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# Unit I SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR

## 1. What do you mean by the salient-pole type rotor?

Salient - pole type rotor means a low and moderate speed rotor having large diameter and small axial length with projected poles coming out of the rotor frame the outer surface of which almost follows the inner cylindrical surface of the stator frame. 2. Define voltage regulation of an alternator?

The voltage regulation of an alternator is defined as the increase in terminal voltage when full load is thrown off, assuming field current and speed remaining the same. Percentage regulation = E0 - V

x 100

E0 = No load terminal voltage V = Full load rated terminal voltage. 3. What are the advantages of having rotating field system? 1. Better insulation 2. Ease of current collection 3. Increased armature tooth strength. 4. More rigid construction 5. Reduced armature leakage reactance. 6. Lesser number of sliprings. 4.Why is EMF method called Pessimistic method? The value of voltage regulation obtained by EMF method is always more than the actual value, therefore it is called Pessimistic method. 5.Why is MMF method called Optimistic method? The value of voltage regulation obtained by MMF method is less than the actual value, therefore it is called Optimistic method. 6.Compare salient pole rotor & smooth cylindrical rotor. Cylindrical Rotor Salient Pole Rotor 1. Large diameter and short axial length 1 . Small diameter and long axial length 2. Used alternators for lowspeed 2. Used for high - speed turboalternators

## 3. No projecting poles 4. Does not need damper windings.

4. Needs damper windings 5. Windage loss is less 5.Windage loss is more 7. How is the armature winding in alternators different from those used in dc machines? The armature winding of the alternator is placed in the stator, but the in case of dc machines, armature winding is placed in rotor. 8. What are the methods by using zero p.f. lagging curve can be obtained?

Zero power factor characteristic of an alternator gives the variation of terminal voltage with field current, when the alternator is delivering its full rated current to a zero power factor (lagging)load. This characteristic is obtained by running the machine at synchronous speed and connecting a purely inductive 3phase load to its terminals. The load is varied in steps and at each step the field current is adjusted, so that the armature current is equal to its rated value. 9. What are squirrel-cage windings of alternators? How and why are they used?

Damper windings are squirrel cage windings of the alternators. This winding is placed in rotor pole shoes. 10. Write down the equation for frequency of emf induced in an Altenator. Frequency of emf induced in an Alternator,f ,expressed in cycles per second or Hz, is given by the following equation, f = (PN)/120 Hz Where, P-Numberofpoles N-Speed in rpm 11. What are the advantages Synchronous machines? of salient pole type construction used for

Advantages of salient-pole type construction are : They allow better ventilation The pole faces are so shaped that the radial air gap length increases from the pole center to the pole tips so that the flux distribution in the air-gap is sinusoidal in shape which will help the machine to generate sinusoidal emf Due to the variable reluctance the machine develops additional reluctance

## power which is independent of excitation

12. Name the types of Alternator based on their rotor construction. Alternators can be classified into the following two types according to its rotor construction, Smooth cylindrical type alternator Salient pole alternator 13.Why is short pitch winding preferred over full-pitch winding ? Advantages, Waveform of the emf can be approximately made to a sine wave and distorting harmonics can be reduced or totally eliminated. Conductor material , copper , is saved in the back and front end Connections due to less coil-span. Fractional slot winding with fractional number of lots/phase can be used which in turn reduces the tooth ripples. Mechanical strength of the coil is increased

14. Define winding factor. The winding factor Kd is defined as the ratio of phasor addition of emf induced in all the coils belonging to each phase winding to their arithmetic addition. 15. Why are Alternators rated in kVA and not in kW? The continuous power rating of any machine is generally defined as the power the machine or apparatus can deliver for a continuous period so that the losses incurred in the machine gives rise to a steady temperature rise not exceeding the limit prescribed by the insulation class. Apart from the constant loss incurred in Alternators is the copper loss, occurring in the 3 -phase winding which depends on I 2 R, the square of the current delivered by the generator. As the current is directly related to apparent - power delivered by the generator , the Alternators have only their apparent power in VA/kVA/MVA as their power rating. 16.What is the necessity for predetermination of voltage regulation? Most of the Alternators are manufactured with large power rating , hundreds of kW or MW, and also with large voltage rating upto 33kV. For Alternators of such power and voltage ratings conducting load test is not possible. Hence other indirect methods of testing are used and the performance like voltage regulation then can be predetermined at any desired load currents and power factors. 17.Name the various 3-phase Alternator. methods for predetermining the voltage regulation of

The following are the three methods which are used to predetermine the voltage regulation of smooth cylindrical type Alternators Synchronous impedance / EMF method Ampere-turn / MMF method Potier / ZPF method 18.What are the advantages and disadvantages of estimating the voltage regulation of an Alternator by EMF method? Advantages: Simple no load tests (for obtaining OCC and SCC) are to be conducted Calculation procedure is much simpler

Disadvantages: The value of voltage regulation obtained by this method is always higher than the actual value.

