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Third Asian Ministerial Conference

on Disaster Risk Reduction

2-4 December 2008 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Summary compilation of material presented at the

Third Asian Ministerial on Disaster Risk Reduction


2-4 December 2008
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
The purpose of this document is to provide a concise and user-friendly
summary of information from presentations made at the Third Asian
Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, December 1-4, 2008 in
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It represents the summarization of over 130
presentations on various areas of disaster risk reduction which can be found
in original form at http://www.amcdrrmalaysia.com.my/

In developing this project, UNISDR acknowledges the support received by


the German Federal Foreign Office as well as the Government of Malaysia in
the organization of the conference.

The findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed here are those of the
authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations
International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) or conference
organizers. UNISDR cannot guarantee the accuracy of the data included in
this publication, and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of its use.
Table of Contents
• Part 1: Climate Change and Disaster Risk
Reduction
• Part 2: Public Private Partnerships
• Part 3: Urban Disaster Risk Reduction
• Part 4: Community Disaster Risk Reduction
• Part 5: Information Communication
Technology
• Part 6: Early Warning
• Part 7: Space Tools
• Part 8: Safe Hospitals
• Part 9: Education and Disaster Risk
Reduction
• Part 10: Indigenous Knowledge
• Part 11: Implementing HFA
• Part 12: Mainstreaming Disaster Risk
Reduction
• Part 13: Regional and Country Profiles
Overview:
Disaster Risk Reduction

Contents
• Overview: Disaster risk reduction
• Disaster frequency
• Disaster frequency by type and region
• Disaster risk reduction components
• Shift to DRR
• Damage assessment process
• Remote sensing
• Disaster risk reduction and poverty
DISASTER STATISTICS Disaster frequency

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “The Role of ICTS in Disaster Management
including Disaster Risk Reduction.”
DISASTER STATISTICS Disaster frequency by type and region

Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session on “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction.”
DRR CONCEPTS Disaster Risk Reduction Components

“Building culture of
prevention is not easy,
while the cost of
prevention had to be
paid in the present, its
benefit lie in the
distant future.
Moreover, the benefit
are not tangible; they
are disasters that did
not happen”
- Kofi Anan, Former UN
Secretary General

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “The Role of ICTS in Disaster Management
including Disaster Risk Reduction.”
DRR CONCEPTS Shift to DRR

Source: Dhar Chakrabarti, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing HFA in Asia
and the Pacific”
DRR CONCEPTS Damage Assessment Process

Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
DRR CONCEPTS Disaster preparedness

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “The Role of ICTS in Disaster Management
including Disaster Risk Reduction”
DRR CONCEPTS Remote Sensing

Remote sensing (passive and active sensing) critical in earth observation of weather satellite
collection platforms critical for monitoring, prediction and detection

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “The Role of ICTS in Disaster Management
including Disaster Risk Reduction.”
DRR CONCEPTS Disaster Risk Reduction and Poverty

Vicious cycle of disaster and poverty

Source: Saidur Rehman, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”
DRR CONCEPTS Disaster Risk Reduction and Poverty

“There are indications of close linkages


between poverty and vulnerability to
natural disasters and of their mutually re-
enforcing effects. The poorer communities
tend to be the most vulnerable. Data show
that at the household level, poverty is the
single most important factor determining
vulnerability.”

Source: Saidur Rehman, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”
Part 1: Climate Change and
Disaster Risk Reduction

Contents
• Salient global statistics
• Salient statistics in East Asia
• Impacts in coastal areas of Asian countries
• Potential climate change impact
• Natural disaster and climate change linkages
• Case for climate change mitigation
• Managing climate risk framework
• The UN Convention on Climate Change
• Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
• Knowledge gaps
• Climate Resilient Cities: A Primer
• Issues in CCA and DRR
Part 1: Climate Change and
Disaster Risk Reduction

• Climate Change Adaptation


• Climate change adaptation and ICT
• Climate Change and Health
• Fire and Rescue Perspectives
• Case Study: Northumbria Infectious Disease
Risk Management
• Case Study: Climate Disaster Resilience
Initiative (CDRI)
• Case Study: Cholera in Mozambique
• Case Study: Malaria in Ghana
• Case Study: Korea
• Case Study: Red Cross/Red Crescent
CLIMATE CHANGE Salient Global Statistics

Ch
Salient statistics

• Relative changes in precipitation (in percent) for the period


2090–2099, relative to 1980–1999 (IPCC 2007)
• Mean temperature increases by the end of this century of up
to 4 percent centigrade and sea levels rising by up to 60
centimeters
• The 10 warmest years on record have all been since 1990
• Over the last century, average global temperatures have risen
by 0.6 degrees Celsius being the most drastic temperature rises
over 1000 years in the northern hemisphere
• Glaciers are melting and Sea levels are rising and forecast to
rise another 88 cm by 2100
• Globally sea level rise threatens 100 million people living below
this level
• Number of people affected by floods worldwide has risen from
7 million in the 1960s to 150 million today

Source: Various presentations


CLIMATE CHANGE Salient Global Statistics

Ch
Projected surface temperature changes for the early and late 21st century relative to the period
1980-1999

Source: Andrew Collins, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency
Management.”
CLIMATE CHANGE Salient Global Statistics

Ch
Updated 100-year linear trend of 0.74 ºC for 1906-2005

Source: G. Srinivasan, 4 December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”
CLIMATE CHANGE Salient Global Statistics

Ch
Global climate change from man-made activities

• Undeniable evidence that global climate is changing


• This change is human-induced
Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”
CLIMATE CHANGE Salient Global Statistics

Ch
Change in climate variation: generally
the emphasis until now has been on
changes in the mean climate. We need
to understand the impacts of changes
in climate variability at a range of
scales: decadal, inter-
annual, seasonal, daily, and taking into
account large-scale atmospheric
regimes

Attribution of a single event


to global warming is
therefore difficult

Source: G. Srinivasan, 4 December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”
CLIMATE CHANGE Salient Global Statistics

Ch
Warm nights increasing; cold nights decreasing

Frequency of occurrence of cold or warm temperatures for 202 global stations for
3 time periods:
1901 to 1950 (black), 1951 to 1978 (blue) and 1979 to 2003 (red)

Source: G. Srinivasan, 4 December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”
CLIMATE CHANGE Salient Global Statistics

Ch
Proportion of heavy rainfalls: increasing in most land areas

Regions of disproportionate changes in heavy (95th) and very heavy (99th) precipitation

Source: G. Srinivasan, 4 December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”
CLIMATE CHANGE Salient Global Statistics

Ch
Small changes in temperature, increase in disaster risks

Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”
CLIMATE CHANGE Salient Statistics in East Asia

Ch
Changes in number of heavy rainfall days and hot days over locations in the East Asian Region

