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It was by the West African coast of the Atlantic Ocean, the imposing
mud house was built on a hill backing the ocean. People were trooping in
and out to find information on potential trading news and joining the Royal
sailing Club. These are volunteer sailors who are on the service of the Malian
king, Abubakar II currently on an expedition voyage.

Within the building, different portion of it were assigned different

functions. There is a section that deals with trade information, another,
sailing club recruitment section and the most important, that of operations.
In it, a large board was placed covering an entire eastern wall of the rather
extra large room in which a map of the world of equal size was pasted, and
some dots representing ships accompanying King Abubakar II could be seen
approaching the Continents of America.

Only two princes were in the room, the young men Abas and Audu
were arguing on where to place the position of the Crown Ship. Abas felt
since the position of the Crown Ship was intended to be the position of the
King, he suggest it should be placed at the western side of Mesoamerica
since an unconfirmed report indicate the king had crossed to the western
part of the continent but Audu on the other hand felt even though the King is
on the other side it could be an unnecessary confusion to place the Royal
Ship there, since he most have left the ship on the eastern side.


Abas argue,

‘’the emphases should always be on the king since another ship must
has to be provided to him at the other side’’

He added


Audu said, countering the point.


‘’But no such evidence exit to support such theory, besides, no one is

yet actually sure of such report as the man that come with the report was
not part of the expeditors!’’

At last they agree to live the position of the ship in Eastern shores of
the continent and create a new symbol to represent the position of the King.

‘’Who narrates this story to you?’’

Abas quarried Audu

‘’Is it important? But it is a long story‘’

Audu said

‘’We shall be here till the following day, I am all ears!’’

Abas said


Sagbe checked his bag once more to ensure it still contained the gold
pieces and dust he came with, and then he packed his load in the bag,
checked his locker again, then underneath the mattress but there was
nothing important, then he folded and lashed the bed. He claimed the
quarter deck to join other volunteer going down with him.

The captain of the ship bid them farewell after he advised them to be
each other’s helpers and live in peace with the natives of the land. A ladder
was lowered and seven men with Sagbe as their leader went down to the
waiting boat and rowed ashore.

The seven men walked with their loads to a market with some
merchants they were to follow to a hinters land city. They passed through
dense forest that suddenly gives way to a clearing with houses surrounded
with farms, some in a traced mountain side whose escapement the market
was located. It was easy for them to them to locate the travelling merchants.
It was very early in the morning and only the travellers were there.


Sagbe met the leader. It was a man he had known for the past two
weeks when their ship arrived. The merchants’ were thirty and most of them
go round from village to village buying weaved clothes from experts whose
product were priced high by the nobles who buy these beautifully designed
cloth for gifts. They left the little fishing village and travelled north-west. By
sunrise they had reached another village by a river surrounded by cultivated
land where maize and potatoes. Some of the buildings were made of stones,
one of which was a village meeting place, and the destination of these
merchants’. Soon the story of their arrival spread like wild fire.


Sagbe squats to pick the piece of flank brought to the shores by the
tide and read the Arabic inscription on it and after long deep thoughts he
stood in tears! He then walked back half blinded to his hut temporarily in the
fishing village. He kept it beside his bamboo bed.

The following day Sagbe and his son Alkal left a palm tree shade by a
beach and walked towards some rocks on the sea front leaving coconut
shells behind. They had left their home island to fish and gather other
aquatic animals. The third, a Hawaiian woman went towards the camp to
continue her work of drying the sea food collected. She sat amidst a large
collection of shells of various sizes and shapes.

Sagbe took a net he bought from a fisher man earlier that day and
dumped it in the fishing boat and the two men were soon rowing in the sea
as usual toward their fishing grounds in the Pacific Ocean.

The woman stood watching the two men for a long time before turning
towards the camp. Winds blows from the sea forcing the palm trees to bow.
Charade’s hair covered her face; she shook her head at the same time using
her hand to unveil her face from her hair. She then, once more turned to the
direction of the two men and then walked away.



Alkal the younger man initiate a conversation after a long silent row.
The sun was rising to their right as they headed north wards.


Sagbe, the elder man answered, his eyes on the red rising sun, as the
boat rolled over the bluish-green water.

‘’Where did you actually come from’’

The sea was calm and the sky Reddish blue, a bird flew passed from
behind them and dived to the water to pick a fish then rose back to air, the
dinner fish struggled desperately to free its self.

With a distant smile in his face, the old man facing east, his eyes fixed
to the giant rising red sun half of which was still veiled by reddish cloud.

‘’I am an Ijaw man from the coastal mangroves of west Ifrique, another
large land east to the Mayan lands (American continents) separated by yet
another large body of water we usually called Sea of fog and darkness’’
(Atlantic Ocean).

Sagbe began

School of dolphins far ahead to the north moved westwards, slowly.

‘’I left my home after the death of my parents to join the adventurers
of King Abubakar, a Malian king.’’

Sagbe continued

‘’Mali is one of the most powerful Kingdoms in Ifrique. After crossing

the great sea, I left the king’s convoy and first settled at main land. Later I
travelled across to the west then south to the lands of Peru. I then after
about three years sojourns left and sailed further west wards to the Island of
Hawaii. I love staying in Peru but I had to leave because of a war between
two opposing tribes.’’

Sagbe said


A galloping set in by a rolling tide forced the boat to take in some

water something that prompted Alkal to action.


Alkal said as he bailed the water out of the boat with a calabash a
legacy antique from Ifrique still in the possession of Sabge.

‘’That was the summary of my personal history.’’

Sagbe concluded.

‘’All along I had thought you are Mayan, I always tell my friends so,
though I always use to wonder on why your colour was black!’’

Alkal reacted.

‘’No I came from Ifrique, much further east, the land of the black

Sagbe added.

The water within the boat was much less now. Alkal then dropped the
calabash and together with the father commence rowing.

‘’Where was the king you followed going?’’

Alkal asked again

‘’Only God knows, but rumoured had it that he want to know the
expense of the world.’’

Sagbe answer

They were near their destination. A place they lay nets the previous

The woman on the island had gathered the previously smoked fish out
to sun-dry it. She set fire in a place specially made for smoking fish and soon
began to lay the remaining fish that was stored when the work could not be
completed last night. She lit the fire and sat in a small stool to watch its
progress, but she suddenly feels the urge to swim. She stood and walked to


the seashore where she removed her upper cloth and dived to the cold salty
water. She swarmed along the beach towards the rocks they use as jetty to
secure their boats. She submerged with her eyes wide upon, fishes passing;
some running away from her....then she sighted something! But she had
stayed far too long under the water and thus need air...... Thus she swarmed
upwards and out her head. She shook water out her hair breathing
quickly......what was that shining thing she saw beneath the sea? She swam
around as she thinks, then she went down again. A large fish chasing smaller
ones had colours the water below; this forced the Hawaiian woman out to
the surface once more...... Then she remembered she had left fish she was
roasting on fire back in the camp! She thus swarmed back to the beach and
ran back to the camp. The removed the smoked fish and place another set
then ran back to the sea......

She swarmed back to the position of the shining object she saw earlier.

She inhaled deeply before submerging towards the object this time it
appeared clearly just ahead of her, held firmly to a rock. It was a small
golden crown, a Tiara! She picked it and quickly swamped out. She picked
her clothes and hurriedly dressed up, then sat on the sand to admire the
rather small crown for a long time thinking how it could had reached where
she found it. Then she remembers the fish in fire and ran towards the camp,
holding it firmly with both hands as if someone will take it away from her.

Sagbe and Alkal had collected large quantity of sea food and were
heading for the camp when suddenly he felt ill and starts shivering, Alkal
becomes frightened was calmed enough to row the boat back home when
later the old man fainted. At the beach he dragged him out of the boat and
carried him in both hand. He is a strong boy and he grew to love and respect
the old man.

The Hawaiian mother sighted them; she dropped the tiara and ran
towards them.

‘’What was it?’’

She asked Alkal


‘’I don’t Know, he simply starts to shiver and he don’t even breathe.
What did we do?’’

Alkal answered

‘’Let’s take him back to the main land and see if the high priest can
revive him.’’

The mother suggested.


Alkal countered

‘’Instate let me go for the high priest, stay with him’’

He told the mother and ran towards the boat.

‘’Sagbe suddenly opened his eyes lazily’’


Sabge called his wife

‘’I may not see the end of the day, but if I die look for a man called
Malam among our people and give him the flank in my hut!’’

He managed to say while the remaining words he stemmers were

unintelligible before he stops breathing.....

‘’What flank?’’

She asked repeatedly, but there was no reply.

Realising he had passed away she breaks down and began to Cray!

It was until much after sun set that the High Priest and Alkal arrived.

He was buried that night at that very sport!

That night, she realised for the first time since her married, she will
spend a night without Sagbe. Then she burst in to a silent cry, subbing in
tears....... She did not even know where Sagbe comes from and she never


asks! It was his dark skin that attracted her when she first saw him. That
night she cried until the day breaks.

At sun set, she was about going to sleep when suddenly she
remembered her find, the tiara!

Throughout the day she had been busy receiving people that had been
trooping in to sympathize with her on the passing away of her husband.

Alkal was eating the food his mother prepared not long when he
noticed Cherridee standing in front of him holding a shinning object, the

‘’Look at what I found in the sea shortly before you arrived with your
late father yesterday.’’

Cherridee said

Alkal stood narrowing his eyes at the small crown she was holding....

He suddenly feels as if the whole world was turning very fast.... he

remembered the story his father was telling him on their way to the sea that
very day she refers to.

He sat.

‘’I feel dizzy’’

He began

‘’The king’’

Alkal said absent minded

‘’Which King’’

The mother asked


He began

‘’O yes, the King’’


He retrieved himself and narrates the story the father told him the day
he died.