19.What are the test data required for predetermining the voltage regulation of an Alternator by MMF method? Data required for MMF method are : Effective resistance per phase of the 3-phase winding (R) Open circuit characteristic (OCC) at rated speed/frequency Short circuit characteristic (SCC) at rated speed/frequency 20. Why is the MMF method of estimating the voltage regulation considered as the optimistic method? Compared to the EMF method, MMF method, involves more number of complex calculation steps. Further the OCC is referred twice and SCC is referred once while predetermining the voltage regulation for each load condition. Reference of OCC takes care of saturation effect. As this method require more effort, the final result is very close to the actual value. Hence this method is called optimistic method. 21. State the condition to be satisfied before connecting two alternators in parallel? The following are the three conditions to be satisfied by synchronizing the additional Alternator with the existing one or the common bus-bars. The terminal voltage magnitude of the incoming alternator must be made equal to the existing Alternator or the bus-bar voltage magnitude.

The phase sequence of the incoming Alternator voltage must be similar to the bus-bar voltage. The frequency of the incoming Alternator voltage must be the same as the bus-bar voltage.

22. List the factors that affect the load sharing in parallel operating generators? The total active and reactive power delivered to the load, connected across the common bus-bars, are shared among Synchronous generators, operating in parallel, based on the following three factors, Prime-mover characteristic/input Excitation level and Percentage synchronous impedance and its R/X ratio

23. How are alternators classified? According to type of field system Stationary field system type Rotating field system type According to shape of field system Salient pole type Smooth cylindrical type 24. Which type of Synchronous generators are used in Hydro-electric plants and why? As the speed of operation is low for hydro turbines use din Hydro-electric plants, salient pole type Synchronous generators are used. These allow better ventilation and also have other advantages over smooth cylindrical type rotor. 25. Why almost all large size Synchronous machines are constructed with rotating field system type? The following are the principal advantages of the rotating field system type construction of Synchronous machines: The relatively small amount of power, about 2%, required for field system via slip-rings and brushes. For the same air gap dimensions, which is normally decided by the kVA rating, more space is available in the stator part of the machine for providing more insulation to the system of conductors, especially for machines rated for 11kV or above. Insulation to stationary system of conductors is not subjected to mechanical stresses due to centrifugal action.

Stationary system of conductors can easily be braced to prevent deformation. It is easy to provide cooling arrangement for a stationary system of conductors. Firm stationary connection between external circuit and system of conductors enable he machine to handle large amount of volt-ampere as high as 500MVA.

## Unit II SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

1. What is hunting? How is hunting minimized? When a synchronous motor is used for driving a fluctuating load, the rotor starts oscillating about its new position of equilibrium corresponding to the new load. This is called hunting or phase swinging. To prevent hunting, dampers (or) damping grids are employed. Damper windings are short circuited, copper bars are embedded in the faces of the field poles of the motor. 2.When is a synchronous motor said to receive 100% excitation?

When Eb = V, synchronous motor receive 100% excitation. 3. What is a synchronous capacitor? An over excited synchronous motor, running without any mechanical load, used specifically for power factor correction is known as synchronous capacitor. 4. When is a synchronous motor said to be under - excited? What will be the p.f at this condition? Excitation emf Eb less than supply voltage Eb < V. At this condition the power factor is Lagging power factor. 5. What are the inherent disadvantages of synchronous motor? Disadvantages of synchronous motor are, i) Higher cost ii) Necessity of a dc excitation source iii) Greater initial cost

iv) High maintenance cost 6. Mention four applications of synchronous motor? Applications of synchronous motor are i) Power factor correction ii) Constant speed, constant load drives iii) Voltage regulation of transmission lines. 7. What is the role of synchronous motor in a transmission line? How? Synchronous motor acts as a voltage regulator in a transmission line. When line voltage decreases due to inductive load, motor excitation is increased thereby increasing its power factor which compensates for the line voltage drop. When the line voltage increases due to line capacitive effect, synchronous motor excitation is decreased, thereby making its power factor lagging which helps to the maintain the transmission line voltage at its normal value. 8. Enlist the advantages of synchronous motor. Advantages of Synchronous Motors: 1. 2. 3. The speed is constant and independent of load. These motors usually operate at higher efficiencies. Electro magnetic power varies linearly with the voltage.