Source: Trevor Tague, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and
Emergency Management.”
CLIMATE CHANGE Salient Statistics in East Asia

Ch
Changes in the Frequency Distribution of Extremes

Source: G. Srinivasan, 4 December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”
CLIMATE CHANGE Salient Statistics in East Asia

Ch
Projections of Regional Tmax and Daily Rainfall Changes

Source: G. Srinivasan, 4 December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”
CLIMATE CHANGE Impacts in coastal areas of Asian countries

Ch

Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”
CLIMATE CHANGE Potential Climate Change Impact

Ch

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster
Risk Reduction”
CLIMATE CHANGE Potential Climate Change Impact

Ch

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster
Risk Reduction”
CLIMATE CHANGE Impacts of climate change and disasters

Ch
• The increase in GHG concentration and atmospheric warming impacts sea level, temperature, precipitation, and
extreme events
• This negatively affects sectors and quality of living in cities

Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”
CLIMATE CHANGE Natural disasters and climate change

Ch
linkages

Source: G. Srinivasan, 4 December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”
CLIMATE CHANGE Natural disasters and climate change

Ch
linkages

Source: Rebecca McNaught, 4 December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”
CLIMATE CHANGE Case for climate change mitigation

Ch

• Reducing the production of GHGs, i.e. mitigation climate change impacts, would
not only be cheaper in the long-run however, also lead to a reduction in
temperatures
Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”
CLIMATE CHANGE Managing Climate Risk Framework

Ch

Source: Masud Siddiqui, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.””
CLIMATE CHANGE The UN Convention on Climate Change

Ch
COP
Conference of the
Parties

IPCC
Secretariat

SBSTA Subsidiary
SBI Subsidiary Body
Body for Scientific and
for Implementation
Technological Advice

IPCC

Source: Yap Kok Seng, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk
Reduction”
CLIMATE CHANGE Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Ch
(IPCC)
UNFCC Secretariat
Plenary WMO/UNEP in
Switzerland

Working group I Working group II Task force on


Working group III
The science of Impact and national greenhouse
Mitigation
climate system adaptation gas inventories

Technical support Technical support Technical support Technical support


unit unit unit unit

Experts, authors, contributors, reviewers

Source: Yap Kok Seng, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk
Reduction”
CLIMATE CHANGE Knowledge gaps in the areas of climate

Ch
change and disaster risk reduction

Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”
“Climate Resilient Cities: A Primer on
CLIMATE CHANGE

Ch
Reducing Vulnerabilities to Disasters”

Overview

• Report by World Bank and UNISDR


(2008)
• Focus on climate change adaptation &
disaster risk reduction in East Asia
region
• Moving from theory to practice
• Tool for city level managers to develop
a strategy for adaptation and mitigation
• For both cities in beginning and
advanced stages in dealing with climate
change and disaster risks
• Presents a “hotspot” tool for
identifying city-specific priorities for
action
• Presents “no regrets” endeavors

Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”
“Climate Resilient Cities: A Primer on
CLIMATE CHANGE

Ch
Reducing Vulnerabilities to Disasters”

Hotspot Exercise

• The heart of decision-making


• Given:
• Geographical location
• City size and growth rate
• Governance structure
• Disaster history
• “Influentiable”
• -City management
• Financial resources
• Built environment
• Disaster response systems

Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”
“Climate Resilient Cities: A Primer on
CLIMATE CHANGE

Ch
Reducing Vulnerabilities to Disasters”

Hotspot assessment excerpt

Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”
CLIMATE CHANGE Issues in CCA and DRR

Ch
Case evidence is strong enough
for action: Climate change adaptation and
• Asian urban growth disaster risk reduction –main
• Local decentralization crux now for the development
• Capacity gaps in cities
• Financial pressures
of Asian cities
• ↑Vulnerabilities

CCA and DRR are complex


problems involving all sectors -
Key is the local level to build
require innovation and
resilient cities
ingenuity–takes time and need
to start now

Cities need to know how much


they are really affected by
Paradigm shift –takes time and
climate change and intellectual
needs to start now
capital to deal with these
complex problems

Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”
CLIMATE CHANGE Issues in CCA and DRR

Ch
Once we know, what do we
“No regret” interventions -
Need for
do? -Prioritize actions -there
are both urgent and
recognizing opportunity monitoring and
important areas that need to
costs associated with
interventions
evaluating of
be looked at- progress and gaps

Need to go beyond “token”


Need to factor
Leveraging experiences of
others but not following a
and “pilot” projects -taking positive feedback
“one size fits all” approach
good projects and
replicating & scaling
effects in the
system

Need to consciously go Remember how


beyond the same theoretical
areas to most challenging Kalamazoo! Stating hard long the
areas in climate change
adaptation and disaster risk
truths as they are! environmental
reduction movement took!!
Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”
CLIMATE CHANGE Climate Change Adaptation

Ch
Since the inception of UNFCC, adaptation has been poor. At the Climate Change
Conference in Bali, it was realized that all countries would need to adapt.
Definitions
Adaptation

• “ Adjustment in natural or human systems in response to


actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which
moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities.
Various types of adaptation can be distinguished, including
anticipatory and reactive adaptation, private and public
adaptation, and autonomous and planned adaptation”
(IPCC TAR, 2001)

Adaptation capacity

• Ability of a system to adjust itself in order to cope with


climate change variability

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster
Risk Reduction”
CLIMATE CHANGE Climate Change Adaptation

Ch
Definitions
Flexibility

• The ability to adapt to climate change through appropriate


judgment and strategies

Mainstreaming

• Taking on board climate change issues when designing national


policies, programmes and priorities (to include climate related
risk, vulnerability and options for adaptation in the ICT sector)

Vulnerability

• Degree to which an area is susceptible to harm due to exposure


to such as climate change

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster
Risk Reduction”
CLIMATE CHANGE Climate Change Adaptation

Ch
Effective approaches for adaptation

Effective approaches for adaptation

• Engage stakeholders
• Identify and set priorities for action
• Assign responsibility for action and monitor implementation
• Keep adaptation strategies under regular review

Key issues

• Under-adaptation: climate change factors are given insufficient weight


• Over-adaptation: climate change factors are given too much weight
• Mal-adaptation: decisions are taken resulting in more vulnerability to
climate change

Adaptation = flexibility

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster
Risk Reduction”
CLIMATE CHANGE Climate Change Adaptation

Ch
Adaptation Continuum
Vulnerability Adaptation Development
Impacts to and to Resilience
Adaptation Development Resilience
 Identifying the  Adaptation that  Development
poor naturally builds built on local
livelihoods coping
 Explaining pre- mechanisms
poor livelihood  Livelihoods built
insurance by entitlement  Coping
strategies focus mechanisms
safeguarded
 Giving practical  Development
“voice” demonstrably  Social resilience
(governance) to achieved “Take the Punch”
the voiceless “Bounce back
and beyond”

