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Briefing 14

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Embedded Literacy, Language and Numeracy (LLN) This briefing aims to:  give an overview of current thinking and practice on embedded Literacy, Language and Numeracy  signpost practitioners from all contexts to whats out there and available to help you.

Embedded Literacy, Language and Numeracy


Extending and developing Embedded LLN approaches is a development priority for education and training providers across the post-16 sector. This briefing aims to provide an up-to-date overview of current information so that key staff in all contexts know whats available and are able to access it easily. Each section starts with a brief introduction, followed by details of specific sources of information under the headings of: A. Definitions and starting points B. How to guides and case studies C. Teaching resources D. Sources of help and support E. Professional development routes and resources F. Research G. The policy context H. Planning, accreditation and funding issues I. Glossary of acronyms Frontline and support staff working with actual or potential learners Teachers and trainers in vocational and other subject areas Skills for Life teachers and trainers  Team leaders, supervisors and managers in education, training and the workplace Leaders and managers  Human Resource staff, staff development managers, teacher trainers and trainee teachers Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page 2 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 18

Choose your own starting point. The information will be of relevance to:

This briefing was prepared in December 2007. In this fast-moving area it is essential to keep up to date with new developments. These are widely promoted and publicised through the organisations and websites referred to in each section.
Live links throughout this e-briefing are underscored. To access them please double click.

in adult and community learning, workplace, work-based training, voluntary and community, offender learning and further education settings across the region. You can access this e-briefing on-line on www.talent.ac.uk/content.asp?CategoryID=1847 If you have further information you think should be included please contact londonstrategicunit@ioe.ac.uk A note on terminology Current terminology has been used throughout, with acronyms (eg LLN) written in full at first usage. Click on any acronym for a direct link to the glossary.

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LSU is part of the London Centre for Leadership in Learning at the Institute of Education

A. Definitions and starting points


Adult literacy, language and numeracy are defined as: The ability to read, write and speak in English and to use mathematics at a level necessary to function and progress at work and in society in general Skills for Life Strategy, Department for Education and Skills (DfES) 2001 Since 2001, literacy, language and numeracy have been brought together as Skills for Life in the governments national Skills for Life strategy. The strategy emphasises that people want and need to improve their skills in a context and for a purpose whether its to help children at school, to be able to manage personal finances, or to cope and progress at work. Embedded literacy, language and numeracy (LLN) puts this thinking into practice: Embedded teaching and learning combines the development of literacy, language and numeracy with vocational and other skills. The skills acquired provide learners with the confidence, competence and motivation necessary for them to succeed in qualifications, in life and in work. Skills for Life Strategy Unit, (DfES) 2003 Recent research1 shows that embedded LLN is most effective where vocational or other subject practitioners work in partnership with language, literacy and numeracy practitioners in unified programmes which: Present an integrated whole to learners Have two or more learning aims within a single programme, including LLN Integrate LLN teaching in a variety of ways.

This results in: Higher retention and success rates overall Much higher achievements in language, literacy and numeracy. This perspective on embedding has now supplanted earlier approaches. As a rule of thumb, if a learner experiences a programme as a whole including LLN, it is successfully embedded. This applies also to staff: Things are done differently instead of vocational AND key skills I feel I am part of a team of engineering teachers. LLN Practitioner While government priorities mean that the main focus of embedded LLN at present is on vocational training, delivered in the workplace or in preparation for work, embedded LLN approaches are equally relevant and successful across the full range of post-school contexts for education and training, including community settings. 1 You wouldnt expect a maths teacher to teach plastering.. Embedding literacy, language and numeracy in post-16 vocational programmes the impact on learning and achievement. NRDC, November 2006 Page  Back to top of document

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B. How to Guides and Case Studies


A number of paper- and web-based publications provide substantial overview information as well as practical guidance on the planning and delivery of embedded LLN. These are listed in chronological order, with the most recent first. A number of useful case studies in a variety of contexts are also included.