4. These motors can be constructed with wider air gaps than induction motors, which make them better mechanically. 5. An Over excited synchronous motor having a leading power factor can be

operated in parallel with induction motors. 9. Define pullout torque in synchronous motor? The maximum torque which the motor can develop without pulling out of step or synchronism is called the pull out torque. 10. What is synchronous condenser? Synchronous motor is operating at an over excited condition is called synchronous condenser. The synchronous condensers having leading power factor are widely used for improving power factor of those power systems which employ a large number of induction motors and other lagging power factor loads.

11. Define pull in torque in synchronous motor? It pertains to the ability of the machine to pull into synchronism when changing from induction to synchronous motor operation. 12. What is meant by V curves of synchronous motor? The V-curves show the relation that exists between the armature current and field current for different constant power input.

13. Name the important characteristics of a synchronous motor not found in an induction motor? Essential features of synchronous machine are i) ii) iii) The rotor speed is synchronous with stator rotating field, The power factor can be easily varied by varying its field current, It is used for constant speed operation.

15. What is the common starting method used for synchronous motor? i) Starting with the help of damper winding. ii) Starting with the help of separate small induction motor. iii) Starting by using an ac motor coupled to the synchronous, motor 16. Why does the synchronous motor always run at synchronous speed? A synchronous motor always runs at synchronous speed because of the magnetic locking between the stator and rotor poles. 17. Enlist the disadvantages of synchronous motor. Disadvantages of Synchronous Motor are, 1. 2. 3. It cannot be started under load. It requires dc excitation which must be supplied from external source. It has a tendency to hunt.

4. It cannot be used for variable speed jobs as there is no possibility of speed adjustment 5. Collector rings and brushes are required.

18. State the characteristic features of synchronous motor. a. the motor is not inherently self starting b. The speed of operation is always in synchronous with the supply frequency irrespective of load conditions c. The motor is capable of operating at any power factor. 19. In what way synchronous motor is different from other motors? All dc and ac motors work on the same principle. Synchronous motor operates due to magnetic locking taking place between stator and rotor magnetic fields. 20. What is the effect on speed if the load is increased on a 3 phase synchronous motor? The speed of operation remains constant from no load to maximum load in the motor operating at constant frequency bus bars. 21. Why a synchronous motor is a constant speed motor? Synchronous motor work on the principle of force developed due to the magnetic attraction established between the rotating magnetic field and the main pole feed. Since the speed of rotating magnetic field is directly proportional to frequency the motor operates at constant speed. 22. What is the phasor relation between induced emf and terminal voltage of a 3 phase synchronous motor? The rotating magnetic field is initially established by the prime source of supply V. The main field then causes an emf e to get induced in the 3 phase winding. Hence when the machine operates as a synchronous motor the emf phasor always lags the terminal voltage phasor by the load/torque. 23. What is meant by inverted V curves of synchronous motor? The variation of magnitude of line current with respect to the field current is called V curve The variation of power factor with respect to the field current is called inverted V curve. 24. What happens when the field current of a synchronous motor is increased beyond the normal value at constant input? Increase in emf causes the motor to have reactive current in the leading direction. The additional leading reactive current causes the magnitude of line current, accompanied by the decrease in power factor. 25. Distinguish between synchronous phase modifier and synchronous condenser?

A synchronous motor used to change the power factor or power factor in the supply lines is called synchronous phase modifier. A synchronous motor operated at no load with over excitation condition to draw large leading reactive current and power is called a synchronous condenser. 26. How the synchronous motor can be used as s synchronous condenser? Synchronous motor is operated on over excitation so as to draw leading reactive current and power from the supply lines. This compensates the lagging current and power requirement of the load making the system power factor to become unity. The motor does the job of capacitors and hence called as synchronous condenser.

## Unit III THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

1.)What is the function of slip ring in 3 phase induction motor? Slip rings are used to connect external stationary circuit to internal rotating circuit. 2.) Under what condition the slip in an induction motor is? a)negative b)greater than 1 a )When rotor is running at a speed above the synchronous speed slip is negative. b) When motor is rotated in opposite direction to that of rotating field slip is greater than 1 3.) What are the 2 fundamental characteristics of a rotating magnetic field? a ) The resultant of three alternating fluxes separated from each other by 120 degree has constant amplitude of 1.5 . b) The resultant always keeps on rotating with a certain speed in space. 4.) What is induction generator? When the slip of the induction motor is negative the induction motor that runs as a generator is called induction generator. 5.) What are the purposes that could be served by external resistors connected in the rotor Circuit of phase wound induction motor? a) Increasing starting torque. b) For speed control

c) Limiting starting current. 6.) What are the merits of inner and outer cage of double cage induction motor? Merits of inner cage, a)leakage reactance is high. b)resistance is small. Merits of outer cage, a)has high starting torque. b)resistance is high.