Source: Phil O’Keefe et al., Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency
Management.”
CLIMATE CHANGE Climate Change Adaptation and ICT

Ch

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster
Risk Reduction”
CLIMATE CHANGE Climate Change and Health

Ch
IPCC projections and hypothesized impact on health (adapted from IPCC 2007)

Source: Andrew Collins, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”
CLIMATE CHANGE Climate Change and Health

Ch
Overview
• The under 5 infant mortality rate in Africa is
largely attributable to infectious diseases
• For Ghana, Mozambique, and Bangladesh,
climate change influences, to a high
degree, infectious disease outbreak and its
control
• The third figure is a simplified infectious
disease risk assessment

“ intensifying climatic conditions, together with a range


of environmental, epidemiological and socioeconomic
factors, are bringing about changes in the exposure of
populations to infectious diseases ”
-WHO World Health Report 2007

Source: Andrew Collins, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”
CLIMATE CHANGE Climate Change and Health

Ch
The health ecology approach to infectious disease risk reduction for health security at the
global, community, and individual levels

Source: Andrew Collins, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”
CLIMATE CHANGE Climate Change and Health

Ch
Integrated health risk reduction in contexts of Risks get understood through
disease and climate change various research approaches such
as:

 Pathogenic
 Clinical-epidemiological
 Temporal-climatic
 Spatial-environmental
 Socio-economic
 Behavioral
 Perceptual
 Multivariate and integrative

Source: Andrew Collins, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”
CLIMATE CHANGE Climate Change and Health

Ch
A moving target for reducing climatic health risks:

“ Pathogenic adaptation in
relation to climate change is
not fully understood and to a
large extent still has to be
regarded as unpredictable. It is
therefore important to
focus research into human
vulnerability, coping and
resilience, where more certain
links to disease risk may be
understood ”

Source: Andrew Collins, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”
CLIMATE CHANGE Fire and Rescue Perspectives

Ch
 First responders like police, fire and rescue services, and ambulance are involved in
climate change-related incidents such as fire, search and rescue, and mass
decontamination

 Example: how first responders deal with floods:


1) Preparation Phase 3) Response Phase
- Multi-agency collaboration with police, - Flood watch/flood warning - act on information
ambulance, fire and deploy people
- Identify hazard areas - Rescue of vulnerable people
- Produce emergency response plans - Swift water rescues – i.e. cars, rivers, roofs
- Setup service level agreements - Command and control - logistics, crew changes
- Identify strategic holding areas accommodation
- Purchase food defense equipment
- Rescuer training

4) Recovery Phase
2) Rescuer Training - Transport (boats, sleds, inspections)
- Two kinds of training: - Utility services (gas, electric, water, communications)
- i. First responder – basic water access skills - Water removal (HVP, peristaltic pumps, water vacuums)
- ii. Swift water rescue technician – advanced - Home risk assessment (safety advice)
rescue skills

Source: Trevor Tague, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and
Emergency Management.”
CLIMATE CHANGE Case Study: Northumbria Infectious

Ch
Disease Risk Management Program

Program overview

• Infectious Disease Risk Management (IDRM) at


Northumbria University, Disaster and Development
Centre (DDC) “In terms of climate change
linkages, the rationale is
• Aim of the program is to reduce disaster through risk identifying the contexts
reduction and health security whereby different aspects of
health are prone to change to
decide how much climate
History of activities change may be tolerable or
acceptable, what type of
• 2002-05: In Mozambique and Bangladesh sponsored adaptation is necessary, and
by DFID, WHO, UNICEF, Governments of Mozambique who, how, when and where the
and Bangladesh, ICDDR costs might be borne”
• 2007-10: Mozambique and Bangladesh sponsored by
British Council
• 2007-09: Health Security and Disaster Resilience in
Bangladesh (ESRC, DFID)

Source: Andrew Collins, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”
CLIMATE CHANGE Case Study: Northumbria Infectious

Ch
Disease Risk Management Program
Integrated (Community) Disease Risk Reduction (IDRR) Methodology
Reduce uncertainty through
comprehensive disease risk
assessments Through the
• Participation, appropriate frameworks, following
monitoring, evaluation of relative causality
• To know who, when, where, and the
mechanisms:
circumstances of changes in hazards,
vulnerability and capacity • Locally-owned research
• Empirical verification of disease hazard • Capacity building
• Systems development
• Disease risk
Community engagement assessment in the
• Empower people community
• Sensitize institutions • Using local committees
• Delineate responsibilities of the state
• Legislate rights of individuals, and
responsibilities of informal and private
sectors

Source: Andrew Collins, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”
CLIMATE CHANGE Case Study: Climate Disaster Resilience

Ch
Initiative (CDRI)
Goals
• To measure the level of climate disaster resilience of urban poor communities
• To develop a yardstick i.e., Climate Disaster Resilience Index (CDRI) to measure
the level of climate disaster resilience the methodological approach to do that
• To map the communities’ position in the level of climate disaster resilience
• To help policy formulation by the development organizations and take
necessary action to enhance climate disaster resilience of communities

Source: Rajib Shaw, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Asian Urban Task Force (UTF).”
CLIMATE CHANGE Case Study: Climate Disaster Resilience

Ch
Initiative (CDRI)
Expected outputs
• Methodology of CDRI development
• CDRI to measure city’s climate disaster resilience
• Climate Disaster Resilience Map for each city
• Policy tools for Government and development organizations, to prioritize
the sectors in vulnerable communities
• Strength and weakness of different sectors of each dimension of CDRI
(physical/social/economic/institutional/Natural) of a city

Source: Rajib Shaw, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Asian Urban Task Force (UTF).”
CLIMATE CHANGE Case Study: Cholera in Mozambique

Ch
Case of cholera in There is high correlation between the variation
Mozambique in cholera cases in Beira, Mozambique compared
to rainfall, temperature and humidity from 1999-
• Population of 18.5 million; 2003
capital 0.5 million
• Vulnerable to diarrheal diseases
• High incidence of absolute
poverty
• Low elevation, estuarine
• High
humidity, temperature, seasona
l rainfall
• Concentrations of populations
near aquatic environments
• Adaptive Vibrio cholerae 01
serotypes Ogawa and Inaba

Source: Andrew Collins, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”
CLIMATE CHANGE Case Study: Malaria in Ghana

Ch
Distribution of number of malaria cases and Distribution of number of malaria cases and
rainfall amount in Ashanti, Ghana mean air temperature in Ashanti, Ghana

Source: Andrew Collins, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”
CLIMATE CHANGE Case Study: Korea