Guides
1. Embedding: Developing Adult Teaching and Learning: practitioner guides, Helen Casey, Mary Conway, Sue Grief and Desiree Lopez Important new guide on putting the findings of the most recent National Research and Development Centre (NRDC) research into practice. Produced as part of a series of practitioner guides by the National Institute for Adult and Community Education (NIACE) with NRDC with a planned publication date in early 2008, and available free from www.niace.org.uk/publications or downloadable from www.nrdc.org.uk/ publications_list.asp?Keywords=practitioner+guide&CategoryID=&ContactID=&Sea rchSubmit=1 2. Practical guidelines for embedding Skills for Life into vocational programmes, Skills for Life Development Centre Making Learning Work in Sussex, March 2006 Outcomes of a Learning and Skills Council (LSC)/Council for British Teachers (CfBT) funded project drawing on experience of a number of trailblazer organisations with input from a wide group of other experts and practitioners. Background information on embedding followed by detailed guidance on planning, delivery and evaluation and additional information. Printed copies available at some events; whole publication downloadable from www.sfldc.org/guidelines/home/ 3. Practical guidance for embedding Skills for Life, Skills for Life Quality Initiative, March 2006 Web-based publication covering most of the areas in this e-briefing and including a helpful section on approaches to staffing embedded Skills for Life learning. Downloadable from www.sflqi.org.uk/online/materials_2.htm under Embedding Skills for Life Guidance 2.1.

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4. Lifelines 21: Developing embedded literacy, language and numeracy: supporting achievement, Jan Eldred, National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) 2005 Well-respected general introduction incorporating the outcomes of NIACE research and development work in this area. This practical guide offers different models of delivery that can be adapted to suit both the learners and the programme of study. It draws on examples developed by teachers and outlines the challenges and complexities of this approach as well as the opportunities and advantages. NIACE Publications Catalogue. To order from www.niace.org.uk 7.95 5. Raising Standards Guide: Embedded Learning One of a series of Raising Standards Guides written with inspection in mind, this gives specific guidance on what needs to be in place to ensure quality in programmes with embedded LLN against each of the five Common Inspection Framework questions. A separate section looks at preparation for inspection. www.dfes.gov.uk/readwriteplus/raisingstandards/embeddedlearning

Case Studies
1. Partnership teaching to embed literacy, language and numeracy into vocational programmes at Northampton College and Working together to develop embedded schemes of work Examples of successful approaches to embedded LLN arising from the Skills for Life Improvement Programme 2006-7. Both freely downloadable from www.sflip.org.uk/casestudies.aspx 2. An integrated approach to teaching key skills in Construction a case study Detailed case study based on a video recording of a lesson showing how key skills are integrated into construction-related programmes. Published by the Key Skills Support Programme in 2006 and downloadable from www.lsneducation.org.uk/user/order.aspx?code=062476&src=XOWEB 3. An integrated approach to teaching key skills in Business Studies and Information Communication Technology (ICT) case studies. Detailed case studies based on video recordings of lessons showing how key skills are integrated into Business Studies and ICT programmes. Published by the Key Skills Support Programme in 2006 and downloadable from www.lsneducation.org.uk/user/order.aspx?code=062479&src=XOWEB

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4. Key Skills for employability, and A big rise in achievement through integrating key skills Case studies on implementing embedded key skills in offender learning settings developed through the Key Skills Support Programme. Listed under Guides and downloadable from www.ksspforwork.org.uk/ 5. unionlearn unionlearn is currently developing case studies showing how LLN can be successfully combined with National Vocational Qualification (NVQ) study in the workplace. These will be posted on the unionlearn website in the near future. For more information about unionlearn see D7 below or visit www.unionlearn.org.uk. The case studies will be posted on the Skills for Work section of the site www.unionlearn.org.uk/skills/learn-1587-f0.cfm Back to top of document