7) Define Synchronous speed in a 3 phase induction motor? The speed at which the revolving flux rotates is called synchronous speed Ns and is given by, Ns =120f / P Where f - Supply Frequency P- Number of poles on the stator 8.) What are the types of induction motor? a) Split type induction motor. b) Capacitor start induction motor. c) Shaded pole induction motor. d) Deep bar rotor induction motors

9.) What are the losses in induction motor? a) Constant losses b) Variable losses. 10) What is crawling in induction motor? The tendency of the motor to run stably at speeds as low as one seventh of its synchronous speed with a low pitched howling sound is called crawling. 11.) What are the applications of 3 phase I.M motors?

a) driving fans b) Blowers. c)l lathes d) Lifts 12. What are the characteristics of double squirrel cage motor, compared to a squirrel cage motor? (i) High starting torque (ii) Excellent running performance 13. State the principle of 3 phase IM? While starting, rotor conductors are stationary and they cut the revolving magnetic field and so an emf is induced in them by electromagnetic induction. This induced emf produces a current if the circuit is closed. This current opposes the cause by Lenzs law and hence the rotor starts revolving in the same direction as that of the magnetic field. 14. Name the tests to be conducted for predetermining the performance of 3-phase induction machine? (a)No load test (b) Blocked rotor test 15. What are the information obtained from no-load test in a 3-phase induction motor? (i) No load input current per phase (Io) (ii) No load power factor and hence no load phase angle (iii) Iron and mechanical losses together (iv) Elements of equivalent circuit shunt branch 16. What are the information obtained from blocked rotor test in a 3-phase induction motor? (i)Blocked rotor input current per phase at normal voltage (ii) Blocked rotor power factor and hence phase angle (iii) Total resistance and leakage reactance per phase of the Motor as referred to the stator 17. What is circle diagram of an induction motor? When an induction motor operates on constant voltage and constant frequency source, the loci of stator current phasor is found to fall on a circle. This circle diagram is used to predict the performance of the machine at different loading conditions as well as mode of operation. 18. What are the advantages and disadvantages of circle diagram method of predetermining the performance of 3 phase I.M?

20. Why is there not appreciable magnetic losses in the rotor core of Induction motors? Although the rotor core is also subjected to magnetic flux reversals and since the frequency of flux reversals in the rotor, fr = Sfs, is very small, the iron loss incurred in the rotor core is negligibly small. 21. What care should be taken at the time of construction to reduce eddy current losses in Induction Motor? Make the resistance of the core body as large as possible. This is achieved by laminating the stator core, stacked and revetted at right angles to the path of eddy current. The laminations are insulated from each other by thin coat of varnish. 22. What are the losses occurring in an I M and on what factors do they depend? Magnetic losses Wi Electrical losses Wcu Mechanical losses Wm For I M operating in normal condition (with constant voltage and frequency) magnetic and mechanical losses remain constant whereas electrical losses vary in square proportion to the current. 23. What are the advantages of slip-ring I M over cage I M?

(i) Rotor circuit is accessible for external connection. (ii) By adding external resistance to the rotor circuit the starting current is reduced with the added advantage of improving starting torque. (iv) Additional speed control methods can be employed with the accessibility in the rotor circuit. 24. State the condition at which the torque developed in a 3 phase induction motor is maximum? The torque developed in a 3 phase induction motor is maximum, when R2=SX2 25. What would happen if a 3 phase induction motor is switched on with one phase disconnected? The motor is likely to burn.

## Unit IV STARTING AND SPEED CONTROL OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

1.) How do you reverse the direction of rotation of 3 phase? The direction of 3 phase can be reversed by interchanging any 2 terminals of 3 phase winding. 2.) What are the different speed control methods of squirrel cage induction motors? a)supply frequency control b)supply voltage control. c)controlling number of stator poles. d)adding rheostats in stator. 3.) What are the types of starters? a)stator resistance starter b)autotransformer starter. c) star delta starter. d) rotor resistance starter. e) direct to line starter.