Cherridee was sixteen when the black men from the sea arrived at the
Hawaiian Island eighteen years back. She was with her friends removing
shells from Lobsters, when she sighted them rowing a kind of a boat with
two parallel hulls, like two boats joined together towards the shore and all
the five men in the Catamaran were blacks. She had then wondered where
they were coming from or going to.

The girls abandoned their work and run to the part of the shores the
rowers were approaching.

Sagbe was the leader of the group, a man of about thirty years, tall
and bearded resulting from the long stay in the sea without caring about

‘’This looks like both good and bad luck!’’

Sagbe said on sighting the girls.

‘’No, all I can see are good, no bad’’

Dogara, one of the rowers disagrees

‘’What all round good luck can be better than to be welcomed by such
beauties’ in such a strange land’’

Dogara reasoned

The girls offered the strangers fresh coconut water which Sagbe and
his crew drank thirstily after a long tiring row across the Ocean.

They were taken to the town after a man one of the girls contacted
volunteered to lead the strange black men he once had rumours that
roaming around in the continent of resent. Cherridee a granddaughter of a
noble, being one of the girls that first sighted the men, influence the
grandfather to convinced other nobles to accept the request of the strangers
to settle in the island and become part of the islanders.


The elders had agreed under the condition that these men must
respect their customs and standard of social behaviours, and that Ozegya
Sherrie’s grandfather should provide them with shelter.

Sherrie’s father was the first son of Ozegya. He was only seventeen
when he got mother who was then only fourteen years old. They lived
together ten years before they got Cherrie’s elder brother who died few days
after his birth, the mother gave birth to her a year after. Radnelac lived in
the southern part of the northern flank; he was primarily assigned with
maintaining security and administration in addition in addition to taking care
of his father’s herd of cattle which were kept for their meat and milk. He had
been fond of Cherridee when she was young. She always followed him where
ever goes while at home. She began to talk when she was eighteen month
old, and one day he was surprised when she asked him whether he also has
a father, and he replied her that he had one but he stays far away at the sea

‘’What is seaside?’’

She asked

‘’I will by Havens one day takes you there’’

He replied, and he later does. It was almost a year after that day when
his wife Retag got a younger brother for Cherridee.

He took her along to the northern coastal provisional headquarters

where the father was the head.

Ozegya was happy with the news of the arrival of another member of
the family. Cherridee was first scared by the old man’s un-usual long white
beards when she first saw him but the affection he show towards her made
her to trust and liked him soon after. When Ozegya learnt she want to see
the sea, he took her there by himself one day.

She called a ‘’big well!’’


The old man had then jokingly asked if she will like to stay with him,
she agree and later, because of that she refused to follow the father when
he was going back and had lived with him ever since until the day she
married Sagbe, the Blackman from the sea.

Ozegya had taken Sagbe and the remaining four of his men to his
domain in the northern shores of the island. Ozegya has a large family and
followers. He was the protector of the northern flank......... but that is now
part of history.

When Malam was contacted, he confirmed that on a rear occasion,

Malian Princes do wear crowns. The flank earlier found along the edge of
Pacific Ocean by Sagbe in the Island south west of the fishing ground he and
his son had laid their net, was assumed to be that of a Malian ship because
of an inscription in Arabic that reads: - ‘’In the name of ........whether it sails
or remain at rest......’’ which Malam being one of the Malian Masons that
build the ships claimed to have identified as an inscription written in all
Malian ships. Malam even claimed that he knew inscriber by the style, a man
he called Aliyu the artist and that he was the one that inscribed the Royal
Ship! These convince Malam that Abubakar might have shipwrecked and
probably drawn!

Ozegya invited then invited the Malians to a place near the beach;
they all sat under a palm tree. It was after sunset and the moon was full, the
sky brighter than usual as if it was aware of these important gathering.

‘’My daughter or rather her son, want to reverse what his father did’’

Ozegya began

‘’He requested you help him to go to Ifrique’’

He said finally

Malam, the youngest among the Malians was turbaned and holding a
rosary which he counts prayers with as they are said.

‘’It was long since we last heard from our people’’


Malam began

‘’But the last information we had about our people indicate some of
them are still stationed off an Island where crossing the Maya-land to the sea
of fog and darkness was shortest. (Approximately at where today we
referred to as the Isthmus of Panama.) An area probably under the Aztecs’’

Malam added and commenced his prayers, counting the wooding

rosary beads in strings that help him to know how many times he had

‘’The Aztecs, You mean your people live peacefully with them?’’

Ozegya asked rather shocked

Malam momentarily stopped the prayers

‘’No, but it seems the king thought he could or that he doesn’t know
yet who they really were at that first time, until the kidnapping saga that
forced them to live the main land to an Island in the water to the west of the
Maya land (Pacific).’’

Malam began, but was interrupted by Dogara

‘’The Aztecs had actually forced them to vacate the area to much
further north according to the last information we heard.’’

He said

‘’How do we contact your people’’

Ozegya chipped in

‘’No need for that, organise the expedition and safe passage across
the Mesoamerica, I will led the expedition back to Ifrique if necessary, but I
hope our people are still operating in the area so may not have to be forced
to build the sea crossing ship we will require.’’

Malam said


‘’Thanks for that, I will do as you said in three days time by the will of
the Heavens’’


The twin hull boats were now secured to a jetty. Alkal and the sailors
were then blessed by Ozegya who also prayed for heavenly protection. The
sun, was setting as the men walked to the jetty amid chanting of spell to
ward off the spirits of the sea, night and land by the high priest of the Island.

The four catamarans were freed and soon the sailors without further
ceremony were expertly manoeuvring their way Eastwards to Maya lands.

They formed a column in a single line silently rowing towards their

destination. Malam and Alkal were in the first boat with four other Hawaiian
young sailors.

Each boat carries dry food and fresh water that will last them for at list
a week.

Three days later, they sighted the main land one early morning and by
noon they were dragging their boats to be secured to isolated trees growing
out of the wet mud that form the mangrove edge by a rock in a rather sandy

A Hawaiian youth led them through a foot path talking lively along the
way across a thick forest, and by sun set they were approaching a large
settlement to be known as Tole. It surrounded by maize and Potatoes’ farms
the Hawaiian leading them communicate with some children in a dialect
none of them understood in front of a compound. One of the children
answered him and run inside. Not sooner than the child went in an old man
appeared wormed welcoming them.

‘’Come inside, be at home.’’

He repeated in a fluent Hawaiian language

They were led in to a large clean hut and immediately served food as if
they were expected. When they eats a boy took them to river to Barth and


by the time they comes back, they explain to their host about the mission of
Alkal and Malam.

Chief Ayala, a Quechua Chief, was the head of the community was related to
Ozegya through his Hawaiian mother.

‘’We have had of the black prince’’

The chief began referring to King Abubakar II

Malam nodded encouragingly

‘’The last time we heard of him’’

The chief continued

‘’Was when he left the Inuit land of ice much further in the North going
west wards to only the Heaven knows where! But we heard that his some of
his people are still operating at the Eastern coasts.’’

The chief said finally.

That piece of land chief refers to, is now called Alaska!

The chief then advised them to rest for next one week by which he will
enquire more.

They thank him. The chief has seven wives and many children must of
whom among the males were now in the frontiers to check the manners of
the growing Aztecs power in the North. The girls and the young among the
male were the ones left at home helping their mothers. The girls were
parading around Alkal as if they find him physically attractive and he was
fully enjoying the flirting of the girls. When the chief observed what was
happening he encouraged Alkal to fill free, that these are his relatives and
that the house is his because the chief’s mother was Ozegya elder sister.

A girl about his age sat in front of him encouraged by her mother when
she noticed most of his attention was directed towards her.

‘’What is your name?’’


She ask


He answered surprised


She repeated the name in a pleasant tuned voice

With that as the opening chapter, the two were soon to become so
intimate that a day to their departure it was decided they wed! And that
they did the following week.

‘’I suggest we postpone our voyage for a month to enable acquaint

yourself to your new stature’’

Malam suggested just afterwards

‘’No, for two’’

The chief corrected


Reports received from the men sent to find out about the Malians
indicates that a group of Malian ships had arrived at the eastern coast from
the North on their way back to Mali with an Innit woman said to be Abubakar
II’s wife!

The chief then quickly send a messenger the leader named prince
Aminu, requesting him to take along Alkal, his wife and Malam who happen
to be a Malian himself.

Price Aminu agreed

They left the town one early morning, but unknown to one Joni, the
wife of Alkal was pregnant but she refuses to tell anyone for the fear of


being dropped behind. They walked for two days through the country and at
one time a giant Indian had to carry her after she collapsed.

They finally arrived at their destination in the night of the second day.
The Malian camp was easily located as their large ships could be sighted a
far and sailors could be heard shouting or singing in the empty night.

Malam recognised the leader because they were both among the
pioneers of the expedition. Prince Aminu had returned from Mali to search
for Abubakar II instate found an Innit Queen said to a wife of the King he left
behind at the western coast of what is today called Alaska.

Aminu however could not be convinced that Abubakar II was dead

when Malam tendered what he thought was his evidence, even though he
was made to understand from the King’s Innit Queen that Abubakar II had
sailed westwards of what is today called Pacific Ocean.

‘’Many of our ships including the one I commanded were inscribed by

Aminu the artist. ‘’

Aminu dismissed the claim with a wave of hand

‘’Besides, many of our ships were wrecked’’s

He added

Aminu gave Joni the honour of staying at the royal cabin with the Innit
Queen, while Alkal and Malam joined the other sailors but he could see her
any time he wished.

Mahrub the Innit queen of Abubakar II sat on a chair facing Joni across
the table that separates them. She fold her hands firmly on the table
listening as Joni narrates her story. She had earlier noticed her frequent
vomiting, which she at first, she had thought it was caused by the smell of
the sea.

Realising however that she was pregnant without the knowledge of

any other else, she narrates to Joni what she had called her mistake of
telling others about her pregnancy.