C. Teaching Resources
Many excellent and high quality resources developed to support embedded LLN in a wide variety of contexts are available free to practitioners. This includes multi-media packs, on-line resources and materials to download. There are also some widely-used commercially-produced resources and tutor-collected materials. A helpful if slightly out of date Resources Guide to support embedded Skills for Life programmes can be downloaded from the Whole Organisational Approach (WOA) Pathfinder website: this lists most of the resources below plus other useful support material. http://excellence.qia.org.uk/page.aspx?o=WOAgoodpractice 1. Skills for Life Materials for Embedded Learning High quality packs in 28 vocational, employability, health and community contexts including audio-visual materials and teachers notes. All are available to download or order free via the website below. Interactive search facility; downloaded materials can be customised. Currently available packs include: Trowel occupations; Horticulture; Family health; Effective communication for international nurses; Catering; Hospitality; Retail; Warehousing; Entry to Employment (E2E); Sports leadership; Painting operations; Cleaning skills for construction; Food hygiene; Health and safety (with manual handling); ICT; First aid; Early years; Hairdressing; Family life: the growing child; Family life: focus on parenting; Transport; Get on in the community; Social care. www.dfes.gov.uk/readwriteplus/embeddedlearning

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2. Key Skills Support Programme Publications and Resources A substantial library of teaching and learning materials supporting Key Skills is available to download free from the website. These materials give learners the opportunity to learn, practise and apply key skills, particularly Application of Number, in the contexts of Administration; Care and childcare; Catering; Construction; Hospitality, sport and travel; Engineering and motor vehicle; Retail (including Hair and beauty); Sport and recreation. www.ksspforwork.org.uk/about/ An up to date (2007) guide for practitioners in work-based learning on Using and adapting resources for key skills and Skills for Life: Guide to good practice is also available free to download from: www.lsneducation.org.uk/user/order.aspx?code=060004&src=XOWEB 3. National Teaching and Learning Change Programme Resources Subject-specific, multi-media resources developed as part of the Subject Learning Coaches programme. They include many practical activities for use with learners which can form part of an embedded programme, as well as ideas on new, exciting approaches to teaching and learning. Subjects currently available: Business; Construction; Entry to Employment (E2E); Health and social care; Information and communication technology (ICT); Land-based studies; Mathematics; Science; Adult learning; Engineering; Modern foreign languages, with Creative studies and Media coming soon. Active and well-supported talk-board for participating organisations with much sharing of ideas and resources see D5 below. All LSC-funded organisations delivering post-16 education and training are entitled to one resource pack per subject free of charge. For details and to order go to: www.subjectlearningcoach.net/programme/resources The resources can also be viewed or downloaded from the Excellence Gateway on the Quality Improvement Agency website. Go to http://teachingandlearning.qia.org.uk/ 4. BBC Skillswise Skillswise in the Workplace has free ICT based modules on vocabulary for plumbing, carpentry, electrics, childcare, plastering and decorating. www.bbc.co.uk/skillswise 5. Target Skills for Work Tribal/CTAD has developed a suite of commercially-marketed ICT-based materials, workbooks and multimedia materials based on the skills for work needed in the passenger transport, retail, care, manufacturing, hospitality, cleaning and construction sectors. www.ctad.co.uk/content/view/100/303/

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6. The talent website The talent website offers a wide range of support to teachers and trainers on all aspects of LLN. This includes a section on teaching materials posted by site users. Search for embedded materials. www.talent.ac.uk Back to top of document

D. Sources of help and support


A number of government-funded and supported programmes provide free support on developing and improving embedded LLN programmes. This support ranges from helpful examples and advice on websites to direct consultancy support for organisations. Most form part of the Quality Improvement Agency (QIA) portfolio of programmes, the content of which is reviewed annually. In April 2008 the QIA merges with the Centre for Excellence in Leadership: it is likely that this will lead to a more radical review of the support offer. 1. Skills for Life Improvement Programme Support for embedding literacy, language and numeracy continues to be a priority for the Skills for Life Improvement Programme in 2007-8. Providers developing or improving their approach to embedding were invited to apply for a package of inhouse support linked to regional network meetings. www.sflip.org.uk/apply 2. Key Skills Support Programme Well-established and highly regarded support for organisations delivering key skills, including embedded approaches by the Learning and Skills Network (LSN). Offer includes centre-based consultancy and training as well as regional and national events and a very helpful website. Requests for centre-based support should be made to the Regional Support Co-ordinator for London, Lorna Jackson, on lornahuntejackson@ntlworld.com or lornahuntejackson@virginmedia.com www.keyskillssupport.net/ 3. unionlearn and Skills for Work unionlearn is the Trade Union Congresss (TUC) workplace learning arm, aiming to increase workers life chances and strengthen their voice at the workplace through high quality union learning. It also organises the work of Union Learning Representatives (ULRs), who promote learning and support learners in the workplace. Unionlearn is actively supporting Skills for Work, the governments initiative promoting LLN alongside employees first Level 2 or 3 National Vocational Qualification (NVQ). They are powerful allies for anyone trying to develop embedded LLN in a workplace context. At minimum, ULRs seek to ensure that learners going on their first NVQ 2 or 3 have a chance to get a Skills for Life assessment alongside a vocational one. www.unionlearn.org.uk Skills for Work information on www.unionlearn.org.uk/skills/learn-1587-f0.cfm Page 