4.) How the stator poles can be changed? a)consequent poles method. b)multiple stator winding method. c)pole amplitude modulation method. 5.) What is the effect of change in input voltage on starting torque of induction motor? There is no change in starting torque due to change in input voltage. The motor reacts by drawing more current at lower speeds to keep the same torque. 6.)What are the definitions associated with stepping motor? a)holding torque. b)detent torque c)step angle. d)critical torque. e)limiting torque. f)slewing rate. 7.What is meant by Slip power recovery Scheme? This slip power can be returned to the supply source and can be used to supply an additional motor which is mechanically coupled to the main motor. This type of drive is known as a slip power recovery system and improves the overall efficiency of the system. 8.What are the various methods of speed control of 3 phase induction motor? (i) stator voltage control (ii) stator frequency control (iii) V/f method (iv) pole changing method 9. In what respect does a 1-phase Induction motor differ from a 3-phase Induction motor? Construction wise a plain 1-phase Induction motor is more or less similar to a 3-phase squirrel-cage Induction motor except that its stator is provided with only 1-phase winding. 10. Induction motor can run at synchronous speed ? True or false? Explain .

No, if the speed of induction motor is Ns then the relative speed between the rotating flux and the rotor will be zero and so no torque is produced. 11. An induction motor is generally analogous to ? It is analogous to a winding rotating transformer with its secondary circuit closed. 12. Can the starting torque of of a slip ring induction motor being increased? Yes. It can be increased by adding resistances to the rotor. 13. What happens if the air gap flux density in an induction motor increases? The increase in air gap flux increases iron loss and hence efficiency decreases.

14. State the advantages of skewing? It reduces humming and hence quite running of motor is achieved. It reduces magnetic locking of the stator and rotor. 15. What are the effects of increasing rotor resistance on starting current and starting torque? The additional external resistance reduces the rotor current and hence the current drawn from the supply. It improves the starting torque developed by improving the power factor in high proportion to the decrease in rotor current. 16. What is slip of an induction motor? The slip speed expressed as the ratio of synchronous speed is defined as slip. Percentage slip S=Ns-N/Ns*100 17. How the magnitude of rotor emf is related to the slip in an I M? Rotor circuit emf per phase E2r=SE2 18. How the frequency of rotor emf is related to the slip in an I M? Frequency of rotor emf/current fr=Sfs 19. What is the normal value of slip of an I M operating at full load? 3 - 5% 20. Why is not possible for the rotor speed of an I M to be equal to the speed of its rotating magnetic field? The machine will not be able to develop any mechanical torque to run as a motor.

21. Which winding in a double cage induction motor has high resistance and low inductance? Outer cage winding 22. What is meant by synchronous watt? With the power input to the motor Pi, after the losses in the stator winding. Wcu1 and stator core, Wi, are met with, the remaining power is transferred to the rotor by the rotating magnetic field as power input to the rotor Pir, Pir = Pi wau1 - Wi 23. What are the losses occurring in an I M and on what factors do they depend? Magnetic losses Wi Electrical losses Wcu Mechanical losses Wm For I M operating in normal condition (with constant voltage and frequency) magnetic and mechanical losses remain constant whereas electrical losses vary in square proportion to the current. 24. What care should be taken at the time of construction to reduce eddy current losses in I M? Make the resistance of the core body as large as possible. This is achieved by laminating the stator core, stacked and rewetted at right angles to the path of eddy current. The laminations are insulated from each other by thin coat of varnish. 25. Why is there not appreciable magnetic losses in the rotor core of Induction motors? Although the rotor core is also subjected to magnetic flux reversals and since the frequency of flux reversals in the rotor, fr = Sfs, is very small, the iron loss incurred in the rotor core is negligibly small.

## Unit V SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND SPECIAL MACHINES

1. In what respect does a 1-phase Induction motor differ from a 3-phase Induction motor? Construction wise a plain 1-phase Induction motor is more or less similar to a 3-phase squirrel-cage Induction motor except that its stator is provided with only 1-phase winding. 2. What are the inherent characteristics of plain 1-phase Induction motor? A plain 1-phase Induction motor is not used in practice due to the following inherent characteristics, A plain 1-phase Induction motor does not have any starting torque However, if the rotor is initially given a starting torque, by some means, the motor can pick up its speed in a direction at which the initial torque is given and deliver the required output.

3. Name the two different theories with which principle of 1-phase induction motors are explained. The two different theories are, Double revolving field theory Cross field theory

4. State double revolving field theory. Double revolving theory, formulated by Ferrari, states that a single pulsating synchronous speed proportional to the frequency of the pulsating field. 5. Name any four types of 1-phase induction motors.

Based on the method of starting arrangement provided, the 1-phase Induction motors are classified as follows, (i) Split-phase motor (ii) Capacitor start motor (iii) Capacitor start and run motor (iv) Shaded pole motor (v) Repulsion start Induction run motor 6. Why are centrifugal switches provided on many 1-phase Induction motors? Centrifugal switches are provided on many 1-phase Induction motors to disconnect the starting / auxiliary winding from the supply when the motor reaches about 70% of its synchronous speed.

