral content improvement. Tricky Questions- Cont. 14. In the article somewhat, somehow, someoneall But in question common, usual, normal, typical, etc. FALSE Example In the article,

The main town in the region called Southhampton, somehow is the hub of UK ports. In the question, The main town in the region called Southhampton, is a typical hub of UK ports. Present Past Questions 15. The article uses subjunctive , but the question changes to reality or a fact (would/may+ happen in article changed to happened in question) NOT GIVEN Example In the article, There may be little room for further development in residential accommodation of the Waterside. In the question, There is a little room for further development in residential accommodation of the Waterside.

Possibility Questions 16. There are some possibilities in the articles (not necessarily) But question just give one of those possibilities or situation (A, B and C leads to pollution in article pollution caused by A in question) NOT GIVEN Example In the article, Google, yahoo and MSN lead us to the way to information age. In the question, The way to information age is led by Yahoo. (Note: In article three companies; Google, yahoo and MSN are mentioned but in question, only yahoo is mentioned) 17. All the circumstances in the article appear in the question But the extent, emotion and scope are different NOT GIVEN Example In the article, Its good that some day-dreamers survive the process of conformity. In the question, Its good that tomorrow day-dreamers survive the process of conformity Example In the article, A reasonable thesis statement is a declarative sentence that contains no qualifiers. In the question, An exceptional thesis statement is a declarative sentence that contains no qualifiers. {Note: Extent means, the strength in the words, the emotions used in the words, or the range used in the information. Also, note that second case shows the example of emotion. You can clearly observe the difference between reasonable (its not very good)and exceptional(it is brilliant)} Conclusion Questions

18. The question doesnt give enough information to make a conclusion NOT GIVEN Conclusion Questions- Cont. 19. The question is a conclusion, but cant be made by the given information in the article NOT GIVEN Finding answer by adding-Not Add NOT in the question 20. After adding NOT: if same with article FALSE Example: In the article, The main town in the region called Southhampton is not the hub of UK ports. In the question, The main town in the region called Southhampton is (not) the hub of UK ports. Finding answer by adding-Not(Cont.) 21. After adding NOT : If differ with the article TRUE Example: In the article, The main town in the region called Southhampton is the hub of UK ports. In the question, The main town in the region called Southhampton is (not) the hub of UK ports. Finding answer by adding-Not(Cont.) 22. After adding NOT : Still cant make conclusion NOT GIVEN

Turning Point Words Turning point words But, however, yet, in fact, on the contrary, whereas, on the other hand, conversely, although, while, albeit, nevertheless, despite, inspite of, even if (Note: Always read the sentence which follows your sentence in which you are looking for answers. If in next sentence you see, However or Yet these kind of words, then it means that the answer you thought for sentence is opposite 75% of the times) Reasons and Results Reasons and Results Lead to, cause, pose, contribute to, result in, affect, influence, effect, impact, bring about, incur, create, trigger, because, in that, so, therefore, consequently, since, hence, thus.

reading : how to solve heading HEADINGS:steps to follow:-first translate and understand the LIST OF HEADINGS and memorize it. - translate the passage and understand what does it ant to say and place your answer on answer sheet. -follow the trick:sample taken from 404 book For example:A. The origination of earth was considered as 200 million years ago when molten rocks and inert gases were existing in the ea rths atmosphere at large amount. Although it was deleterious for human being as the theory defines .however, all gases were not at large amount therefore only nitrogen with 78.24%, oxygen 21.20% termed the existence of life on earth . the other air is in less amount but somehow carbon dioxide with 0.03 % is useful for plants and trees to do reproduction and growth. If these gases had any other chemical changes at the initial , the existence of earth would not be there for several and millions of years. This term is , actually, defined by different scientist How the earth and its life survive on this small planet. List of headings I The earth and its beginning, Ii the theory of neo man Iii gases in earths atmosphere Iv the earth-unique planet V the scientist research on earth *always translate the INTRODUCTION of a passage. And how to judge the introduction follow this Trick x/3 ( x= no. of lines in the paragraph A, B,C, D..) following paragraph has, if we count, almost 8 lines so the trick would be 8/3= 2.57 means you have to translate first 3 lines of the paragraph to find the answer or First ( 3+1=4 lines ) it means in every passage introduction o Information o Conclusion And headings always lie in INTRODUCTION LINES. But do remember do not match keywords always translate the lines and understand.