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4. Quality Improvement Agencys Excellence Gateway Web-based support for all aspects of teaching and learning including embedded approaches. An essential searchable resource base, including the outcomes of earlier initiatives. http://excellence.qia.org.uk/ 5. Whole Organisational Approach Pathfinders The Whole Organisational Approach Pathfinders were three year projects to develop effective whole organisational approaches to Skills for Life, including developing embedded approaches. Practical advice and guidance developed through the projects is still accessible from the website via the link below. The London Pathfinder in Ealing, Hammersmith and West London College was particularly successful in developing a strategy and delivery model for embedded LLN. http://excellence.qia.org.uk/page.aspx?o=WOAgoodpractice 6. The QIA National Teaching and Learning Change Programme Staff teams involved in developing embedded approaches will find the ideas and approaches developed for this programme very helpful, and may choose to involve existing Subject Learning Coaches or sign up to join. Subject Learning Coaches are trained to work with colleagues in-house to raise standards of teaching and learning and meet together on a regional basis in a supportive network. Subjects currently available: Business; Construction; Entry to Employment (E2E); Health and social care; Information and communication technology (ICT); Land-based studies; Mathematics; Science; Adult learning; Engineering; Modern foreign languages, with Creative studies and Media coming soon. Active and well-supported talk-board with much sharing of ideas and resources open to participating organisations. www.subjectlearningcoaches.net and to get involved: www.subjectlearningcoaches.net/nominate/involved/ 7. Move On Up Move On Up takes the successful Move On approach into the workplace through negotiated programmes with employers under the general heading of Get on at Work. Key elements of the Get on at Work approach are:  A briefing session for key personnel including HR staff, line managers and union learning representatives  An introductory session for learners to assess whether Get on at Work is the right course for them  A short brush-up course in LLN developing individual skills leading to testing at Level 1 or 2 The approach is supported by a package of support in the form of guidance, case studies and resources through the Move On website. www.move-on.org.uk

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8. TOTALLY SKILLED: Embedding Skills for Life in Vocational Qualifications This DfES-funded Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) led project ran from 2004 to end March 2007. The project aimed to: Support awarding bodies to work with centres to develop embedded delivery Help the then new Sector Skills Councils to make LLN explicit in their vocational standards as they developed them. Working with 12 Awarding Bodies and 4 Sector Skills Councils, a range of models and guidance materials were developed for each context with initial assessment as the common starting point. DIUS is planning a second phase of this project to start in 2008, involving additional Sector Skills Councils and Awarding Bodies and expanding the range of models. No details are available to date, but all the models and materials developed in the first stage are freely downloadable from the website. www.totallyskilled.org.uk Back to top of document

E. Professional Development Routes and Resources


This section summarises the ways practitioners in all roles and in all contexts can access training in approaches to embedded LLN. This includes:  - accredited training undertaken either as part of initial teacher training (ITT) or through continuing professional development (CPD) programmes as part of the new professional development framework.  - non-accredited CPD routes and resources. These range from awareness-raising materials to packages offering practical guides to implementation. Most are linked to specific initiatives and have been promoted and disseminated by this route. Many are freely available for use in-house, or can be delivered through Professional Development Centres and other initial teacher training providers. For up to date information on current staff training opportunities in London, and for more information on local Professional Development Centres, see the talent website www.talent.ac.uk/ 1. Initial Teacher Training All initial teacher training courses include a minimum core of LLN, including approaches to embedding. This needs to be covered during the first year of training. All new teachers also need to show in their application for professional status that they have personal skills in English and maths at Level 2 equivalent to an English and maths GCSE A-C. Two further optional units on Embedded LLN for teachers of other specialisms are currently available as part of initial teacher training. www.lifelonglearninguk.org/nrp/teachersofos/toaos_page3.html