7. How is the direction of a capacitor start Induction motor be reversed? The direction of rotation can be reversed by interchanging the terminals of either the main winding or the starting winding. 8. What type of single phase induction motor would you use for the following applications? (i) Ceiling fan (ii) Wet grinder Ceiling fan capacitor start and run motor Wet grinder capacitor start motor 9. After servicing a single phase fan it was found to run in reverse direction. What could be the reason? The connection to the starting/ auxiliary winding would have reversed. 10. What will be the direction of rotation of a shaded pole single phase induction motor? The motor rotates in the direction specified by the unshaded to shaded region in the pole phase. 11.What is the property of a single phase single winding induction motor? It has zero starting torque 12. What is the function of capacitor in a single phase induction motor ? Capacitor is used to improve the power factor of the motor . Due to the capacitor connected in series with the auxiliary winding , the capacitive circuit draws a leading current which increases the split phase angle between two currents Im and Ist . 13. What is the use of shading coil in the shaded pole motor ?

In shaded pole motors the necessary phase -splitting is produced by induction. These motors have salient poles on stator and a squirrel cage type rotor . The poles are shaded ie each pole carries a copper band one of its unequally divided part is called shading band. When single phase ac supply is given to the stator winding due to shading provided to the poles a rotating magnetic field is generated . 14 . Why capacitor -start induction motors advantageous? In capacitor start induction motors capacitor is connected in series with the auxiliary winding . when speed of the motor approaches to 75 to80%of the synchronous speed the starting winding gets disconnected due to the operation of the centrifugal switch . The capacitor remains in the circuit only at start . the starting torque is proportional to phase angle and hence such motors produce very high starting torque.

15 . List out 4 applications of shaded pole induction motor ? Shaded pole motors have very low starting torque , low power factor and low efficiency. The motors are commonly used for small fans , toy motors ,advertising displays , film projectors , record players , gramophones ,hair dryers , photocopying machines etc 16. What are the drawbacks of the presence of the backward rotating field in a single phase induction motor? Due to cutting of flux , emf gets induced in the rotor which circulates rotor current .the rotor current produces rotor flux . This flux interacts with forward component f to produce a torque in one particular direction say anticlockwise direction . While rotor flux interacts with backward component b to produce a torque in the clockwise direction . So if anti clock wise torque is positive then clockwise torque is negative thus net torque experienced by the rotor is zero at start . 17. Is single phase induction motor self starting ? why? Due to cutting of flux , emf gets induced in the rotor which circulates rotor current. The rotor current produces rotor flux . this flux interacts with forward component f to produce a torque in one particular direction say anticlockwise direction . While rotor flux interacts with backward component b to produce a torque in the clockwise direction . So if anti clock wise torque is positive then clockwise torque is negative thus net torque experienced by the rotor is zero at start. Hence net torque experienced by rotor is zero at start and so single phase induction motor are not self starting. 18. Why is hysteresis motor free from mechanical and magnetic vibrations? The stator of hysteresis motor carries main and auxiliary windings to produce rotating magnetic field or of shaded pole type also. The rotor is smooth cylindrical type made up of hard magnetic material. The torque in this motor is constant at all speeds it runs at synchronous speed. there is not relative motion between stator and rotor field so the torque due to eddy current vanishes .only hysteresis torque is present which keeps rotor running at

synchronous speeds .the high retentivity ensures continuous magnetic locking between stator and rotor . Hence it is free from magnetic vibrations 19. What types of motor is used in computer drives and wet grinders? For computer drives permanent magnet dc motors are used while in wet grinders universal motor may be used . 20. Give two advantages and two applications of stepper motor. Advantages: *These motors are compatible with digital equipments and are flexible in operation. *The dynamic response is fast Applications: Stepper motors are widely used in computer peripherals such as serial printers tape drives , floppy disk drivers . they are also used in control of machine tools . robotics. 21. List some applications of linear induction motor? They are used in machine tool industry and in robotics .They are used in trains operated on magnetic levitation, reciprocating compressors can also be driven by linear motors. 22. What are the specific characteristic features of the repulsion motor? Repulsion motors give excellent performance characteristics. A very high starting torque of about 300 to350% of full load can be obtained with starting currents of about 3 to 4 times the full load current. Thus it has got very good operating characteristics. The speed of the motor changes with load .with compensated type of repulsion motor the motor runs with improved power factor as the quadrature drop in the field winding is neutralized. Also the leakage between armature and field is reduced which gives better regulation. 23. Discuss characteristics of single phase series motor? * To reduce the eddy current losses , yoke and pole core construction is laminated *The power factor can be improved by reducing the number of turns. But this reduces the field flux. But this reduction in flux increases the speed and reducing the torque. To keep the torque same it is necessary to increase the armature turns proportionately. This increases the armature inductance. 24. What are the demerits of repulsion motor? *very expensive