Ch
Statistics

• Average temperature has increased 1.5


degrees Celsius in Korea
• By the end of the 21st century, it is
expected that temperatures will increase
by 4 degrees Celsius and rainfall by 20
percent
• Economic costs of climate change have
generally increased in Korea:
• 1960s - US$100 million
• 1990s – US$600 million
• 2000+ – already US$2.7 billion
• Examples:
• Typhoon Rusa, 2002 – US$5.1 billion
• Typhoon Maemi, 2003 – US$4.2 billion

Source: Yeon-Soo Park, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and
Emergency Management.”
CLIMATE CHANGE Case Study: Korea

Ch
Statistics

• Hourly precipitation has changed from an


average of 94.6mm/hour from 1998 to
2000 to 97.4mm/hour from 2000-2008

• Daily precipitation has also changed from


355.8mm/day to 415.2mm/day in the
same period

• Sea level has also increased by 37 percent


compared with1990 levels

• In addition, raised sea level temperature


has increased by 50 percent compared
with 1990 levels

Source: Yeon-Soo Park, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate


Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”
CLIMATE CHANGE Case Study: Korea

Ch
The Government of Korea is taking the threat of climate change as an opportunity to develop
new initiatives:
• Promoting and fostering “green” industries
• Climate Change Task Force under the Office of the Prime Minister
• Disaster managers participating in “adaptation” area

Establishment of risk Linking land development


prediction systems plans
• Establishing a national standard • Regional flood safety system
Programs for DRR

climate change scenario through levees


• Setting up a natural hazard and • Relocation from flood planes
disaster prediction system
• Vulnerability system for floods

Establishing “nature- Setting design codes for


friendly” disaster prevention prevention facilities
initiatives • Changing the design code that is
• Examples include nature-friendly based on historical events to
water cycle systems, runoff improving the design code for
reduction systems, strengthening future extreme events
of land constitution

Source: Yeon-Soo Park, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and
Emergency Management.”
CLIMATE CHANGE Case Study: Korea

Ch
Development of disaster and safety Promoting a natural disaster
technologies using IT interventions insurance program
• Development of a National Disaster • Managed by NEMA and operated by private
Management System (NDMS) insurance companies
• Cell Broadcast Service (CBS) for Disaster
Information
Programs for DRR

• Automated rainfall warning system and


disaster damage survey system and needs
analysis

Strengthening emergency rescue


and relief systems
• Preparing for disaster rescue and response
Strengthening climate change
adaptation including health

Source: Yeon-Soo Park, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and
Emergency Management.”
CLIMATE CHANGE Case Study: Red Cross/Red Crescent

Ch
Lessons learned

• Assessing and addressing current and future climate risks at national levels
• Assessing and addressing current and future climate risks at community
level
• Education and awareness raising
• Non-traditional partnerships and networks
• Advocacy
• Integrating climate change into existing training, plans and strategies

Funding mechanisms

• Don’t currently match the scale of the problem


• Growing risks need growing efforts and funding
• Polluter pays principle
• Funding should be additional to existing ODA
• Funding mechanisms need to take into account changing climate risk

Source: Rebecca McNaught, 4 December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”
Part 2: Public Private Partnerships
for Disaster Risk Reduction

Contents
• Overview
• Catastrophe risk insurance
• Statistics: Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia
• Challenges of insuring catastrophic risks in Asia
• Government Instruments to Finance Natural
Disasters
• Catastrophe Risk Insurance Needs in Asia
• Role of Government vs. Private Sector
• Pre-requisites
• Attributes
• Benefits
Part 2: Public Private Partnerships • Data requirements for insurance companies
for Disaster Risk Reduction • Increasing Catastrophe insurance penetration
• Asian Regional Catastrophe Pool
• Conclusions
• Case study: Swiss Re
• Case study: Taiwan Residential Earthquake Insurance
Pool
• Case study: Mexican catastrophe risk financing
• Case study: Catastrophic insurance in Japan
• Case study: Turkey Earthquake Pool
• Case study: Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance
Facility
• Case study: Earthquake coverage for Guatemala and
El Salvador Business Continuity Planning
• Case Study: Business Continuity Management in
Malaysia
• Case Study: Nestle Malaysia
• Case Study: UEM Group and Mercy Malaysia
• Case Study: Anti-Disaster Glass Promotion in Japan
• Case Study: Petronas Corporate Social Responsibility
PPP for DRR Overview: Public Private Partnerships (PPP)

Ch
There are variations in the phrase representing public private partnerships:

• Public-Private Partnership (3Ps)


• Public-Private and People Partnership (4Ps)
• People-lead and People-oriented Public Private Partnership (5P)

Private institutions Public Sector institutions

• Business Corporations • Central, provincial, and local


• Corporate social responsibility governments and government
• Public relations owned, managed, supported entities
• Business opportunities • They are mandated by the
constitution to be involved in DRR
• NGOs
• Multilateral and bilateral development
• Mandated
partners
• Funded
• United Nations Organizations
• Academic, religious, and civil society
• World Bank
institutions
• Asian Development Bank
• Regional institutions (ASEAN, SAARC)
• Bilateral and multilateral
development partners

Source: Various presentations, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”
PPP for DRR Statistics: Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia

Ch
Low catastrophe insurance penetration in Asia

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Statistics: Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia

Ch
Consequences of low insurance penetration

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Statistics: Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia

Ch
Heavy burden of natural disaster loss as a percentage of GDP and Government Revenue

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
Challenges of insuring catastrophic risks
PPP for DRR

Ch
in Asia

Conventional commercial insurance


market financing for catastrophe
risks is ineffective in Asia:
• Lack of risk awareness for Individuals,
Corporations, Regulators
• Lack of spread and critical mass to make
insurance affordable –vicious cycle
• Anti-selection

High Concentration of Cat Exposures in Mega Cities


Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for Challenges of insuring catastrophic risks
DRR

Ch
in Asia

Challenge of modeling and pricing


catastrophe risks:
• Low frequency, high severity nature of the risk
• Lack of reliable data on:
• Historical record of events
• Vulnerability of buildings
• Exposures
• Cost of model development vs. market size
• Unbalanced heterogeneous portfolios
• High concentration of risk

Taiwan: The Challenge of Modeling Unbalanced Portfolios

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
Challenges of insuring catastrophic risks
PPP for DRR

Ch
in Asia

Little incentive for commercial


insurance markets to promote
catastrophe insurance:
• The challenge of modeling and pricing risk
• High levels of capital required to retain the risk
• Heavy reliance on reinsurance with volatile pricing
• Uncertainty in the remote risk
• Accounting and tax rules discourage the build up
of cat reserves
• Slim margins and low ROE

Commercial Insurers Reluctant to Cover Earthquake in China

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Government Instruments to Finance

Ch
Natural Disasters

Source: Andreas Bollmann, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Catastrophe Risk Insurance Needs in Asia

