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Water Level Sensor

Dexter S. De Guzman, ECE Department, Adamson University de_guzman_dexter@yahoo.com

Abstract- This project entitled Water Level Sensor aims to determine the level of water in standpipes, wells, tanks or wherever possible that water is being stored and especially in places which are flood-prone area, through the connections of the grounds of the circuit and with the use of the AND and NOT gate and displays the output with the 7-segment display common cathode. This project was given to engineering student especially students taking up Electronic Devices and Circuits to apply, observe and learn basics in electronics. Applying their knowledge in circuits by following the given circuit and learning how to do it in EAGLE software or PCB Wizard and transferring it to the PCB board.

Keywords AND, NOT gate, 7 segment display common cathode, Electronics Devices and Circuits, Eagle, PCB Wizard. I. INTRODUCTION

sodium. When water is boiled and the steam is allowed to condense in a reservoir. The pure liquid that remains, devoid of minerals, is called distilled water. And distilled water or purified water cant conduct electricity because of the absence of the impurities or of the minerals. Salt water, on the other hand, is considered a good conductor of electricity because it contains ions in it. Tap water, although it doesn't taste salty, can also conduct electricity because it isn't pure. The water from the kitchen sink often has traces of minerals such as calcium, Ca2+, and magnesium, Mg2+ and can help conduct electricity. However, what needs to be noted here is that not all water is the same nor will it conduct electricity at the same rate. Therefore this device cant be use on industry for measuring purified water. And thats only the exception. II. PROCEDURE

This project Water Level Sensor is a water indicator which tells the user if a certain container is low, half, and full. And in accordance with the full is an alarm where if the operator is distant he/she can still be informed about the status of the water level. This device can be used in a wide range of applications. Basically Plain water contains dissolved minerals like calcium, magnesium, iron and

A. GATHERING INFORMATION So first we get first the schematic diagram of the device, how does it looks, what are the components, how does it work etc. We should now gather information how to etch, drill, and solder to make our own designs. We also need to study basic programs to do the design.

Basically it works when the points are connected as shown in this figure.

Figure 1.1 B. MAKING A DESIGN Since the schematic design is given we need now to follow the circuit and design our own.

Fig. 1.3 (The Design in PCB Wizard-Real World)

Fig. 1.4 (The Design in PCB Wizard-ArtWork) Figure 1.2 (The Schematic Design Given) Designing my own circuit in my case im more used to PCB Wizard and Livewire software program that is also used for designing PCB layouts, where you can manually and let the software place the connections for you, and i used manual to reduce jumpers. The Design is shown: C. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DESIGN Due to trials and errors I find it more easy and effective using a laser copy of the circuit to a bond paper and then ironing it to the PCB board where by 20 mins the Ink that was on the Paper will be transferred to the PCB but before taking out the paper it should be immersed to water to let the paper unstick to the PCB board. Unlike using Pre-synthesized PCB it more detailed

and difficult to use beacuse of the proper and time of exposing it to light and Acetate paper should be used and much more expensive as I experienced. D. Etching. After the circuit design was transferred to the board, make sure there is no broken line because you dont want to have a broken connection thats why it should be checked thoroughly. Do not put the ferric chloride to a metal container it should be plastic, after pouring the ferric, immerse the PCB and slightly shake or move the container so that it will take the uncovered part of the copper quickly. After all the uncovered part was etched and the remaining part was the drawing of the circuit, rinse the PCB to a clean water and then use a sand paper to remove the inked marked and reveal the copper connections.

components will not be working or will not work properly.

Fig 1.5

Fig 1.6 Figure 1.5 and 1.6 shows the after installation of the components. As shown, The IC and the Displays where given sockets to protect them from direct etching and also to replace them easily. F. TROUBLESHOOTING When it comes to troubleshooting the lines should be checked if their connected to other line or if not connected/open. Checked your circuit if its working, if not look for possible problems, IC and the 7 segment since these two are sensitive. And also check the biasing of the IC and the

E. INSTALLING THE COMPONENTS. Installing the components is the most exciting part, first you need to drill the holes where your IC, 7 segment display, resistor, source, jumper, buzzer and switch located. After that you need to place each component one by one to their respective places and then soldering the components with a soldering lead. Integrated Circuits and the 7 segment display are pretty sensitive and soldering should not be overdone beacuse if does the

buzzer and the switch and also the 7 segment display. III. OBSERVATIONS

months or years and apply what we learn to build better and more creative ideas for the applications of theorems that we are studying through years. REFERENCES
1. http://humantouchofchemistry.com/do es-distilled-water-conductelectricity.htm

I observed that on making PCB Designs, it is more easy if you can manual your work since there is less connections you can also put it to organized manner where all components goes together just like the resistor, IC, and the 7 segment display. And one more advantage I think is that you will not get confused where the inputs and outputs are located and during troubleshooting, you will know where part of the circuit is malfunctioning and more importantly you will understand how the system of your circuit works and by that, it is easy to analyze. I also observed that ironing method is more easy and more effective than using acetate and exposing it to light, with that you will not be sure if the lines are drawn correctly and completely.

2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_of _matter#

IV.

CONCLUSIONS

I conclude that this Water Level Sensor can be used for future experiments and can be improved to help people especially in the event of rainfall or typhoons to tell ahead of time or at the current time the level of water running into our seas, damns, or just in our streets. It will help a lot to communities which are floodprone area beacause it will display an output where you can say its still safe or not safe and if you need to evacuate the area etc. I also concluded that this Water Level Sensor project made me know and familiarize more on making electronic designs which we can improve in the coming days, weeks,