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2. Accredited CPD  . A new Developing Embedded Approaches to LLN certificate at Level 5 has been a developed for qualified teachers of any subject who already have personal skills in English and Maths at level 2. Pathways within the qualification for language, literacy and numeracy teachers will need higher levels of English or maths skills according to their subject specialism. A key focus of the module is on how literacy, language and numeracy teachers can work with teachers of other specialisms. Guidance for awarding bodies on developing this qualification is available from the Lifelong Learning UK (LLUK) website: www.lluk.org.uk/documents/nrp/embedded_approaches_ai_guidance_v1a.pdf  . The Key Skills Support Programme (KSSP) has developed a Level 4 professional b development module in Key Skills Teaching and Learning which will be delivered through a network of 12 hub centres during 2007-8. Participants on the course can also follow a non-accredited route. More information from the Key Skills Support Programme website: www.keyskillssupport.net/cpda/ Additionally, KSSP has developed Level Crossing resources which recognise the cross-over between Key Skills and LLN and address this through resources and national events. This has included support for different levels within groups, including tracking issues: www.keyskillssupport.net/teacandlearkeya/levecros/ c. LLU+ at London South Bank University in partnership with LSU is piloting a Peer Coaching for Embedding Language, Literacy and Numeracy programme, with two intakes in October 2007 and January 2008. This includes a 4-day Open College Network (OCN) accredited course at Level 3 as well as membership of a pan-London coaching network and access to an on-line coaching forum. Contact Julia McGerty on j.mcgerty@lsbu.ac.uk or follow this link: www.lsbu.ac.uk/lluplus/training/generic.shtml#1 3. Non-accredited CPD a. Skills for Life Improvement Programme 2007-8  The package of support offered to providers developing or improving their approach to embedding includes a bespoke training package linked to regional network meetings. See D1 above, or read more on the website. www.sflip.org.uk/apply  One day courses on aspects of embedded learning are offered to providers working in the priority settings of Work-based learning, E2E, Train to Gain, Job Centreplus, voluntary and community learning and offender learning. For further information and to apply contact Clarre Thomas at LLU+ on 020 7815 6272 or email c.thomas@lsbu.ac.uk  One-day training packages on embedded LLN are available to download, adapt and use. They address a wide range of training needs. Examples are Planning to embed, Approaches to Skills for Life for vocational teachers, Working in partnership. www.sflqi.org.uk/online/materials_2.htm Page 10 

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b. Key Skills Support Programme Materials from the 2006 2007 Key Skills CPD module are available for download from the website. While not explicitly focusing on embedded approaches to LLN, this is implicit in the Key Skills approach. Scroll down from this link to see archive of materials for 2006-2007. www.keyskillssupport.net/cpda/ c. The National Teaching and Learning Change Programme The resources developed as part of the Subject Learning Coaches programme, see C3 and D5 above, include staff development material useful to teams developing embedded LLN approaches. The resources can be viewed or downloaded from the Excellence Gateway on the Quality Improvement Agency website. Go to http://teachingandlearning.qia.org.uk/ d. Better Teaching Partnership staff development materials The Better Teaching Partnership is a Basic Skills Agency @ NIACE programme offering a package of support for organisations hoping to improve their inspection grades. Module 5 of the Tools for Staff Development on Integrating LLN into a range of contexts is available at 40.00 from BSA@NIACE. www.basic-skills.co.uk/resources/resourcessearchresults/detail.php?ResourceID=317897026 Changes in Professional Development from September 2007 For more information on the new professional development framework and what it means for you and your organisation visit the LLUK website www.lifelonglearninguk. org or call LLUKs free information and advice service on 020 7936 5798. From this date, all qualified teachers need to register with the Institute for Learning IfL and demonstrate that they are involved with a minimum of 30 hours CPD a year. If embedded LLN is a priority for you or your organisation, this should be part of your personal or organisational CPD plan. For further information on the CPD entitlement, go to www.ifl.ac.uk/services/p_wwv_page?id=140 Back to top of document