Ch
As a result of the
conference, the Delhi
Recommendation to On the 7th and 8th November Declaration 2007 was
strengthen financial 2007, New Delhi hosted the adopted, among other points
mechanism for disaster Second Asian Ministerial urging,
reduction: Delhi Declaration Conference on Disaster Risk •“… the national governments to
strengthen financial mechanisms for
(2007) Reduction disaster reduction, including risk
transfer and risk finance including
innovative approaches in
microfinance, micro insurance …”

Source: Andreas Bollmann, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia

Ch
To absorb large natural catastrophic events, risks need to be shared
between individuals, corporations, the domestic insurance and
global reinsurance industry, and capital markets
• Absent is an efficient re/insurance market (i.e. in developing and
emerging countries) and governments play a more active role as
risk taker
• We need to find new forms of public-private partnerships to tackle
climate-related and natural catastrophe risks

Source: Andreas Bollmann, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Role of Government vs. Private Sector

Ch
Role of private insurance Role of government

• For many disaster types, private insurance • The primary role of governments is to set a
provides an efficient tool to cover financial regulatory framework which allows for
losses effective private risk transfer
• Reasons for insurance pools are manifold. • Government interventions can lead to
Pools are neither good nor bad per se and unexpected effects and may trigger further
must be evaluated case by case interventions instead of addressing the
• The primary role of insurance in disaster root causes
prevention is to ensure risk-adjusted • In specific cases, government
pricing, as this provides an incentive for interventions can supplement the private
preventive measures insurance industry and expand limits of
• State, NGO and charity organizations may insurability. Market inefficiencies or
compensate victims for non-insurable failures may require state intervention
losses, but should not do so for insurable • In public-private partnerships
risks which are deliberately not insured governments can take different roles:
Insurer, reinsurer, rule setter, (re)insurance
buyer, risk aggregator, provider of financial
support for insurance schemes

Source: Andreas Bollmann, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia:

Ch
Pre-requisites

Insurability is a key prerequisite for effective private insurance


Randomness:
Assessibility: time of occurrence must be
loss probability and severity unpredictable, occurrence
must be quantifiable itself must be independent of
the will of the insured

Insurability
criteria

Mutuality:
Economic viability:
numerous exposed parties
private insurers must be able
must join together to form a
to obtain a risk-adequate
risk community, to share and
premium
diversify the risk

Source: Andreas Bollmann, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia: Attributes

Ch
Key Attributes of Catastrophic Insurance Pools for Residential
Risks
• Government Mandate –compulsion
• Limited cover for an affordable premium
• Public Private Partnership
• Distribution of policies and claims by the private sector
• Contribution to risk capital by both private sector as well as
government
• Government contingent capital or guarantee for remote
risk-critical subsidy
• Initial Administration by private sector
• Seed capital and technical assistance provided by
development banks
• Bespoke Cat Loss and Financial Modelling

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia:

Ch
Benefits
Value of Catastrophe Pools

• National and regional catastrophe risk pooling schemes provide the platform to meet
the pressing need for wider catastrophic cover in Asia
• Pooling risk across a wide area provides better spread and more efficient use of Asian
capital to finance Asian catastrophic risk
• Mandatory pools create the spread of risk and critical mass to make catastrophic
insurance affordable and effective
• Compulsion a key requirement to overcome lack of risk awareness and anti selection
• Provide a more efficient platform to transfer catastrophic risk into international markets
(reinsurance or capital markets)
• Reduces uncertainty and the need for costly ‘sleep easy’ cover purchased by individual
insurers
• Provides a mechanism to encourage risk mitigation and safer construction practices
• Provides the platform to increase risk awareness
• Public campaigns
• Facilitates the build up catastrophic reserves through concessionary accounting and tax
rules
• Facilitates research and investment in the modelling and pricing of cat risk

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia

Ch
National Catastrophe Pool Conceptual Risk Transfer
Programme
• Uninsured cat risk already carried by Governments
• Insurance pool provides the vehicle to build a fund to
finance the risk
• Risk in excess of local fund/market capital transferred
to the reinsurance and capital markets
• Remote ‘top’risk guaranteed by government through
post loss funding –not economic to reinsure
• Over time build up self supporting fund Government

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia

Ch
Data requirements for insurance companies
Hazard Data Vulnerability Data Calibration
• Meteorological Data • Building Code • Historical Loss Data
• For tropical storm, Rm, • Code Itself, Historical • Type of
⊿p, Translational Speed Transition, Enforcement Hazard, Date, Place, Inju
etc System, Inspection ry, Affected Area etc.
• Geological Data System etc. • Some data available
• Fault, Soil Type etc. • Since most buildings in through Nat Cat Event
Asian countries are non- Database, EM-Dat, and
engineered, contractor’s GLIDE however, not
quality is a key issue sufficient to design the
• Vulnerability is unknown financial product
so parametric trigger
typed transaction is
acceptable for risk taker in
spite of basis risk

Source: Hiroyuki Watabe, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia

Ch
Increasing Catastrophe Insurance
Penetration
Enhance Awareness of catastrophe Sharing good practices
risk • Disseminating knowledge to stakeholders
• Many DRR projects done in the region like including local insurers
community based risk reduction and early • Insurance contracts are normally difficult for
warning system for safe evacuation people with complex policy wording which
• Not much knowledge on risk financing decreases their interest in purchasing the
• More opportunities are required for dialogues insurance coverage
on risk financing • On the other hand, parametric trigger type
products are very easy to understand for the
client.
• There is the basis risk problem that is the
difference between received amounts and
actual loss amount

Source: Hiroyuki Watabe, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia

Ch

Unbalanced domestic cat risk from Asian insurers transferred


into regional pool –written by a dedicated reinsurer (ACP Re)

The diversified and balanced portfolio of cat risk written by


the pool is shared amongst Asian insurers

More efficient use of Asian capital for Asian cat risk

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia

Ch
Conclusions

• Risk needs to be assessed properly with Probabilistic Natural


Catastrophic Risk Analysis model
• Insurer and re-insurer want to know the risk more accurately; it is
necessary for their decision making to enter the new market
• In case of US, Europe and Japan, the Nat Cat risk is recognized clearly
with probabilistic Nat Cat model
• On the other hand, for Asian Countries, one cannot obtain and
access basic data to develop the model easily, for example,
meteorological data, fault data etc.
• The following are some problems:
• Lack of Observation (no instruments installed)
• Lack of time series data
• Lack of uniformity in data
• Lack of accessibility to the data (paper based, language problem)