‘’When he visited our land on his way to only the Heavens now knows,
my father advised him to pick a wife’’

She began

‘’He picked me among many other princes of our land and we had wed
for only three weeks when he insists for proceeding on’’

She queen continued

‘’I could have followed him’’

She further lamented

Joni sympathized with her but lack the words to express her sympathy

‘’Did you know what impressed me about you?’’

The queen asked Joni


Joni answered

‘’The striking resemblance of my story with yours and yet its contrast’’

Mahrub said

‘’You are a wise girl’’

The queen added, her golden chain wedding gift shaped as a spear
swinging, as she ship mounts weaves

‘’My dear queen’’

Joni began sympathetic towards her

‘’My father use to say; everything happens, but as already writing in

the skies earlier, and if you could read the stars you could be able to decode
and understands the course they could have taken in advance’’

Joni began philosophically


‘’Who knows, sometimes what might look as bad may turns out to be
good in disguise. You might have lost a husband and a king but you have got
a son and a prince. I sympathised with you and I pray to the Heavens to
solve the mystery of your missing husband’’

Joni added with a little bow towards the queen

The son Mahrub bears afterwards is exactly Alkal age and he was on
board with them as one of the sailors

‘’Thank you, you must have come from the most refined of the noble’’

The said finally

A sailor attached to them knocked the door and entered when

permitted with bowls of hot porridge made from potato and fish.

The two women eat hungrily after which the together decide to go out
to the upper deck of the sea for some fresh air.

It was late in the night but the sky was clear with stars in their familiar

‘’We are heading to the east’’

Joni said with her head fixed to a group of stars in the sky

‘’How did you know’’

The queen ask

‘’You see this faintly shinning group of stars with two brighter stars
directly making an index ahead of the main group?’’

Joni said pointing to the sky

‘’Yes I saw them’’

Queen Mahrub said

‘’The two leading stars always points approximately towards the east’’


Joni began to explain

‘’My father said travellers use it know where is which direction in the

She added

‘’It is logically correct, for it said that, the land of Ifrique is due east
from our lands.’’

The queen readily agrees

The sky is becoming darker by then and soon they were to realise rain
forming clouds were gathering. The two women were enjoying the
atmosphere when suddenly and unexpectedly, heavy rain began to fall. They
ran back to their cabin laughing and quickly changed their wet water
dripping clothes and changed.

The younger woman close a scuttle by her bed where splashing rain
water was entering the cabin and long went asleep. The two ladies were
snoring by the time Aminu, the commander of the convoy and captain of the
ship, entered the room, and certified with of their well being he nods his
head and left the room.

They sailed for further seven weeks to reach the shores of West

The cock crows signifying the down of a new day ............ and thus
ending the story Abdul was narrating to Abas at the Headquarters of the
Malian ocean expeditions............

‘’What a tall story’’

Abas said

‘’Who knows’’

Abdu proposes





‘’Thanks are to God’’

Zakari said after eating. He had eaten a little more than certification.
He comes as early as eight clock in the morning anticipating the day to be
one of the days he will be remembering with pride, the day of exercising a
constitutional right.......... a day of ‘’congress’’ when his political party will


give him a chance to show the other parties that, theirs was truly a
democratic thing, were members its leaders! A party that say it all:-

Democracy forever!

He has no candidate in mind, he don’t even know the contestants any

way, but at list now that the military are gone and the system is not a one
party monopoly like that of the communist, he thought it will be as is done in
the first world.

In one of the previous meeting he had been selected as the assistant

secretary of the party in his ward. This time however it will be election like
the real thing! He was not contesting; he was certified with just electing his
new party officials a luxury enjoyed only in the western civilisations before!
And now a privilege even here!

But that was never to be!

The food he eats was meant to be ‘’a thank you’’ breakfast for coming,
but in reality the ‘’election’’ was not to take place because the official had
came with the result from the somewhere. So as he was looking for the
water to wash his hand and go for the days business, namely election, he
was told, instate of the election, that the result will soon be announced or
rather had been released or something meaning the same thing!


He began in bewilderment

‘’What is actually happening? ‘’

He thought aloud

The election he come to cast his vote was not conducted and yet the
result was out!

He turned to one of the ‘’winners’’

‘’This type of election is anti democratic!’’

He began


‘’Why are we deceiving ourselves’’

Zakari added not hiding his feelings about the pathetic situation


The winner began to explain

‘’There was faction in the party, and in an attempt de-factionalise the

party we the candidates of the various faction had come into a compromise
and slots positions to each faction, that was how the ‘’the result’’ was

Said the ‘’winner?’’

‘’Why not allow the party members to decide?’’

Zakari suggested

‘’Because we brought the party to the town and if we allow that;

different people may emerge as winners, people that don’t even know how
in the first place the party gets here’’

The so called winner said

‘’But that was what election is all about, the people, not those who
brought the party should choose the candidates because at long last the
same people are to vote for you when the party will be contending with
other parties besides if the party won you people have the credit of bringing
the party with the manifestos that can convince the people hopping also for
it to deliver.’’

Zakari explains

‘’Come Malam Zakari, did you realise that the party headquarters had
send some money?’’

‘’The winner’’ questioned

‘’So now the issue is that of the money’’

Malam Zakari reacted


‘’Of cause’’

‘’The winner’’ answered.

A month later, Zakari was standing in front of Yahuza’s house. Yahuza’s

sister passed him carrying a bucket of water she fetched from a Mono Pump
near the office of the Ward’s Head.

‘’Where is Yahuza?’’

Zakari asked her

She stopped, and turned to faced him

‘’He went to pay for electric bill; our line was cut day before

Jamila answered

‘’Ok, but dropped the water first, I come to see you’’

Zakari said

Jamila smiled and went in without replying.

Some few moments later she comes out.

‘’Is anything Mr. Zakari? You had never in the past come to this house
because of me.’’

Jamila began

‘’Yes, but I need someone to speak to, and being a educated woman,
you will not only help me out but entertained my psyche at the same time.’’

Zakari began

‘’A! Zakari, what of your wife’’

Jamila reacted.

‘’Let’s close that chapter. What did you know about Electoral
Commission recruitment?’’


Zakari change the topic

‘’Who go tell monkey or rather who go take am?’’

Jamila reacted to the question in a Pidgin English

‘’What did you mean?’’

Zakari said surprised

‘’Haba Zakari, don’t you understand the system? The recruitment

might have taken place before the advertisement, who did you know?’’

‘’Listen Jamila, it is only because I am with you now that I can afford to
go late otherwise even those you want to claim had been recruited before
the advertisement will not be there before me.’’

Zakari said

‘’A! Zakari then you better go o! I am yet to finish my work.’’

Jamila finalised the discursions, picked her bucket and run to meet her
mates on their way to the common pump of the community, living Yahuza
stranded in the Zaure (The outer room of the typical Hausa house).

Minutes later, with a smile broadly written across his entire face,
indicating his inner state, Zakari rode his bicycle on his way to the
Independent Electoral Office, for the recruitment exercise.

Three weeks earlier, Zakari was in the post office and fasted outside
he had seen an advert seeking applicants to apply for various electoral
appointments for the incoming elections. He did, and now he comes to
check if he is among the short listed candidates for interviews.

After about an hour’s ride, Zakari stood among other candidates

glancing through several lists fasted in various parts of the compound.

At last he was not sure of what actually happened because there was
this name that reads Garba Zakari instate of Zakari Garba and were
qualification was indicated it states diploma while his, was advance diploma.
But was not were the confusion become pronounced, in the column where


the location of his residence was suppose to be indicates Jushi instate of

Zaria, though Jushi is in Zaria but yet he actually wrote Zaria. So could it be
wild topographical error? And there are no any official to explain the true
situation. However someone that seems to know better among the
candidates advised him to check the area office at Danmagaji.

Soon Zakari was riding his bicycle, paddling harder as Danmagaji is an

area situated in a higher altitude relative the Sabongari office, and an hour
later he was in his destination. There he saw crowds of people, thanks to
high unemployment situation of the country. Crowed of people were trooping
in and out of the gate.

Once within, he was confronted similar list he saw at where he was

coming from. But again someone advised him to join the queue as most of
those that come for the interview were not even qualified!

He join the queue but in short from noon until sunset, he could not
reached the interviewers though not more than twenty people were ahead of
him, because the ‘’the friends of interviewers’’ don’t have to follow the

Then there was power failure and because of that the interview had to
be suspended until the following day. The candidates however volunteer to
provide candles for the interview to continue!

The officials agree but they insist that the men should go out, that
they want to finish with women first! At last however, the men were told to
come back the following day because the officials were exhorted after
interviewing the women.

When he returned the following morning he was told that, actually the
interview had actually commences that yesterday after he left, and that it
ended just as he approaches the gate now!

‘’So Jamila was right’’

Zakari thought aloud



Someone asked

‘’Never mind’’

Zakari reply without caring to know who asked

‘’Nigeria we hail thee!’’

He keeps on repeating as he rode his bicycle homewards.

Two month later

Zakari visited his new fond friend, Jamila and narrated his ordeals
during the last electoral commission’s recruitment exercise against the on
coming elections.

‘’I had expected something like that, that was why I told you the time
you pass through here on your way that day, did you remember?’’

Jamila replayed him

‘’Quit well I do remember but at that time I thought you said so

because you belong to the opposition party.’’

Zakari reacted

‘’Are you now in the ruling party?’’

Jamila counters

‘’No but our party is new and we wish to practice non confrontational
type of opposition, so first assumed even the opposing parties are not ugly
as they really are until they prove us wrong.’’

Zakari answered

‘’Have they?’’

Jamila asked with a mischievous smile in her face

‘’Ummm! Let me say not yet, until after the real election.’’


Zakari said with some reservations

‘’Now, that brought us to another aspect of the unfolding drama. Have

you registered for the elections?