F. Research
Substantial research on approaches to Embedded LLN has been carried out by the National Research and Development Centre (NRDC) since 2003. Current policy and practice stems from the new perspectives identified in the NRDC November 06 study You wouldnt expect a maths teacher to teach plastering. This and two other recent studies are summarised below, along with current work. Information on current projects, and copies of completed studies are available free to download or order from www.nrdc.org.uk

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1. You wouldnt expect a maths teacher to teach plastering... Embedding literacy, language and numeracy in post-16 vocational programmes the impact on learning and achievement. NRDC, November 2006 Important study whose findings show that embedded LLN provision is correlated with higher levels of motivation, attendance, retention and achievement where vocational/subject staff work in partnership with LLN specialists. The research identified four key success criteria: organisational structures; team work; staff attitudes and beliefs; and features of teaching and learning, curriculum and materials. www.nrdc.org.uk/publications_details.asp?ID=73 2. Embedded teaching and learning of adult literacy, numeracy and ESOL: 7 Case Studies, NRDC, August 2005 Study exploring the characteristics of embedded LLN, with detailed case studies in a range of different contexts. www.nrdc.org.uk/publications_details.asp?ID=21 3. Embedded teaching and learning, LSC Skills for Life Quality Initiative Research Resources, March 2006. A summary of findings on embedding drawn from the 7 Case Studies and a range of other NRDC studies: includes also a list of the other NRDC studies in which embedded LLN is the sole or a significant focus. www.nrdc.org.uk/publications_details.asp?ID=60 4. NRDC Research on behalf of the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills (DIUS) This includes:  Consultation events with practitioners in January 2008 on what more can be done to increase the use of embedded approaches. www.nrdc.org.uk/news_details.asp?NewsID=283  Base-line survey on extent of embedded provision, January 2008, mailed out to identified contact points within all LSC providers of LLN. The outcomes of this research will be reported to DIUS by end March 2008. Back to top of document

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G. The policy context


As part of its Skills Strategy, the government commissioned Lord Leitch to carry out a review and make recommendations on the action needed to raise the skills level in the UK to compete effectively in the world economy. The Leitch Review was published in December 2006, and the governments Leitch implementation plan World Class Skills in July 2007. Building on a range of previous reports, strategies and policy documents, World Class Skills reinforces the overriding government priority to raise the numbers of adults in employment with vocational and LLN skills and qualifications. These changes run in tandem with radical reforms to the qualifications framework for 14-19 with the introduction of the new diplomas incorporating Functional Skills. Particular issues for London are addressed in the draft London Skills and Employment Strategy. The key documents are listed and their relevant main points summarised briefly below. 1. World Class Skills: Implementing the Leitch Review of Skills in England As part of a plan to 2020:  Puts employers centre-stage with the introduction of an employer-demand led model for identifying and planning delivery  Moves much of the funding and responsibility for post-16 education and training to employers through Train to Gain and a new UK Commission for Education and Skills which will co-ordinate the work of Sector Skills Councils  Invites employers to access funding and support via Train to Gain through an Employers Pledge committing them to train their workforce to a minimum first full Level 2 vocational qualification and basic literacy and numeracy skills Stresses the important role of unions and ULRs in this process  Sets new LLN targets for 2011 of 89% of adults qualified to at least Level 1 literacy, and 81% to at least Entry 3 numeracy  Makes the link with the reforms to education and training for 14-19 year olds, including the new Diplomas We are making basic English, maths and ICT skills the cornerstones of young peoples education, integrating them into Diplomas, Apprenticeships and GCSE English, maths and ICT, as well as creating a stand-alone qualification. www.dfes.gov.uk/skillsstrategy/uploads/documents/World%20Class%20Skills%20FI NAL.pdf