*speed changes with load * On no load speed is very high causing sparking at brushes *low power factor on no load 25. List four applications of reluctance motors? This motor is used in signaling devices, control apparatus, automatic regulators, recording instruments, clocks and all kinds of timing devices , teleprinters ,gramophones 26. What is a universal motor? There are small capacity series motors which can be operated on dc supply or single phase ac supply of same voltage with similar characteristics called universal motors. The construction of this motor is similar to that of ac series motor.
EE52-ELECTRICAL MACHINES II 16-Mark Questions

UNIT I

1. Derive the EMF Equation of an Alternator.Explain Pitch Factor and Distribution Factor. 2. Explain the reason for Variation of terminal Voltage of Alternator on loaded Condition. 3. With the help of Phasor diagram explain the Slip test for the measurement of Xd and Xq. 4. A 3 Alternator has a Xd of 0.7p.u and a Xq of 0.4p.u.Calculate (i) The Load Angle,(ii) The No Load per Unit Voltage for Full load 0.8p.f lagging.. 5. Explain the cocept of Two Reaction Theory in detail. 6. Sketch and explain the Open Circuit and Short Circuit Characteristics of Synchronous Machines. 7. Define the term Synchronous Reactance and Voltage Regulation of Alternator.Explain Synchronous Impedance method of determining Regulation of an alternator. 8. Discuss the effect of Alternator on load with relevance to Various Power Factor. 9. Discuss about the Parallel operation of two Alternators with identical Speed/Load Characteristics. 10.Explain with neat Diagrams the Armature Reaction and its effects on Alternator. 11.Explain Synchronizing of 3 Alternator by Dark Lamp Method. 12.Find the No load phase and line voltage of a star connected 3,6 pole Alternator which runs at 1200rpm,having flux per pole of 0.1Wb sinusoidally distributed.Its Stator has 54 Slots having Double layer winding.Each coil has 8 turns and the coil is chorded by 1 slot. 13.The Open Circuit and Short Circuit test readings for 3,star connected 1000KVA,2000V,50HZ, Alternator are Field ,amperes 10 20 25 30 40 50

1500 200

1760 250

## 2000 2350 300 -

2600 -

The Armature Effective Resistance is 0.2per phase.Draw the Characteristic curves and estimate the Full load Percentage Regulation at 0.8p.f.lagging and 0.8p.f.leading.

UNIT II

1. Derive the Equations for Power Developed By a Synchronous Motor. 2. Write Short Notes on Hunting in Synchronous Motor. 3. With neat Diagram Explain the Characteristics of Synchronous Motor under Constant load and Varying Excitation Condition. 4. Explain the Various Methods of Starting Synchronous Motor. 5. Explain the Operation of Synchronous Motor and also derive its Torque Equation. 6. Explain Why is the Synchronous Motor not self Starting? 7. Show that the Synchronous Motor is a variable Power Factor Motor. Mention the advantages of Salient Pole Synchronous Motor. 8. Explain What is meant by V and Inverted V-Curves.Draw the V and inverted VCurves of a Synchronous Motor. 9. State the Characteristic features of Synchronous Motor. 10.Explain Two Reaction Theory of Synchronous Machines. 11.How can Xd and Xq be Determined? 12.Explain the effect of Excitation Armature Current and Power factor in a Synchronous Motor. 13.A Synchronous Motor having 40% Reactance and a negligible Resistance is to be Operated at Rated Load at.i)Unity Power Factor,ii)0.8 Power Factor lag,iii) 0.8 Power Factor lead. UNIT III

1. Draw the Circle Diagram for a 5.6KW,400V, 3 ,4 pole,50HZ Slip Ring Induction Motor from the following Data. No Load Readings : 400V 6A,Coso=0.087 Short Circuit Test : 100V 12A,720W.