“Because the registration had commenced some days back’’

Jamila said

‘’I hard so but until this moment I have never come across where it is
taking place, have you?’’

Zakari asked in puzzlement

‘’Yes there is one at Kofa in front of the house of one the officials of the
ruling party, I saw people registering when I was passing on my way from
Kaduna yesterday’’

Jamila said

‘’What took you to Kaduna?’’

Zakari changed the topic

‘’What concerns you? Anyway I went for the wedding of my friend.’’

She said

‘’Well I have no right over you yet, just curiosity.’’

Zakari said, getting bolder in an assumed position

‘’Zakari and his unending imaginations! Zakari I must go, it is time for

Jamila ended and run inside without given Zakari any further chance to

Three month after...........

Day after election


Zakari was at the ‘’Zaure’’ (the outer room) of the Jamila’s family
house together with her brother, one of the contestants of the just
concluded election and in company of many of his well wishers chatting
about the election.

Bala, the honourable as he comes to known because of his contesting

as the councillor representing his ward, was in his most jovial state.

‘’What did you think will be the outcome of the election?’’

He directed the question to Zakari.

‘’Well honourable, first of all we should thank Providence that we are

no more under military dictatorship, there are people that think otherwise,
but the blank truth is that, we are yet to see democracy.’’

Zakari began

‘’I agree, we are at the infant stage of the democracy’’

Bala interrupted

‘’No, this bearded infant suppose to spring up and start behaving like
the adult he was for long and stop acting like the infant is not!’’

Zakari continued

‘’We deliberately insist in doing wrong, pretending we are not old

enough to do the right thing.’’

He pause, to allow the audience absorbed what he was saying

‘’The system might be new, the actors were not. To hit the nail in the
head, it seems we are repeating the same mistake we make in the first post
independent election and that of the second election of the second republic,
but under different circumstances just like the last two elections.’’

Zakari said

‘’You by far older than most of us here, so please explain what you
mean, because you more like in parables!’’


Honourable interrupted, and everyone laugh to that.

‘’Ok, you see a country of many nations like ours, which a colonial
power had for its own administrative convenience amalgamated, is only
artificially a nation in the real sense. That was why when in 1966 the
Western part of the Nation felt cheated in the election there was a violent
reaction that finally led to a military take over and the subsequent civil

He continuo

‘’That happened because the leaders at the federal level were from
different region that together with others formed Nigeria and those that felt
cheated come from another. Similar incident repeated its self during the
elections of 1983, but we were probably saved from another round of tribal
war because the succeeding regime was led by people from the same ethnic
group with their predecessors. The 1966 termination of the first republic had
subsequently led civil war, because it usher on to power, people from a
different tribal or regional group.’’

He paused

‘’After the second round of the Military chain of governments, what

Fela may refer to as, ‘’Overtaking overtake’’ units of governments, ended
and the third republic was born, under different condition, thanks to ‘’Army

The rigging mistake was repeated, but this time, right from beginning,
the man that came to power was rigged into it, by people that were not from
the same region with him! And the cheated candidate happened to be his
tribal kin. This combination of scenarios saved Nigeria, Thanks to God.

Then the ‘’Tazarche’’ (extension of mandate) fever, grip Nigeria, but

the ‘’we no gree’’ stand of many concerned Nigerians at virtually all levels
cured the disease or at list suppress it, so for the first time in Nigerian mob
democratic history, a third transitional stage was ‘’magically’’ arranged.
Thanks to God also, the scenario was nearly the same with the other non


violent outcome resulting from a rigged election. The two serious contenders
were from the same region.’’

Zakari pause

‘’Let me stop here because someone else may have a different view.’’

He added and then kept quit

Honourable Bala clears his throat

‘’Well, the different view might not alter history and facts’’

Honourable Bala started

‘’ So what I like to say will be more or less a wish to know, the way out
of this round of vicious circles if we may call it that.’’

He said, turning round the others to see if someone disagrees

‘’Yes, yes! ‘’

The others said in unison

‘’My teacher taught me that; what is worth doing at all is worth doing
well. So if we want to practice democracy, we should do it well.’’

Honourable further explains

‘’The result is out! The result is out!!’’

Someone interrupted

‘’The ruling party had declared its self the winner in the local
government elections!’’

Another added

‘’Not all’’

Someone disagrees

‘’All the same, it had cancelled the results of the only sits it had lost!’’


Someone else commented

‘’May God save us!’’

Zakari finally prayed



1053 AD

The rising sun was brightly hoisted as it rose in clear sky that fateful
day and the surrounding shrubs still wet from last night rain. The earth was
still draining it’s self from the running water, smells of sands and leafs
hovered in the air. The rocky terrain has a deep depression at the eastern


frontiers; a mountain semi cycled it in a curve that runs from the south,
through the west by the north.

From a pass at the left of the northern side of the mountain some
mounted men galloped on their horses descending towards a depression.
The leading rider halted and pointed a finger towards the western curve of
the mountain. The other fifty riders including ten women halted too. Three
elderly riders neared him.

‘’What is it?’’

A white bearded man asked the leading rider

‘’We have reached the river, and shall therefore from now go along
side it’’

He answered

‘’Thanks be to the God of creation’’

The white bearded man said as turns to the other riders

‘’I advised that we camped here and rest’’

He began

‘’We hunt and gathered some wild fruits before we proceed.’’

He added

They had been on the move for over a month and their food had

The remaining two elders agree and dismount. The few women among
them starts to prefer food as soon as they began to settled.

The remaining men gathered near the old bearded man under a tree.

‘’We shall clear the bush and settled here for two years to farm. I
noticed the place is endowed‘’

He instructed


They then said a prayer for the creator to bless them and thereafter
the young men were them sent to clear the bush by the river side which
they start immediately, huts where build and being in the raining seasons
the surrounding of the huts were cleared for farming.

Every morning after the women prepared food some men will go to
farm while others will go for hunting. In the evening all the men will gather
around the man with their books t further their knowledge before retiring to
their huts where they may gathered to chart in the moon light outside their

One day, the old man gathered the men and sends some of them of
them to different directions to search for the human search for the human
settlements that they could establish commercial relationship with within
and outside the immediate environs.

Two days later some of them returned to report the presence of some
towns and villages close to where were.

Kabulu the leader of one of the group reported the presence of some
gold deposits a distance not far from where they lived. The come along with
some to prove their find and indicates that most likely people were not
aware of its existence as at yet because otherwise they reason its extraction
might have started and any evidence of such yet.

The old man was taken to the place but on reaching but on reaching
there, they met some people dressed in robes decorated in gold inspecting
the location. They were representatives of San Ghana whose army recently
captured the city of Awdagust at southern fringes of the Sahara desert.

‘’Greetings and well wishes to you’’

The old man said as he approached them

‘’Greeting to you also’’

One of them responded

‘’And who are you?’’


The San Ghana’s representative added

‘’I am Ibrahim, the leader of my clan’’

The old man started

‘’We lived not far from here.’’

He added

‘’Then you come at the right moment, we are the representative of the
royal house’’

Another of the robed men began

‘’Our mission was locate this place and local chief closes to it’’

The royal representative added. He then a ring from his hand and hand
it over to Ibrahim


He began

‘’Gives you full authority to protect these minerals and collects taxes
on behalf of San Ghana as soon the diggings began’’

He said in a clear and well tuned voice

‘’You should report to the governor at garrison town Koumbi-Saleh for

further instructions.’’

The robed men and their guards numbering about twenty armed with
bows and quivers full of poisonous arrows mount their horses and left.

Immediately Ibrahim and his men went back to the camp, he gathered
all the men and told them about the new development.

‘’However ‘’

Ibrahim had added

‘’I have to hand over this authority to someone else’’


He began to explain

‘’I am an old man and gold is not what I should pursue now’’

He pause watching his men to note how his statements settled

‘’I will therefore give this chance to someone else to lead those of you
who wish to remain behind while I prepare to proceeds to our initial
destination with those that choose to go this night! So those of you that will
remain should choose a leader.’’

The old man said. An elderly man rose up

‘’In the name of the Providence’’

He began

‘’I would like to remain but I please give you the chance to choose a
leader for us.’’

The elderly man suggested

‘’No, I will leave you to decide on who and who are to proceed and to
stay and who is to lead those to stay.’’

Ibrahim said and immediately left for his hut. The remaining thirty
nine men sat silently for a very long time until another elderly man stood to
breaks the silence.

‘’I choose to remain’’

He began

‘’And those of you that choose to stay with me should please move
this side’’

He said, extending his right hand

And those that will go with the teacher should remain seated.

Six men choose to remain but four among those sent out were not


Abdul the leader of those remaining behind, then went to Ibrahim’s hut
to notified him of the new development, after which Ibrahim removed the
ring of authority given to him and hand it over to Abdul instructing him to
report to the garrison town.

The remaining thirty nine, including all the women and Kabulu who
originally reported the sighting of the gold fields, commence their journey
that very moment leaving the remaining but with the instruction to inform
those away when they come back to make similar choice and those amongst
them wishing to proceed, to catch up with them. That they will be moving
along the river course for the next two month, before they camp again, and
thus Ibrahim and the remaining mounted moves along the river that was to
be known as River Niger.

Meanwhile in the camp they just left, Abdul and two other men prefers
on their way to the garrison town of Koumbi-Saleh.

The garrison town was on top of a hill from where all approaches could
be seen from a far. It has many brick houses and a market in the centre. It
also served both as capital of the province as well as the capital of the
empire resided by over seven thousand people.

The governor’s residence was to the east of the market, a large

compound with many huts whose four approaches where guarded by archers
dressed in robes similar to those seen by Abdul of fewer decorations.

Abdul and his men were stopped by the guards. He showed them the
ring of authority given to him and demanded to see the governor. The
leading guardsman led them to a place and asked them to wait white he
entered a hut. After some time he come back with another man who
demanded to see the ring.