Source: Hiroyuki Watabe, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia

Ch
Conclusions

• Vulnerability of many Asian economies to cat risk


• pressing need for action
• Local insurance markets ineffective and lack the incentives to
promote catastrophe insurance
• International reinsurance market has the expertise and capacity to
underwrite the cat risk
• Development banks keen to promote pre event risk financing
schemes to reduce dependency on post loss funding
• National and Regional pooling schemes
• Make the insurance of cat risk effective and affordable
• Provides an efficient platform to access the international cat
market
• Commitment and prioritisation can lead to major economic and
social benefits

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Case study: Swiss Re

Ch
Swiss Re

• A financial services firm with 144 years of experience


• The world’s leading and most diversified reinsurer
• A proven expert in risk and capital management
• A pioneer and leader in capital market solutions

Overview

• Revenues CHF 42.8 billion


• Net income CHF 4.2 billion
• Total investments: CHF 228 billion
• Market cap CHF 29.8 billion
• 11,000+ employees
• 90 offices in 25 countries
• Headquarters in Zurich, Switzerland

Source: Andreas Bollmann, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Case study: Swiss Re

Ch
Contributions in Risk Management

Source: Andreas Bollmann, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Case study: Taiwan Residential Earthquake

Ch
Insurance Pool (TREIP)

Overview

• September 1999 Chi Chi Earthquake


• Less than 1 percent of residential houses insured for
earthquake
• Technical insolvency of 2 provincial banks due to NPL
• Insurance Law amended to establish legal framework
in July 2001; Commenced operations April 2002
• Basic cover of US$ 35,000 (NTD 1.2m) for total loss
arising from EQ and associated perils
• Affordable fixed premium of US$ 49 (NTD 1,459)
• Compulsory extension for homeowners purchasing
insurance policies –generally those that are mortgaged

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Case study: Taiwan Residential Earthquake

Ch
Insurance Pool (TREIP)

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Case study: Taiwan Residential Earthquake

Ch
Insurance Pool (TREIP)

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Case study: Taiwan Residential Earthquake

Ch
Insurance Pool (TREIP)

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
Case study: Mexican catastrophe
PPP for DRR

Ch
risk financing

The purpose of FONDEN

• The FONDEN is a financial tool, whose purpose is to provide resources


for the 32 Mexican States and the Federal Agencies (that are in charged
of federal infrastructure) to attend the harm and damages caused by a
natural phenomenon

Change from a reactive system to a preventive system

• In order to attend this new preventive perspective during 2002 and


2003, two more funds were created: Fipreden (Preventive Trust Fund)
and Fopreden (Natural Disaster Prevention Fund)

Source: Rubem Hofliger, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
Case study: Mexican catastrophe
PPP for DRR

Ch
risk financing

Source: Rubem Hofliger, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Case study: Mexican catastrophe

Ch
risk financing

Source: Rubem Hofliger, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
Case study: Mexican catastrophe
PPP for DRR

Ch
risk financing

New challenges and results

• FONDEN’s legal regulation aim to promote a prevention culture,


compelling the Federal Agencies and State Governments to keep
enough resources in their next budgets and annual programs for
the infrastructure damaged by a disaster
• If the infrastructure turns out to be damaged again in the future
by a new natural disaster, FONDEN provides the resources again
• The Mexican Federal Government implemented a risk financing
strategy in order to provide emergency relief to population
affected after a earthquake of severe consequences.
• The “Mexican Cat-bond”, formally is a mixing of parametric
insurance policy and parametric cat-bonds covering earthquakes
in specific zones of the Mexican territory

Source: Rubem Hofliger, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
Case study: Mexican catastrophe
PPP for DRR

Ch
risk financing

New challenges and results

• Besides earthquake risk, the Mexican Government is


working on a structure to include other risks such as:
• Parametric insurances against hurricanes
• Loss excess insurance to protect the patrimony of the
Fonden trust
• The target of FONDEN is to assign the resources to pay the
risks coverage of catastrophic insurances and retain only a
small sum for recurrent less destructive events
• In this way, FONDEN has an enormous capacity to confront
catastrophic events of great magnitude without affecting
public finances

Source: Rubem Hofliger, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Case study: Catastrophic insurance in Japan

Ch
Background

• PPP for earthquake risk reduction started in 1923 after the Great
Kanto Earthquake that killed over 140,000 people. Fire following the
earthquake killed the most number of people
• At that time, the fire following earthquake was exempted by the fire
insurance policy as almost all homes were wooden
• Social pressure led to the fire being included in spite of the
exemption
• The earthquake insurance mechanism was revisited and studied
• After Niigata Earthquake in 1964, first Earthquake insurance was
introduced
• Now the loss limit is up to 5,500 Billion Yen covered with
Government and private insurers
• After Sendai Earthquake in 1978 and Hanshin Awaji Earthquake in
1995, interest in it increased
• Reinsurance capacity was sought

Source: Hiroyuki Watabe, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Case study: Catastrophic insurance in Japan

Ch
Background Continued

• Insurance companies were reluctant to provide


earthquake insurance due to the huge uncertainty of the
size of earthquake and frequency
• Government of Japan shared the earthquake risk with
private insurance company. That is good example of
Private-Public Partnership in Japan
• To stabilize the mechanism, reinsurance and CAT-bond
are useful tools to diversify the insurance company’s
retained risk in accordance with re-insurance market
cycle
• Government support is incentive for the private insurance
companies to provide the Natural Catastrophe Insurance

Source: Hiroyuki Watabe, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Case study: Turkey Earthquake Pool

Ch
Solution features Involved parties Natural hazard background

• For earthquakes • Insurance supplier: TCIP, • Earthquake: very high (at


• Insured assets: Private a legal public entity least one quake per year)
residential dwellings • Operational manager: • Tsunami: low to
• Significantly increased Garanti Sigorta moderate
penetration of • Distributors: 30 local • Thunderstorms:
earthquake coverage in insurance companies and moderate
Turkey their agencies on behalf • Floods: medium to high
• Limit of policy coverage: of TCIP exposure to flash floods
TLY 100 000 (USD 69 000 • Reinsurers: Swiss Re and
approx.), likely to be other overseas reinsurers
increased. Additional
cover can be bought from
private insurers
• Inception: 2000
• Funding: Compulsory
premiums paid by
homeowners

Source: Andreas Bollmann, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Case study: Caribbean Catastrophe Risk

Ch
Insurance Facility (CCRIF)
Solution features Background

• Caribbean states are highly


• The CCRIF offers parametrically triggered hurricane susceptible to natural disasters and
and earthquake insurance policies (akin to business have only limited options available
interruption insurance) to 16 CARICOM governments to respond. With small economies
and high debt levels, they often
• The policies provide immediate liquidity to depend on donors to finance post-
participating governments when affected by events disaster needs, but donor resources
with a probability of 1 in 15 years or over often arrive late or not at all
• The CCRIF was launched in June
• The mechanism will be triggered by the intensity of 2007 on behalf of the Caribbean
the event (e.g. winds exceeding a certain speed). This Community (CARICOM) heads of
means countries will get automatic government under the guidance of
the World Bank with financial
payments, without having to wait for an assessment support from international donors
of the damage • CCRIF participating governments
• Member governments choose how much coverage are: Anguilla, Antigua &
Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize
they need up to an aggregate limit of USD100 million , Bermuda, Cayman
Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Haiti, Ja
maica, St Kitts & Nevis, St Lucia, St
Involved parties Vincent & the Grenadines, Trinidad
& Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands

• Reinsurers: Swiss Re and other overseas reinsurers


• Reinsurance program placed by Benfield Ltd.