The Ratio of Primary to Secondary turns=2.62,StatorResistance per phase is 0.67 and of the rotor is 0.1852.Calculate i) Full Load Current ii) Full Load Slip iii) Full Load Power Factor

iv) Maximum Torque / Full Load Torque v) Maximum Power. 2. Make a Comparison between Squirrel Cage and Slip Ring Induction Motor. 3. A 400V, 3 ,4 pole,50HZ Star Connected Induction Motor takes a Line Current of 10A with 0.86p.f lagging.Its Total Stator losses are 55 of the Input.Rotor Copper losses are 4% of the Input to the Rotor,and the mechanical losses are 3% of the Input to the Rotor.Calculate i) Slip and Rotor Speed. ii) Torque Developed in the Rotor,and iii) Shaft Torque. 4. Explain the Construction and Operating Principle of 3 Induction Motor. 5. Draw the Power Flow Diagram of a 3 Induction Motor and explain each stage. 6. Explain the Construction and Operating Principle of Double cage Induction Motor. 7. Explain the Equivalent Circuit of Double cage Induction Motor. 8. Develop the Circuit model of an Induction Motor.Represent the Approximate model and state its significance. 9. Explain the Construction and Operating Principle of Induction Generator. 10.Draw the T-S Characteristics of Induction Motor and note down its salient features with necessary equations. 11.Draw and explain the Equivalent Circuit of 3 Induction Motor. 12.Discuss briefly the effect on the Speed-Torque Characteristics of an Induction Motor produced by (1) Halving the Applied Voltage with Normal Frequency , (2)Halving both the Applied Voltage and Frequency. 13.A 12 pole, 3 ,50HZ Induction Motor draws 2.80A and 110KW under Blocked Rotor test.Find the Starting Torque when on Direct to Rated Voltage and Frequency Supply.Assume the Stator and Rotor Copper losses to be equal under Blocked Rotor test. 14.A 100KW(output),3300V, 3 , Star Connected Induction Motor has a Synchronous Speed of 500 rpm.The Full load Slip is 1.8% and full load Power Factor 0.85.Stator copper loss=2440W.Iron Loss=3500W.Rotational Losses=1200W.Calculate (1) The rotor copper Loss,(2)The line current,and (3)The Full load Efficiency. 15. A3, 400V Induction Motor gave the following test readings. No load : 400V,1250W,9A;Short Circuit : 150V,4KW,38A Draw the Circle Diagram. If the normal rating is 14.9KW,Find from the Circle Diagram,the Full load value of Current ,Power factor and Slip.

UNIT IV

1. Explain the Working of Star-Delta starter in detail with neat sketch. 2. Explain Static Scherbius Method of Induction Motor. 3. Explain the Speed Control technique of Induction Motor by varying the Supply Frequency and state the disadvantages of this method.

4. Find the percentage tapping required on an Auto-Transformer required for a Squirrel Cage Motor to start the motor against of full load torque.The Short Circuit Current on Normal Voltage is 4 Times the Full Load Current and the Full Load Slip is 3%. 5. Explain the Various types of Starters used for 3 Induction Motor. 6. Explain the various methods of Speed Control for Induction Motor. 7. A 3 Induction Motor has a Full load Slip of 3% and takes 6 times the Full load Current when started with Direct On-Line Starter .Calculate the Approximate Starting torque in terms of the Full load Torque when Started by means of Auto-Transformer Starter., having a 60% Voltage Tap Position. 8. Explain the Different Methods of Starting Three Phase Squirrel Cage Induction Motor. 9. Explain the Cascaded Control of Induction Motor in detail. 10.Explain the Slip Recovery Scheme of Induction Motor in detail. 11.A 4 pole Induction Motor and 6 pole Induction Motor are connected in Cumulative Cascade. The Frequency in the Secondary Circuit of the 6 pole motor is observed to be 1HZ.Determine the Slip in each machine and the Combined Speed of the Set.Take Supply Frequency as 50HZ. 12.A certain 3phase,6 pole,50HZ Induction Motor when fully loaded runs with a slip of 3%.Find the value of the Resistance needed in series per phase of the rotor to reduce the speed by 10%.Assume that the Resistance of the rotor per phase is 0.2. 13.Develop the Circuit Model of an Induction Motor. Represent the Approximate model and state its significance. UNIT V

1. Why Single Phase Induction Motor is not self Starting?Explain the Different Methods of Starting Single Phase Induction Motors. 2. Explain the Construction and Working of Repulsion Motor in detail. 3. Explain the Construction and Working of Linear Induction Motor in detail. 4. Explain with help of Double Field Revolving Theory, Why Single Phase Induction Motor is not self Starting? 5. Explain the Construction and Working of shaded Pole Induction Motor. 6. Explain the Construction and Working of AC Series Motor. 7. Draw the Equivalent Circuit of Single Phase Induction Motor and Discuss the Experimental Procedure to Obtain its Parameters. 8. What is Stepper Motor? How does it Work? What are their Applications? 9. With Neat Sketches Explain the Salient features of Hysteresis Motor. 10.Give the Classification of Single Phase Induction Motors.Explain the Types. 11.Explain with suitable diagram the working and Speed-Torque Characteristics of Single Phase Induction Motor starting by Resistance Start Motor Method.