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2. 14 -19 Education and Skills: Implementation Plan Published February 2005 Sets out priority for functional skills to support learning and for employment Reinforces link with employment and Sector Skills Councils Introduces Diplomas in vocational areas Strengthens work-based options Sets out a detailed timetable for implementation. Details on progress on the most relevant areas of development relating to embedded LLN (Functional Skills and the Foundation Learning Tier) are included in Section H of this briefing. www.dfes.gov.uk/14-19/documents/14-19_implementation_plan05.pdf 3. London Skills and Employment Strategy Published October 2007. The London Skills and Employment Board (LSEB) was established to provide leadership in improving adult skills and employment in London. Chaired by the Mayor of London and employer-led, with representation from all key stakeholders, it is developing a long-term strategy focusing on improving skills in London and on identifying ways of tackling worklessness. The draft plan is currently out for consultation, with a final strategy due for publication in early 2008. It incorporates some variations from national planning which reflect Londons particular challenges: in particular, the low levels of qualification amongst lower skilled workers and high level of demand for English for speakers of other languages (ESOL). The draft strategy suggests responses to five challenges faced by London: a.  A fundamental change to the employment and skills support available for Londoners b. An ambitious new Employer Programme c. A new level of responsiveness from Londons learning and skills providers d. An integrated skills and employment structure. e.  Public funding aligned to the challenges and priorities identified in the draft strategy. www.london.gov.uk/lseb/docs/proposalboardstrategy.pdf Back to top of document

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H. Planning, accreditation and funding issues


The policy changes outlined in the previous section with a move to an employerand learner-demand led model bring with them major changes to the planning and funding regime in the post-16 sector. These coincide with the move to new delivery and accreditation models including ESOL for Work, Employability courses and Functional Skills. Most of these changes are still in development or at the trial stage. The notes below reflect the situation in December 2007, and should be read with this in mind. Current funding arrangements remain in place until July 2008. 1. Funding through the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) 2007-2008 Current guidance on planning and funding programmes with embedded LLN through the LSC is covered by the Funding Guidance for Further Education in 2007/8. This guidance is valid until July 2008. It can be downloaded from: http://readingroom.lsc.gov.uk/lsc/National/FEFundingGuidance0708.pdf LSC Factsheet 8 - embedding gives detailed guidance on current LSC thinking on embedded LLN, including a section on funding. It can be downloaded from: http://readingroom.lsc.gov.uk/lsc/National/nat-factsheet8-_embeddedlearning250907.pdf Key points are:  Embedded LLN involves at least one vocational learning aim and one literacy, language (ESOL) or numeracy learning aim Each learning aim receives its related programme weighting Only the LLN learning aim will qualify for the 1.4 programme weighting uplift  The overall teaching and learning hours for the learning programme must be greater than the vocational learning aim delivered on its own  Teaching and learning relating to both vocational and LLN learning aims must be discussed with learners and recorded in teaching records.  Work is in progress on developing courses which have one unified set of learning aims, combining both vocational and LLN. At present, no such courses are recognised for funding purposes. 2. Funding through the LSC 2008-2009 The LSC proposals for the new 16-18, Adult Learner- and Employer-responsive funding models were published in November 2007 and are currently out for consultation, with binding directives due to be issued early in 2008. Some different requirements apply to ESOL. LSC contract-holders are advised to begin planning in line with the new model now. Read the plans and respond to the consultation on: http://readingroom.lsc.gov.uk/lsc/National/nat-16-18-adult-learner-and-employerresponsive-funding-models.pdf