‘’But you are not the man I gave this ring to’’

The official challenged Abdu


Abdul told him exactly what happens; he agreed and therefore led him
to another larger hut where he met a small old man sitting on a dais
surrounded by his officials.

Abdul was introduced o the governor by the official that brought him.
He felled down before the governor as the tradition demanded to pay
respect, the governor accept him as the leader of his people and blessed
him, directing him to act as justly to all that may find himself in his the land
under his control and cooperates with those to be sent to collect taxes from
the miners that will soon appear in his area of control.

Abdul and his men where then taken to a guest house and were
provided for them. In the morning the following day they were taken round
the garrison town for sightseeing and later to the market to purchase some
presents for their people. Soon after they went back to the guest house, a
messenger comes to inform them that the governor wants to see them. In
the governor’s residence they met some people who come to inform the
governor that the empire was attacked from the north by some Muslims
warriors called Al-Murabituns known to Europeans as Almoravids.

The governor then directed them to follow some messengers that will
be going to interior of the empire to gathers men to prepare for defence of
the frontiers. Blacksmith called were assembling, they were directed to
commence large scale producing of swords and arrows heads, by the time
Abdul was leaving the garrison town horse men and slave fighters had also
started gathering around the governor’s residence in preparation for a war
that could not be avoided.

‘’Who are the Al-Murabituns?’’

Abdul asked one of the officials with him as they rode.

‘’They were Barbers who confederates their states after we occupied

their town, though the confederation had failed but an unknown man called
Muhammad Bin Yasin is now leading them, wagging war on all their
neighbours including us. He is a hermit, but a puritan that wishes to
establish power in accordance to the dictates of the Holy Quran.’’


The official added

‘’You sound like a Muslim’’

Abdul ask the official

‘’Yes, but I am suspicious of the both the Goddala and Lumtuna that
were wagging the war’’

The official began to explain

‘’It is true our leader is not a Muslim but he respects the Muslims and
even had a mosque built at the Muslim quarters and employed Muslims to
the service of the royal house because of their literacy for keeping records.’’

He said

‘’Yes I can see that even from the way our case was handled the royal
house was not bias about the Muslims.’’

Abdul agrees

‘’And most importantly we understood Muhammad Bin Yasin, who led

the group, had attacked our frontiers’ as diversionary tactics to prevent his
people from fighting each other.’’

The official paused after commenting further

‘’Or because you occupied Awdagust’’

Abdul suggested

‘’They may have that as a pretext but even then we do not just take
Awdagust to expand our frontiers but as a reaction to the Jihad lunched on
us unjustly by a Goddala king’’

The official said

‘’Why did you called a Jihad unjustly?’’

Abdul questioned

‘’We do not see it as a jihad but expansionist policy into our territory’’


The official depends. They had by then reached a place where the road
has pocked.


The official said pointing to the left

‘’Is route you are to follow to your camp by the river bent’’

With that, they parted with the official

‘’Brother, we were not enemies and we shall never be, but must tell
you my mind’’

Mustafa one of those that were with Abdul said to him

‘’Go ahead Mustafa ‘’

Abdul encouraged him

‘’The truth is that before we left home with the teacher I had once
stayed at Muhammad Bin Yasin’s ribat in an island at River Senegal and now
that the Jihad had started I want to and join him’’

Mustafa said

‘’I wished you the best of luck’’

Abdul said

With that remark as trigger, Mustafa turned his horse towards an

unmarked path and galloped away with high speed rising dust in the semi
desert sand, to join the forces of Almoravids! A movement that sweeps
across the Maghreb and later cross the Mediterranean Sea to Spain.




23RD RULER OF ZAZZAU (C. 1536-1570)
Zazzau whose capital is Zaria city is one of the Hausa states in present
day Kaduna state of Nigeria at western part of the continent of Africa.

The narration below was my personal account after visit to the village
of Turuku. There at one of the several mountains surrounding the old capital
of Zazzau, we come face to face with history. A ruined palace of Queen
Amina, the only female ruler in Hausa land since Daurama (the mother of
the founders of all Hausa states), and although Queen Amina never had a
child the left her marks in the annals of history as the powerful ruler of all
Hausa states till date! Read on…………….

We left Zaria with one thing in our minds namely: A mission to the old
place of Queen Amina at the mountain top in Turunku the ancient capital of
After about 35 minutes drive, we arrived at the rather small village of
not more than 100 houses but honored with some schools and even served
as local government headquarters of Igabi.
Our guide an indigene of Turunku was at his early 20’s.
Not long after our arrival we walked through the town to the mountain
foot and soon starts our ascend via some rouged stone flights to the top a
height of about 70 meters and not long we found ourselves in front of a
stone chair. The throne of the Queen from where the whole village at the
foot of the mountain could be seen and further plains where horses were
said to be usually kept, extending several meters away could be seen ........
And I believe also these plains could as well just as it is being use now as
farm be also use as such then. I was among the first to reach the top.
I lay on the stone chair to rest and wait for the remaining members of
that small expedition. We were surprised by the semi-flat nature of the
mountain top and conclude that such a place could certainly be used as a
human settlement. One will have the feeling of being on the ground when
you start going further away from where you could see the ground.


Although there were no remain of some Temples and Pillars such as

the likes that could be found in Egypt and Karsh (in present day Sudan) due
principally to the fact that traditional West African houses were abodes made
from mud and thatch cover materials that could not have survived the like of
the period of time (16th to 20th century) considering the action of rain in an
abundant dwellings at a mountain top.
Although the Mosque of Agadez (in Niger Republic) another abode
building built at approximately the same period still exist due to of course
constant maintenance.
Not withstanding, there still exits many evidences to indicate past
human activities at the mountain flat top.
Zaria, under Queen Amina conquered all the towns in Hausa lands as
far as Kwararrafa and Nupe. Every town paid tribute to her.
The Sarkin (king of) Nupe sent Forty eunuchs and ten thousand Kolas
to her.
She first had eunuchs and Kola in Hausa land. In her time the whole of
the products of the west were brought to Hausa-land.
Queen Amina the 23rd ruler of Zazzau was from the Gunguma’s
Who is Gunguma?
Gunguma was the first and founder of the dynasty was one of the
products of a marriage of two legends, Queen Daurama and Abu Yazid
known to the Hausas as Bayajida.


According to Thomas Hodgkin in his book Nigerian perspective a
Historical Anthology he said:
“The people went up out of Canaan and settled in the land
of Palestine. And a certain man among them named Najib
the Canaanite went up out of Palestine with his entire
household and journeyed west ward into Libya, which is
one of the provinces of Egypt, and there they dwelt for
many years. And a certain man among them named abdul-
Dar, and he was a son of Najib, went up out of Libya and


dwelt in the province of Tripoli and after a time he sought

the kingship of Tripoli, but the people refused. Where he
arose with his people and journeyed to the south till he
come to an oasis called Kusugu and dwelt there. And he
begat children and they were all daughters.
Their names were Bukainya and Gambo and Kafai and
Waizama and Daura, and she was the youngest. All these
he begat before they came to Daura.


Abu yazid known to Hausas as “Bayajida’’ which means “he do not
understand Hausa language before’’ was a prince of the kings of Baghdad
whom according to the legend, left home to escape death penalty and
traveled to Africa.
He first settled at Kanem Bornu Empire where he was offered political
asylum. He married the daughter of the king named Magira. But not long he
also offended the king and had to run away because the king planned to kill
him, taking away his wife along. He left her at Birom ta Gabas to bear him a
At Gaya near Kano a blacksmith made him a sword according to his
specifications. He precedes to Daura on his way to an unknown destination
we he becomes a guest to an old woman called Ayyama.
It was said he demanded for water to drink and give his animal of
barding but was told the only well in the city was a home to a large snake
called Sarki who allows people to fetch water once in a week (Fridays) when
it usually goes out.
Abu Yazid however not believing, request the old woman to direct him
to the well but on his attempt to fetch the water the snake comes out via the
rope. He cuts its head and fetched the water.
The following day passersby seeing the body of the snake outside the
well reported the matter to the Queen. The Queen as it was narrated had
earlier promised to give half of the land to whoever got rid of the snake.
So when what actually happened was known she announced that the
killer of the snake who took away the head and left one of his shoes should


come forward with the head and other pair of the shoe for his price. But
when Abu Yazid came he demanded for her hands in marriage instead.


Daura and Abu Yazid got married and she also gave him a Gwari slave
girl as a concubine. According to a brief history of Daura given in the
pamphlet during the presentation of staff of office of the sixtieth Emir of
Daura Alhaji Umar Faruk Umar page 16:-
Bayajida begot two children in Daura called Bawo (the son of the
Queen) and Karab-Da-Gari (the son of concubine). Bawo ruled Daura after
Bayajida whose children become the origin of seven Hausa state namely
Daura, Kano, Katsina, Zazzau (Zaria), Gobir, Rano. One the son of Bayajida
who was born before his arrival to Daura called Buram become the founder
of the seventh Hausa state called Gabas ta burum (Garin Gabas) in Hadeja
Emirate of Jigawa state.
1. Bayajida’s other son Karab da Gari become the Banza states
namely:- Yawuri, Kebbi, Zamfara, Ilorin, Gwariland, Nupeland and

According to Zaria chronicles the first king among Bawo’s children was
Gunduma and the dynasty he found in Zaria has a total of sixty kings in
which Queen Amina was the 23rd and the only Woman. The dynasty was
overthrown by the Sokoto Jihadist initiated by Usman bin Fodio in 1804.
Palmer however regards this Abu Yazid as:
“Having some historical connection with the Abu Yazid who
led the revolt of the nomad Kharijite Berbers against the
Fatimids in North Africa in the first half of the 10th Century
A.D... This Maghrib Abu Yazid was probably born in the
western Sudan and was known as “the man on the
donkey”; and was eventually captured and killed by the
Fatimis in A.D (Palmer 1936, pp. 273-4. n.1) ...................”



