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Bases are the chemical opposite of acids.

Acids are defined as compounds that donate a hydrogen ion (H+) to another compound (called a base). Traditionally, an acid (from the Latin acidus or acere meaning sour) was any chemical compound that, when dissolved in water, gives a solution with a hydrogen ion activity greater than inpure water, i.e. a pH less than 7.0. Correspondingly, a base was any compound that, when dissolved in water, gives a solution with a hydrogen ion activity lower than that of pure water, i.e. a pH higher than 7.0 at standard conditions. A soluble base is also called an alkali. A reaction between an acid and a base is called neutralization and this neutralization results in production of water and a salt. Volatile liquids (acids) when mixed with specific substances turn into salts. These substances form a concrete base and hence the name base was derived. Acids in general are H+ donors and Bases are H+ acceptors.

Definition: Arrhenius Definition: An acid is any chemical compound which when dissolved in water gives a solution with a hydrogen ion activity greater than in pure water. Bronstead Lowry Definition: An acid is an substance which donates a proton. Less than 7.0. Depending on the temperature, acids can occur in solid, liquid or gaseous form. Taste sour.

Arrhenius Definition: A base is an aqueous substance that can accept hydrogen ions. Bronstead Lowry Definition: A base is any substance which accepts a proton.

pH (measure ofconcentration of hydrogen ions in a solution): Physical characteristics:

Strength: Phenolphthalein: Other Properties:

Dissociation: Chemical Formula:

Examples: Litmus test:

depends on concentration of the hydronium ions remains colorless Electrolytes, conduct electricity (because electrolytes), react with many metals. Acids free hydrogen ions (H+) when mixed with water. An acid has a chemical formula with H at the beginning of it. For example, HCl (Hydrochloric Acid). There is one exception to his rule, CH3COOH = Acetic Acid (vinegar) Acetic acid i.e.CH3COOH andSulfuric acid Acids change litmus paper red.

Greater than 7.0 and could go up to 14 in case of stronger bases. Bases feel slippery because of the reaction of the base with the oils of your hand. Frequently solids except ammonia which is a gas. Taste bitter. depends on concentration of the hydroxide ions Makes it pink Electrolytes, conduct electricity, ranges from insoluble to so soluble that they can react with water vapor. Bases free hydroxide ions (OH-) when mixed with water. A base has a chemical formula with OH at the end of it. For example, NaOH (Sodium Hydroxide).

Sodium Hydroxide (NAOH) and Ammonia (NH3) Bases change litmus paper blue.

Properties of acids vs bases

Bases have a slippery feel on fingers and taste bitter. They change litmus paper blue. Acids taste sour and create a stinging feeling on the mucous membranes. They change litmus paper red. They can react with bases to produce salts and water. They both conduct electricity depending on the dissociation of ions. Acids have a pH lesser than 7.0 and the lower it is, the stronger the acid becomes. Bases have a pH between 7 and 14. Higher the pH value,stronger will be the base. A pH level of 7 is a neutral substance which is water.

Differences in Applications for acids and bases

Acids are often used to remove rust from metals, as an electrolyte in batteries, for mineral processing, to produce fertilizers and gasoline and as additives in food and beverages. Bases are used primarily in cleaning as dishwashingand laundry detergents, oven cleaners and stain removers.