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3. Train to Gain: planning and funding for workplace training Offers free training for employees mostly at Level 2, including LLN, arranged via a Train to Gain broker, and is the main route for planning and funding workplace provision. LSC-funded, with its own funding route. Full information on the scheme and how to participate through www.traintogain.gov.uk . There are some important changes to the LSC guidance on LLN for the year 2007 -2008 extending the range of the LLN offer to stand-alone LLN as well as LLN linked to vocational qualifications. The LSC is also piloting Entry Level 3 in Literacy, Language and Numeracy in London only. These changes are laid out in the briefing sheet Requirements for funding Train to Gain 2007-8 version 2: http://readingroom.lsc.gov.uk/lsc/National/nat-ttg-req-for-fund-v2_.pdf Train to Gain: a plan for growth November 2007 July 2011 sets out the LSCs longer term planning, including information on the London pilot on page 18. http://readingroom.lsc.gov.uk/lsc/National/nat-ttg-plan_for_growth.pdf?WT.mc_ id=ttgho760&WT.mc_ev=click 4. ESOL for Work These new qualifications are designed to meet the immediate English language needs of migrant workers, both those in employment or intending to work. They are intended both to provide more appropriate courses for this group and to take pressure off places in traditional ESOL courses. Courses are listed as approved by the LSC, but unlike other ESOL courses: Do not contribute to national Skills for Life targets Do not attract the funding uplift for other LLN courses Are not automatically free to learners The details are clearly spelled out in the downloadable LSC FACT SHEET 10 ESOL (English for Speakers of Other languages) for Work from: http://readingroom.lsc.gov.uk/lsc/National/nat-factsheet10esol-for-work.pdf 5. Employability Skills New programmes delivered through Jobcentre Plus, offering unemployed people an integrated package and pathway to support them back to work and in work. Key features are: Accredited employability training at Entry 3 and Level 1 LLN at Entry 1 to Level 2 through embedded delivery  Flexible programme, with work experience, placements and tasters leading to a job 11 Employability Pilots are taking place in London colleges through a range of partnerships including Jobcentre Plus, employers, local community organisations and community regeneration projects. Promotional material to support the programme is now available free of charge from DIUS publications. Current LSC provider guidance is available on: www.lsc.gov.uk/providers/employability/

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6. Functional Skills Pilots Functional Skills are a key element of the 14-19 curriculum reform. The aim is to develop one set of qualifications in English, maths and ICT which will be built into the new programmes for all learners age 14 and over. Standards have been agreed and new qualifications are currently being piloted in over 1000 centres and Diploma Gateway consortia. The pilot period will run until 2010, and there is no date confirmed as yet for the new qualifications to come on-stream, with many key issues still being negotiated. A Functional Skills Support Programme has been set up, and a series of regional and in-house briefings is currently available to providers at 16+ through the Learning and Skills Network (LSN.) For further information on the briefings, call Stuart Barr on 020 7492 5259, or visit the website: www.lsneducation.org.uk/functionalskills/ 7. Foundation Learning Tier The Foundation Learning Tier aims to develop accredited Progression Pathways which will raise participation and achievement within the context of appropriate progression opportunities for all learners aged 14 and above. By 2010 there should be:  A curriculum offer which recognises a broad range of opportunities at Entry and Level 1, including LLN  Clear and appropriate progression routes towards Level 2 or other positive destinations  An improved offer for individuals based on improved initial assessment and personalised programmes Clear funding mechanisms to support participation, achievement and progression Initial trials from January to July 2007 have been followed by a second phase of development on 41 national trial sites. A document on Developing effective practice in foundation learning: messages for the implementation of Progression Pathways at Entry Level and Level 1 is downloadable from: http://excellence.qia.org.uk/pdf/FLT_Resource_170907_NP_(3).pdf Back to top of document

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I. Glossary of acronyms
BSA CfBT CPD CTAD DfES DIUS E2E ESOL GCSE HR ICT IfL ITT KSSP LLN LLUK LSC LSEB LSN LSU NIACE Basic Skills Agency Council for British Teachers Continuing professional development Cambridge Training and Development Department for Education and Skills (now DIUS) Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills Entry to Employment English for speakers of other languages General Certificate of Secondary Education Human Resources Information and communication technology Institute for Learning Initial teacher training Key Skills Support Programme Literacy, Language, Numeracy Lifelong Learning UK Learning and Skills Council London Skills and Employment Board Learning and Skills Network London Strategic Unit National Institute of Adult Continuing Education

NRDC  National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy NVQ OCN PDC QIA For further information please contact: Institute of Education 20 Bedford Way London WC1H 0AL Tel: 020 7612 6516 Fax: 020 7612 6618 Email: lsu@ioe.ac.uk QCA SfL TUC ULR WOA National Vocational Qualification Open College Network Professional Development Centre Quality Improvement Agency Qualifications and Curriculum Authority Skills for Life Trade Union Congress Union Learning Representative Whole Organisational Approach

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