Thomas Hodgkin maintained that:
“In the case of Zazzau, the phase of economic and political
expansion associated with semi-legendary Queen Amina
would to seem to belong to the sixteenth rather than
fifteenth century.”
He further states that:
“Her conquest extends over thirty-years”.
On coming to power, Amina shifted her capital to Kufena area and
named it after her elder sister Zariya.
Zaria her elder sister was to be the Queen. The legend has it that Zaria
use to send Amina to a man that she kept purposely to constantly be
supplicating for her to become a Queen, but when he write some verses of
the Holy Qur’an in a tablet and wash it for her to drink, Amina on the way
will drink most part of it. That is why when she become the Queen instate of
Zaria she renamed her Capital as Zaria in honor. Of the elder sister
Although some historians gave the credit to her father whose grave is
still in Turunku near the old mountain palace.
Queen Amina organized a large force and wage wars of conquest that
brought all the Hausa lands under her control comprising parts of present
day Nigerian, Niger Republic and Cameroon. She once said that the southern
fringes of her boarder was the water (Bahar) could it be the sea Or the
Rivers Niger and Benue?
Muhammed Bello, the successor to the founder of the Sokoto Caliphate
in an answer to a question by the first Europeans to visits him said that,
Queen Amina of Zazzau and Mohammadu Kanta of Kebbi were the greatest
rulers of Hausa land before the Jihad of his father, that dismantled most of
the Hausa ruling dynasties.
An unknown European cotemporary of the Queen who visited her
further state that she recently shifted her capital from new Turunku to old
Turunku – Reaffirming the belief that Kufena area in Zaria was the earlier
settlement in which Gunduma himself was said to have been invited to,
when the people of the area were being threaten from the south. It might be
that it was the subsequent rulers that later moved to Turunku before Amina


re-locate here capital back to Kufena area when she become confident
enough to come down to the plains!
Amina walled the newly named capital.
She might have started the wars of conquest before she shifted to
Zaria, but it was evident that she walled each city she conquer, a reason
why all the walls of the cities of Hausa lands were called Amina’s walls
(Ganuwar Amina). It is claimed she usually garrison her force within the walls
for defense reasons.
The walls some of which encircled several kilometers squares and at
least a meter wide and several meters high, most have required hundreds of
thousand of people to provide the needed labour to complete the work in
such a small period of time.
Amina was the contemporary of Mai (king) Idris Alooma of Borno
Empire whom she spares of her conquest because of his use of firearms
supplied from Spain where he maintained an Embassy!
Queen Amina died when she fell from her horse and breaks her neck,
but her legend persists till date. May God forgive her wrongs. Ameen.

At the mountain top where her palace once stood in the old capital
Turunku we saw about a mater behind the stone-chair a place where three
stone ridges each of about a quarter of a meter high and such wide and
about half a mater width beside which what looks like a small grinding stone
was wedged. Our guide said the elders told them that it was were her bed
was placed on!
And what to us looks like grinding stone was actually used for
sharpening arrow heads, spears and other war objectives!
Similar sports could be identified in several other places. At the
extreme northern fringe of the mountain there is a well! What a tedious job
must it have been to dig a well on top of a mountain at that time!!
Another evidence of human settlements, was the fact that the place
was once cultivated because our guide told us that even some few years
back people use to plant onions and other vegetables on the mountain,
although at the time of our visit, the action of running rain water have
washed away most of the land!


Could the land here been raise artificially?

I also noticed a place where some lines where deliberately chipped out
of a particular stone.
Could it be a map as one of us suggested?
I also noticed that at a place not far from the stone chair, there was a
stone circle.
Could it be foundation of a room?
Could it be that when the sand was removed it could lead to other
underground parts of the place?
The evidences are so many that only a professional archeologist could


Our little expedition of non professionals comprising of myself (Umaru
Yusuf), Honourable Umaru Barau (Umaru II), Lawal Umaru, Abubakar Inusa
AbdulRashid Mailafiya and our guide went down from the place very excited
about these encounter with the past.
Then we seek to known the grave yard of one of the kings that I at first
thought was that of Gunguma, but turns out to be that Queen Amina’s
Father, King Bakwa Toranka.
A large heap of stones which recently the local government of the area
built a wall around it that a visitor could stand outside and watched
everything within, though it had a gate but we do not need to go in as we
were as if within.
The legend of Queen Amina is still as fresh in the mind of the people of
Zaria as if she ruled just some few years back.
There is a place today in Niger state of Nigeria were only women
served as traditional rulers. The origin of that ruling house was Queen
Amina. Although she never married in her life time nor ever give birth her
relatives still pride themselves as members of her family. There was a time a
woman claimed ownership a large piece of land (From Zaria to Kaduna),
when the she was ask to produce evidence she brought war dress of the
Queen claiming the piece of land in question was the queen’s farm!
Although she never won the case at list she recalls history.


May his soul rest in peace! Amen.


West African Volunteer Forces

As the sun rises in the east the large ship disguised as fishing vessel
entered the Gulf of Cambay in the Arabian Sea in its way to the Indian
coastal town of Diu in the state of Gujarat. The Cargo was not sea food, but
members of the Royal African volunteer forces.

Two submarines screen the vessel. The Commander in tactical

Command and captain of one of the submarine escorts was a newly
promoted twenty seven year old Commander Thomas Brain.

He had for the past an hour been at the periscope observing the
horizon. He was disturbed by the intelligent report his communicators were
receiving since morning that indicate heavy military activity of the Japanese
in the area. The young officer was however determined to do all he could to
help in keeping India for the British Empire.

He had intended to spend another night in the sea pretending to be

fishing due to bad weather, but he decided the bad weather may be to their

He therefore, ordered the vessel to proceed to port. By noon the

submarine surfaced. The commander stood with half of his body above
inhaling fresh air as he watched with delight the disembarkation of the men
he brought to back others in resisting Japanese adventurers.

Two hours later, Bashir stood among other volunteers at the port
listening to a speech by a white officer who was shouting in English
language. He did not understand what the officer was saying though he
remained attentive and upright. His mind has however strayed back to his


native town of Zaria city in the British occupied Sokoto caliphate were
Mallam Jafaru Dan Ishiaku was receiving the staff of authority as the 18th of
the Barebari line of multiple hereditary Fulani dynasty.

The platoon sergeant marched to the India officer that stood in front of
them, he bang his leg in the ground and took over the parade as the officer
tuned away towards the ship that had already removed the ropes used to
secure it at the jetty in its way back to the sea.

Commander Thomas Brian holding binocular twisted the adjustable

part of the instrument. His eyes opened wider than the lenses in his front.
He quickly went in and closed the top hatch of the submarine and ordered
its immediate submerging. He alerted the other submarine whose radar was
already picking an un-identified Aircraft contact.

The sergeant hand over the parade to a Gambian named Ba Jamme

who then ordered the volunteers to march out of the temporary parade
ground and wait for further orders.

Bashiru who has no friend moved to vicinity where he sighted some

Muslims about to observe a prayer while most of the members of his infantry
battalion went towards an already crowded warehouse to collect dry ration
of food.

The “Mosque” Bashiru went to, was very simple, a swept bush and
some pieces of stones geometrically arranged to indicate position of the
Imam and his other congregational followers. Some volunteers were already
in the Mosque, an elderly Ashanti man from the Gold coast extend his hands
to Bashiru directing him to take the position of the Imam.

“Allah Akbar” he says as he commences …………… just then without

warning Japanese war planes which the navy was trying to identify
materialized in the rather clear and peaceful sky, dropping bombs and firing
guns indiscriminately at the bewildered troops.

The submarines surface to – air – missile system was activated, two

containers emerged from the Sea and the contents flawed to the sky as the


Army Anti – Air – Craft Guns from the surrounding mountains explode against
the enemy flying machines that were growing in numbers.

One of the planes was hit but the pilot either out of last desperate act
of heroism or madness was still firing at everything that look British, but a
missile fired from the submarine got its target. The Japanese plane plunged
headfirst in flames and crashed noisily. Some volunteers regained their
confidence by targeting the now retreating aircrafts as they emptied the
cartridge chambers of their guns creating a rat-tat sound that echoes

“Assalamu Alaikun” Bashiru ends the payers. He turns to the others

behind “always” he began “remember that victory is from God and no one
dies but at his stipulated time. May God protect us” he concludes his sermon
and prayers. “Amen!” the congregation said.

They hurriedly picked their riffles and joined other volunteers shouting
the encouraging slogan of the African fighters.

Death is rest!

Death is rest!!


Bashiru took aim at the Japanese jet that flew too low and fired bullets as he
emptied his magazine.

A bullet passed through the pilot’s head, he died instantly but the
plane continued flying until it crashed into a mountain side in a debris of fire
arising from the burning metal and fuel.

“Well done! Well done!! A British army officer said as he passed by in a

roaring jip, raising dust.

Thousands of British African volunteer forces surged forward as battle

for Gujarat commences!


The British artillery had proceeded followed closely by the tanks they
pound the Japanese position in Surat. The proceeding tank units passed the
artillery. They were being followed closely by the foot army of the African

Suddenly the Japanese artillery opened up! Men fell to take cover, fire
and dust rose in so many places ahead of the advancing British forces. The
British artillery and tanks retaliated, sending balls of fire ahead, the
Japanese artillery target closed up the movement of the British tanks
haltered, but their guns only increased porosity!!

Sounds of guns, crying of men, sounds of wheels and chains in

the blinding rising dust with fire and pieces of men and war machineries,
burning trees and metals and men!

Bashiru trust himself forward as he and many of his fellow infantry

men dodged their way in a desperate attempt to chase away the invading
Japanese out of India. Men fell as rattling sounds of rifles and hand grenades
were thrown as the opposing forces neared each other. After twenty hours of
battle; the Japanese were forced to withdraw from Surat.