Source: Andreas Bollmann, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Case study: Earthquake coverage for

Ch
Guatemala and El Salvador
Solution features
Background
• Parametric earthquake coverage of USD 25m for
Guatemala and El Salvador • Such a program will help
• This is the first ever securitisation of earthquake risk in these organizations in
Central America becoming more proactive
• Innovative trigger mechanisms: Index is based on the in planning and
population exposed to certain levels of ground-shaking anticipating relief needs
intensity as measured by the Modified Mercalli Intensity in areas of the world
scale affected by severe
• This transaction successfully demonstrates that catastrophes
charitable foundations, governmental relief
• In case of a triggering
organizations and corporations can leverage their
funding to the benefit of developing nations affected by event, funds will be
natural disasters readily available for relief
• Donation to coverage leverage can be as high as 45 times efforts rather than post
(USD 1 million of donations can be used for USD 45 event fund raising
million in relief) • The transaction was well
• Other triggers are being developed for a wide variety of received by investors
disasters (oversubscribed)

Source: Andreas Bollmann, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
PPP for DRR Business Continuity Planning (BCP)

Ch
Definition

• Holistic management process that identifies potential threats to an


organization and the impacts to business operations that those threats, if
realized, might cause, and which provides a framework for building
organizational resilience with the capability for an effective response
that safeguards the interests of its key stakeholders, reputation, brand
and value-creating activities.” (British Standards Institute)

International standards and guidelines

• BS 25999-1:2006: Code of Practice


• BS 25999-1:2007: Specification
• HB221:2004
• BCI Good Practice Guidelines 2007
• DRII/BCI Professional Practices for
• Business Continuity Practitioner 2004

Source: Various presentations, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”
PPP for DRR Business Continuity Planning (BCP)

Ch
Purpose

• The purpose of a Business


Continuity Plan is to enable
an organization to recover
or maintain its activities in
the event of a disruption to
normal business operations
• These plans are activated to
support the critical
activities required to deliver
the organization’s
objectives. They may be
invoked in whole or part
and at any stage of the
response to an incident

Source: Various presentations, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”
PPP for DRR Business Continuity Planning (BCP)

Ch
1. Assess the impact that would occur over 2. Establish the Maximum Tolerable Outage
time if the activity was disrupted (MTO) of each activity by identifying:
• The maximum time period after the start of a disruption
within which the activity needs to be resumed
• The minimum level at which the activity needs to be
performed on its resumption
• The Length of time within which normal levels of
operation need to be resumed

Business Impact Analysis

3. Identify any interdependent activities, 4. Consider the impact upon:


assets, supporting infrastructure or • Staff or public wellbeing
resources that have also to be maintained • Damage or loss of premises, plant or data
Sample BIA template
continuously or recovered over time • Breaches of statutory or regulatory duties
• Damage to reputation or financial viability
• Deterioration of product or service quality
• Environmental damage

Source: Author unknown, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”
PPP for DRR Case Study: Business Continuity

Ch
Management in Malaysia

Malaysian standards and guidelines

• SIRIM – MS 1970:2007
• Bank Negara Malaysia – BNM
• Guidelines 2008

Implementation varies by sector

• In general, sectors with comprehensive BCM


programme are (in descending order):
• Financial services
• Multinational Oil & Gas corporations
• Telecommunication
• Airline and aerodrome operators
• Other sectors are more ad-hoc

Source: Ong Ai Lin, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”
PPP for DRR Case Study: Nestle Malaysia

Ch
Business Continuity Planning Organigram/Structure

Source: Author unknown, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”
PPP for DRR Case Study: Nestle Malaysia

Ch

Source: Author unknown, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”
PPP for DRR Case Study: UEM Group and Mercy Malaysia

Ch
Overview

• UEM is owned by Khazanah Nasional Berhad (Investment arm of the Malaysian


Government)
• UEM setup UEM ALERT during the Johor Floods of December 2006. The directives
included:
• UEM ALERT as a part of the Human Capital Development Program
• UEM ALERT leading and facilitating programs for all employees in humanitarian
and charitable causes
• UEM ALERT channeling group effort riding on Group synergies
• UEM Group employees came together to help contribute physically and in terms of
food & money to help those in need
• UEM Group & Khazanah immediately pledged approximately US$250,000 (RM1M) in
funds and resources to provide emergency relief assistance

Lessons learned:

• UEM has a culture of systems and processes for long-term effectiveness


• UEM has economies of scale in resources
• Efficiencies in partnerships can be gained where skills and resources are lacking

Source: Masahiro Takeda, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”
PPP for DRR Case Study: UEM Group and Mercy Malaysia

Ch
UEM partnership with Mercy Malaysia

• To develop UEM’s employees understanding of humanitarian relief


• UEM pledges funds to Mercy Malaysia
• Mercy may work with UEM Academy and UEM Leadership utilizing facilities
• Trained UEM employees enrolled as UEM ALERT volunteers for
humanitarian response
• 2007
• Inaugural Volunteer Induction Programs
• UEM ALERT volunteers involvement in Mercy’s Basic Mission Training
Programs
• Short Band Radio training and qualification programs for both UEM
ALERT members and staff of Mercy Malaysia
• Flood preparedness initiatives
• 2008
• UEM ALERT members involvement in Mercy’s Disaster Preparedness
Programs
• More structured approach to flood preparedness programs

Source: Masahiro Takeda, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”
PPP for DRR Case Study: Anti-Disaster Glass Promotion

Ch
in Japan

Breakdown of usage of glass


Source: Masahiro Takeda, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”
Case Study: Petronas Corporate Social
PPP for DRR

Ch
Responsibility
Volunteer Opportunity Programme

• Program launched in April 2005


• Enlisted 350 staff members
• Deployed or trained volunteers through the programme or with Mercy
Malaysia
• Over 100 staff have been deployed on missions
• Approximately 150 have specialized training

Objectives

• Focused on developing a pool of volunteers trained in Total Disaster Risk


Management and exposed in the area of humanitarian relief efforts for
communities stricken by disasters
• Aimed at inculcating the spirit of volunteerism
• Providing a platform for PETRONAS employees to contribute their time, skills
and experience for the benefit of the community through specialized
humanitarian relief programmes conducted by partners such as Mercy
Malaysia
• Provides an opportunity for cultural integration, leadership
development, character building,