The victorious British forces entered to port city and from there they
fan out to Cambay and Diu as they chased away the retreating Japanese.

Bashiru and some men were left in Surat temporarily to defend the
port. Most of the battle was fought at night and because of that they do not
see the inhabitants of this old city until in the following morning. Most of the
women, children and the elderly left behind start appearing from their
hidden places to welcome their host, the Indians were surprised to see black
men among them, and even though they were afraid of the Africans curiosity
made some of them to go near them in order to find out if this fighting men
were actually black in color or because of dirt.

Some of the Africans felt insulted and reacted by beating them.

Bashiru has to intervene in many occasions by explaining to his fellows that
this is a strange place out of Africa where the people might never been seen
blacks before.


On the third day, a Raja leading some Indian Raj puts invite Bashiru to
a nearby village where he saw some black Indians that to Bashiru looked
like Fulani, the cattle herders of the west African grassland.

He was told they were Kush originally. They were on their way back
when message reached them that the Japanese have regrouped and where
about to retake Surat. Bashiru and his Raj put friend had to go back to their
unit to prepare for the defense of the Port City.

* * *

Lt. Rogers Barach glanced through the map once again, dots of red
stars indicating Japanese positions confronted him, and he wiped the sweat
precipitating in his forehead. He stood up from the squatting position he

Holding his swagger stick, he walked fore and aft in the jungle trench,
occasionally turning his head to glance at his troops, the time will be 1930
hours there was still about three hours more. They had spent two days in
trenches waiting for orders from the higher authority.

He sticks his head out of the trench standing on a ladder to survey the
terrain using a vernacular, even though he did not, he was half sure he could
see the enemy rooming about ahead.

By 1950 hours dot, a telegraph message was received directing them

to proceed immediately. Lt. Rogers ordered his men out of the trenches they
fixed bayonets to their guns and proceed forward in advance formation………
…………………………………..This was to be the testing ground to Bashir who
was to test battle after battle from India to Burma in the service of his
colonial masters until the American attack on Hiroshima that ends WW II by
Japanese surrender, before Bashiru was shipped back home. This experience
was part of what electrified the imaginations of some colonized people, to
start agitating for independence. In Nigeria it was to be 1960. October the



2045 A.D

150 years old Bashiru sat on a ram’s skin at the outer room of his
quarters listening to the good news his great granddaughter brought to him
about the result of the just concluded presidential election in which his
grandson through his Birom’s 15th wife was declared the winner!

He checked the position of his hand in the beads he uses to count the
number of time he seeks for the forgiveness of God that morning. It was in
the second to the last position of the 1000th count beads. He nods

“What is it by the time?” he asked her.

“7 am” she replied

“What day? I hardly use to know the days nowadays” still nodding.

“Saturday” she replied

He then shook his heads

“A mixed fortune he had to prepare for a war!! Call him for me”.




The Morse code is used in telegraph communication. In this code, the
letters, numbers and punctuation marks are represented by dots and
This work is a research on the logic used in designing the codes.

What you are about to read is not a story but rather a research work I am
opportune to conduct for two reasons;

1. I am a radio operator a telegrapher with over fifteen years experience

of transmission and reception; therefore I fully understood the nature
of Morse code manipulations.

2. I read Mathematics and when one day I visited my school library to

write an assignment my eye fell on a book written by a Russian called
N. Vilenkin, titled combinatorial mathematics for recreation and it was
in it I discovered that the codes were designed using a formula of
permutation a topic in mathematic.

These two reasons guide my imaginations to write what you are about to
read, hopping that it will at the end be of use in addition to the
entertaining reading, because as you will come to realize; Morse code
utilizing electricity and later electromagnetic waves, was to be the roots
of all telecommunication utilities!

Note. for you to fully appreciate the narration, if you are not professional
or not a ‘’Morse code literate’’ you have to keep in view the international
Morse code, especially when you start reading where the characters are


Also note, as you proceed in the narration, you will come across examples
of the characters representing either an alphabets or a numbers, I usually
place the characters in brackets for example (-…) for b.


Morse code is a method for transmitting telegraphic information, using

standardized sequence of short and long elements to represent letters,
numerals, punctuation and special characters of a message.

The short and long elements can be formed by sounds, marks or pulses in on
/ off key and are commonly known as “dots” and “dashes” or dits and “dats”

Morse code can be transmitted in a numbers of ways such as:

i. Electrical pulses along a telegraph wire

ii. An audio tone
iii. A radio signal with short and long tones
iv. A mechanical signal
v. A visual signal (e.g. a flashing light) using devices like an Addis lamp

The most popular current use of Morse code is by amateur radio operators
but it is no longer a requirement for amateur licensing, however it is
continuously in use for specialized purpose.

These codes however were designed using mathematical notations known

as permutation – which is defined as an ordering of a certain number of
elements of a given set.

Originally created for Samuel F.B. Morse electrical telegraph in the early
1840s, Morse code was also extensively used for early radio communication
beginning in the twentieth century, the majority of high – speed international


communication was conducted in Morse code, using telegraph lines,

undersea cables and radio circuits.

Morse code is still being used for specialized purpose, including identification
of navigational radio beacon and land mobile transmitters, plus some
military communication, including flashing light between ships for tactical
operations that avoids the emission of electromagnetic waves, which is
detectable by the enemy.


Samuel and Alfred (1836) developed an electrical telegraph, which

used electrical currents to control an electromagnet that was located at the
receiving end of the telegraph wire.

The technology available at the time made it impossible to print

characters in a readable form, so the inventors had to device alternate
means of communication.

Earlier, William and Charles (1837) had operated electric telegraphs in

England, which also controlled electromagnets in the receivers; however,
their systems used needle pointers that rotated to indicate the alphabetic
characters being sent.

In contrast, Morse and Vail’s initial telegraph, which first went into
operation in 1844, made indentations on a paper tape when an electrical
current was transmitted. Morse original telegraph receiver used mechanical
clockwork to move a paper tape. When an electrical current was received,
an electromagnet engaged an armature that pushed a stylus onto the
moving paper tape, making an indentation on the tape.

When the current was interrupted, the electromagnet retracted the

stylus, and portion of the moving tape remained unmarked.


The Morse code was developed so that operators could translate the
indentations marked on the paper into text messages. In his earliest code,
Morse had planned to only transmit numerals and use a dictionary to look up
each word according to the number, which had been sent.

However, the code was soon expanded to include letters and special
characters, so it could be used more generally. The shorter marks were
called “dot” and the longer one “dashes”, and the letters most commonly
used in the English language were assigned the shortest sequences.

In the original Morse telegraphs, the receiver’s armature made a

clicking noise as it moved into and out of position to mark the tape.
Operators soon learned to translate the clicks directly into dot and dashes,
making it unnecessary to use the paper tape, when Morse code was adapted
to radio, the dot and dashes were sent as short and long pulses. It was later
found that people become more proficient at receiving Morse code when it is
taught as a language that is heard, instead of one read from a paper. To
reflect the sound of Morse code, practitioners began to vocalize a dot as
“dit”, and a dash as “dah”.


Morse codes were designed from only two elements (a dot & a dash) to
provide codes for all alphabets and numbers used in writing.

What the research wish to solve was the logic used in designing these
puzzling codes, for at one time, one of the researchers had thought it were
the symbols of some heavenly bodies!


Results of every enquiry always expose avenues to understanding

other unknowns in the same or even other field of knowledge. This study
therefore, has as its objective, to expose the logic used in designing the
element variations and combinations in Morse code in order to make easier
the expansion of the frontiers of knowledge in general.



So many problems of this world are still defying any solution just as one
time man could not solve the problems of long distance communications
prior to the development of telegraphy utilizing Morse codes.

In the field of medicine for example there is still no known cure for aids.
There is also no remedy to Ozone layer leakage that is causing further
worming of the earth due to infrared light penetration to our atmosphere!

For solution to be found in every problem that has no “readymade”

solution “brain storming” trails by errors might be required to diagnose the
problem and provide a solution to it.

Mathematics being the “backbone” of science usually acts as bridge that

link problem to a solution as this expository research shows, when
permutation with repetition provide the necessary formula that aid in
designing Morse codes.

The significance of this study therefore is to shows how mathematics

when critically viewed could be the “pointer” towards solutions to so many


The research intends to examine only the logic of the “element

groupings” in Morse code.


The idea of using electricity to communicate over distance is said to

have occurred to Morse during a conversation aboard ship when he was
returning from Europe. Michael Faraday’s (1832) recently invented
electromagnet was much discussed by the ships passengers, and when
Morse comes to understand how it worked, he speculated that it might be
possible to send coded messages over a wire.


Despite what he had learned at Yale, Morse found when he began to

develop his idea that he had little real understanding of the nature of
electricity, and after sporadic attempts to work with batteries, magnets and
wire, he finally turned for help to a colleague at the university of the city of
New York, Leonard D (c.1835) – a professor of chemistry who was familiar
with the electrical work of Princeton’s Joseph H. (a true pioneer in the new
field). Well before Morse has his shipboard idea about a telegraph, a
research has been made on ringing a bell at a distance by opening and
closing an electric circuit and had published an article, of which Morse was
unaware, that contained details suggesting the idea of an electric telegraph.
Gales help and his knowledge of this article proved crucial to Morse ‘s
telegraph system because Gale not only pointed out flows in the system but
showed Morse how he could regularly boost the strength of a signal and
overcome the distance problems he had encountered by using a relay
system Henry had invented. Henry’s experiments, Gale’s assistance and
soon after, hiring the young technician Alfred Vail were keys to Morse’s

Morse had enough confidence in his new system to apply for the
federal government’s appropriation and later conducted demonstrations of
his Telegraph both in New York and Washington. However Morse was forced
to wait for better times. Morse visited Europe again and tried to secure
patent protection and to examine competing telegraph systems in England.

He met Charles Wheatstone, the inventor of one such system, where he

realized although his own system was far simpler, more efficient and easier
to use; his competitor had built an ingenious mechanism.

Morse’s system has an automatic sender consisting of a plate with long and
short metal bars representing the Morse code equivalent of the alphabet and

The House of Representative (1843) passed a bill containing the Morse

appropriation and the senate approved it - When due to the economic
recovery of the time Morse asked the congress for $30,000 that allowed him


to link Washington with Baltimore successfully! And soon overhead wires

connected cities up and down the Atlantic Coast – and later virtually all over
the world!


To utilize the codes for passing Information as pulses of electrical

currents over wire an instrument called Morse key i.e. J-38 US Model
(Manufactured during WW II and which remains in used today) is used.

A signal is “on” when the Knob is pressed and “off” when it is released.
The length and timing of the short and long pulses are entirely controlled by
the operator.


1. All correspondence between two stations begins with the call signal.
For calling, the calling station shall transmit the call sign (not more than
twice) of the station requirement then the word DE followed by its own call
sign, the appropriate abbreviation to indicate a priority telegram, an
indication of the reason for the call and the signal “K” which means “over”
and refers to: “I had finished transmission / I understood what you transmit
and I now invite you to respond.”

Unless there are special rules peculiar to the type of apparatus used, the call
shall always be made at hand speed.

2. The station called must reply immediate by transmitting the call sign
of the calling station, the word DE followed by own call sign and the signal

If the station called is unable to receive, it shall give the wait signal. If
it expects the wait to exceed ten minutes, the reason and probable duration
shall be given.

When a station does not reply, the call may be repeated at suitable


When the station called does not reply to the repeated call, the
condition of circuit must be examined.

3. The double hyphen (- …-) shall be transmitted:-

(i) To separate the preamble from the service indications

(ii) The service from each other

(iii) The service from indications from the address

(iv) The station of destination from the text.

(v) The text from the signature.

4. A transmission, once begun, may not be interrupted to give place to

communication of higher priority except in a case of absolute urgency.

5. Every telegram shall be terminated with a cross signal AR (. -. -.).

6. The end of the transmission shall be indicated by the cross signal “AR”
(. -. -.) Followed by the invitation to transmit signal K (-. -).

7. The end of work shall be indicated by the station that transmitted the
last telegram. The correct indication is the end of work signal “VA” (…-.-)


The only methods used were historical and descriptive. For the
historical, we depends on digging historical facts available in internet and for
the descriptive, we depends on a translated book from Russian by George
Vilenkin N which described how the formula of permutation with repetition
was used to designed the code.


The researchers had carefully grouped the codes according to the type
and number of elements per alphabet or number and using the formula for


number of permutation with repetition had found out the logic suggested in
the Vilenkin’s book is correct.


The dot and dashes used to design the symbols, totals 132 elements (for
both Alphabets and Numbers) varied out of the two (dot and dash) out of
these, 69 are dots and 63 are dashes.

The punctuation marks where formed by combining two or more

Alphabets i.e. AAA (.-.-.-) for full stop (.)

From these, it could be seen that:

Some characters among the Alphabets require only a single element i.e.
“E” and “T” as a symbol or code but others especially the numbers requires
five elements each as codes.

Then, there are also 2 element groups, three element groups and four
element groups.

The two element groups could further be subdivided into:

(i) Those formed by only dots or by only dashes i.e. “I” and “M” respectively.
(ii) Those formed by the combination of the two i.e. “A” and “N” beginning with
a dot and a dash respectively.

Similarly, the three-element group could be further grouped as:

(i) Those formed by only dots or by only dashed i.e. “S” and “O” respectively.
(ii) Those formed by the combination of three, which could also be further
subdivided as: -

(a) Those beginning with two same elements and ending with the other i.e. “G”
and “U”
(b)Those beginning and ending with either a dot or a dash and the other in the
middle i.e. “R” and “K”.


Finally, the four-element group could as well be subdivided as follows: -

(a) Those with more dots (H, B, F, L and V) out of which “H” has no dash in its
elements but “B”, “L”, “F” and “V” have single dash each, at the beginning,
as a second element, a third element and the fourth element respectively.

(b)Those with more dashes (J, Q, and Y) with 3 dashes and one dot each
.The dots are located as the first, second and third elements respectively.

(c) Those with two dots and two dashes (C, P, X and Z).

Among these characters: -

(i) “C” has began with a dot followed by a dash and then repeated the
sequence, ending with a dot.
(ii) “P” began with a dot and end with a dot with two dashes in the middle.
(iii) “X” which began with a dash and end with a dash with two dots in the
(iv) “Z” that began with two dashes and ends with two dots.


At first glance, Morse codes gave some mystical puzzlement.

How was it formed? Is it heavenly symbols connected to Astrology? The

researchers think so because in a book on introduction to Astrology written
in Hausa language Titled “Hisabi a sawake” there are some signs similar to
the codes!

Also, why for instance, do some characters require only a single element
i.e. “E” and “T” as a symbol – while others require more?

Why up to 5 elements are required for some?

Can’t we form all by maximum of only 4 elements to save time? Since

each word has to be spelt?


Now let’s look at the questions from the angle of what we want in the first

“The coding of Alphabets and numbers”

There are 26 Alphabets (A-z) and 10 digits (0-9) for numbers – making a
total of 36 characters using two elements a dot and a dash, the science of
permutation being one of several possible arrangements of things in
mathematics could be utilized.

In it there is a formula for number of permutation with repetitions, 2 rests

to the power of n, i.e. (2n) where the 2 represent the 2 elements of Morse
code (a dot and a dash), and the n represent number of element (s) to be
used in forming the character or symbol. These can be utilized to have a
symbol for each of these 36 characters.

Utilizing a single element for a character, we can be able to form any 21 =

2 different symbols (.) for “E” and (-) for “T”.

Utilizing t form 22 = 4 other characters – these are (.-) for “A”, (..) for “I”, (--)
for “M” and (-.) for “N”

Utilizing three elements was possible to form other 23 =8 more characters

out which (-..) is for “D”, (--.) for ”G”, (-.-) for ”K”, (---) for “O”, (.-.) for “R”,
(…) for “S”, (..-) for “U” and (.--) for “W” were designed.

Utilizing for element s it will yield 24 = 16 more characters which include (-

…) for “B”, (-.-.) for “C”, (..-.) for “F”, (….) for “H”(.---) for “J” (.-..) for “L”, (.--.)
for “P”,(--.-) for “Q”, (…-) for “V”, (-..-) for “X”, (-.--) for “Y” and (--..) for “Z”.

It should be noted here that only 12 out of the 16 possible arrangements

were chosen

But also the total number of letters that can be transmitted by means of four
elements is 2 +4+8+16 = 30 so we require 6 more.

Taking the combination of 5 elements in addition, we get 25 = 32 more.


Adding 30 with 32 we get 62, which are quite sufficient for telegraph

All the number symbols are formed from 5 element groups i.e.

(.----) for 1

(..---) for 2

(…--) for 3

(….-) for 4

(…..) for 5

(-….) for 6

(--…) for 7

(---..) for 8

(----.) for 9

(-----) for 0

Most frequently used characters were assigned codes with more dots
to minimize time of transmission and for the same season, there were more
dots than dashes in the total number of the elements allocated to the


The Morse code is used in telegraph communications to represent

letters, numbers and punctuation marks utilizing dot (s) and dash (es). Some
characters require only a single element (a dot or a dash) others use more
(the same type of element s or combination of both).

The codes where designed using the formula for the number of
permutations with repetitions 2n where 2 represent the two elements in the


set (a dot and a dash) and n represent the number of elements (single or
combination) in the character.

It follows that; using one element to form a character it is possible to

form only two letters (in 21 = 2), using 2 elements (22 = 4), 3 elements (23 =
8) and 4 elements (24 =16) Thus, the total number of letters that can
be transmitted by means of four characters is: 2+4+8+16 = 30

Taking an Alphabet of 26 letters, number (0-9) and marks of

punctuation, we see that symbols made up of four characters do not suffice.
Thus taking combination of 5 elements we will have additional 25 = 32
symbols in addition to the 30 obtained from 4 elements combinations.

These 62 symbols are quit sufficient for telegraph communications.

It should be noted here however that there exist a five – digit code for
telegraph communications that make use of five symbols (elements) for
every latter but that is not part of these work.

This code yields exactly 25 = 32 different arrangement combinations, which

is enough for all the letters, numbers and punctuations.

It has a special device for shifting from letters to numerals and back again.


Most major scientific breakthrough, were results of research works.

Mine, though a mere expository research for academic exercise has helped
in throwing more light on the importance of mathematics in most if not all-
scientific decisions.


Therefore, although, already mathematics is a compulsory subject in

schools, it is yet here by further recommended to remain as such.

It is also recommended that the formula 2n used, be modified as An in

which A could as well be any number except zero and one of different
element in a given set.


N. Vilenkin (1972)

Combinatorial Mathematics for recreations, Page 11.


Translated from the Russian, by George Yankousky MIR Publishers


Allied Communication Publication (ACP 131 B) used by the Allied

navies during the World War 11

Samuel F.B.M. & Alfred (1836). The invention of Telegraphy.

Source: - Internet hppt://

Hisabi a Sawwake, by Al Nashirul Hajji Muhammadul Bashiru

‘Yantandu Kano- Nigeria.


1. ALPHABET – A set of letters in a fixed order representing the sounds

of a language


2. CHARACTER- Written sign

3. CODE- A system of words or symbols used to represent others.
4. DASH - A punctuation mark (-)
5. DOT – A small round mark (.)
6. ELEMENT- A unit
7. MORSE CODE- A code of a signal using short and long sounds or
flashes of light
8. NUMBER – Symbol of quantity
9. NUMERAL – Symbol representing a number.
10. STATION CALLED – The receiver of the message
11. TELEGRAPH – A system for sending message by electrical impulses


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