Source: Rosli Abdul Rahim, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”
Part 3: Urban Disaster Risk
Reduction

Contents
• Statistics
• Urban Disaster Risk Reduction and HFA
• UCLG Istanbul Declaration
• Asia Regional Task Force on Urban Risk Reduction
• Case Study: EMI Projects on Urban DRR
• Case Study: PURR
• Case Study: ADPC Promise Program
• Case Study: United Nations University
• Challenges and Recommendations
URBAN DRR Statistics: Urbanization in Asia

Ch
Levels of Global Urbanization in 1950

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
URBAN DRR Statistics: Urbanization in Asia

Ch
Levels of Expected Urbanization in 2015

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”
URBAN DRR Statistics: Urbanization in Asia

Ch

• Concentration of people in cities is increasing their vulnerabilities to natural


hazards, civil strife, and climate change impacts
• In Asia there are more than 30 mega cities (populations more than 5 million)
Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”
URBAN DRR Urban Disaster Risk Reduction and HFA

Ch
Trend in urban disaster risk
Overview Current initiatives
reduction
• No “standard” of practice • Launching of several urban • Words into Action for Local
for local level DRM DRR programs by Governments for HFA
• Lack of coherency and international organizations Implementation
complementarities among (e.g., World Bank GFDRR, • Radius +10
ongoing urban DRM UNDP/BCPR, UNISDR IAP, • ADPC-Project PROMISE
initiatives RTF-URR)
• JICA Technical Training on
• No adequate mechanism • DDR Initiatives of regional DRR
for measuring organizations (e.g., ADPC,
• Urban Risk Profiling
effectiveness in terms of ADRC, JICA, WHO-Kobe,
UNISDR, Citynet, Kyoto
mainstreaming DRR in UNU etc.)
University)
local government functions • Recognition of and action
• EMI Cluster Cities Project
• Inadequate financial, on urban risk by national
/3cd Program in Metro
technical and human governments
Manila, Kathmandu
resources at local level • Increasing awareness and
• WB/GFDRR Primer on
action among local
Reducing Vulnerabilities
governments and local
for Climate Change
government organizations
Impacts and Strengthening
UCLG, CITYNET,
DRM In East Asian Cities
METROPOLIS, ICLEI, EMI

Source: Violeta Somera-Seva, 2 December 08, Special Session on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the
Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific .”
URBAN DRR UCLG Istanbul Declaration

Ch
UCLG Istanbul Declaration Local Action For Disaster Risk Reduction

• This calls to states, multilateral and bilateral agencies and the UN


System, the UNISDR and all stakeholders to support the following:
• Local DRR strategies and actions and sharing of best practices at
the local level
• Improve communication and coordination of actions with
representative organizations
• Set up capacity building/training programs for municipal
staff, launch awareness raising and education campaign
• Adapt and develop a local framework for action derived from HFA
• Set up a Global Forum for local governments as institutional
support for implementation of the HFA at the local level

Source: Violeta Somera-Seva, 2 December 08, Special Session on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo
Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific .”
Asia Regional Task Force on
URBAN DRR

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Urban Risk Reduction

Why urban?

• Vulnerability due to urbanization is increasing


• Urban areas are prone to geological and hydro meteorological disasters
• Urban risk has been neglected
• There are weak institutional arrangements
• Lack of political feasibility
• Insufficient knowledge, experience, capacity

Why Asia?

• Urbanization is high in Asia


• Population density is high
• Greater vulnerabilities

History

• UN/ISDR Hyogo Office together with close partners took an initiative to develop the Asia
Regional Task Force on URR as a thematic group on urban risk reduction within the ISDR
system in Asia to facilitate and accelerate efforts and actions for urban risk reduction

Source: Yuki Matsuoka, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Asian Urban Task Force (UTF).”
Asia Regional Task Force on
URBAN DRR

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Urban Risk Reduction

Asia Regional Task Force on Urban Risk Reduction

• 15 members and open for expansion


• Goal is to enhance decisive actions to reduce risk and increase
community resilience in the urban areas in the Asia region
• Objective is to act as an advocacy vehicle to major urban policy bodies;
• To provide a platform for collective information and knowledge
• development sharing ;
• To facilitate interactions and cooperation among related organizations
and stakeholders for collaborative efforts

Source: Yuki Matsuoka, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Asian Urban Task Force (UTF).”
Asia Regional Task Force on
URBAN DRR

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Urban Risk Reduction
Short Thematic Review on Inventory of urban risk Guidelines for implementation
Urban Risk in Asia reduction initiatives in the Asia of the HFA
• Contribution to the Global Assessment Region • Production of guidelines for
Report • HFA Status Report on urban risk implementation of HFA for local
reduction in Asia governments
• Distribution at Global Platform

Radius plus 10 Urban Risk Profiling Initiative


• Support analysis of seismic risks for • Climate Disaster Resilience Initiative
cities, and development of risk (CDRI) for Asia-Pacific Cities
scenarios and an action plans for cities • Led by Kyoto University in cooperation
Meetings of the Regional Task
,a set of recommendations with Citynet, UNISDR, UNU Force
• Development of a climate disaster
resilience index

Production of basic documents


• Terms of reference
• Flyer and CD ROM Intranet of the RTF-URR within
• Work plan and relevant meeting list
PreventionWeb

Source: Yuki Matsuoka, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Asian Urban Task Force (UTF).”
URBAN DRR Case Study: EMI Projects on Urban DRR

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Activities for 2009
ProVention Consortium Project - Disaster World Bank Institute - Distance Learning
Risk Reduction in Megacities and Complex • Program on Natural Disaster Risk
Urban Metropolises – Phase II (Aug. 2007- • Management (Aug. 2006 – Dec. 2009)
Jul. 2009)
• Development of DRM tools and eLearning courses
• MEGA-Index, MEGA-Know, MEGA-Learn, MEGA-Plan,
MEGA-Safe

German FFO – DKKV Project: Phase II (Jul.


2008 - Dec. 2009)
• Development of a risk-sensitive land use plan for
Kathmandu
• Structuring and implementing a competent disaster risk
management unit in Kathmandu
• Urban redevelopment planning for one of the most
disaster-prone neighborhoods of Makati City
• Training of disaster management professionals within
Metro Manila on competent, local-level emergency
management practices

Source: Violeta Somera-Seva, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Asian Urban Task Force (UTF).”
URBAN DRR Case Study: EMI Projects on Urban DRR

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Activities for 2009
UNDP – Amman (Apr. 2007 – Partnership for Urban Risk
Apr. 2009) Reduction (Apr. 2008 – Apr.
• Reducing earthquake risk in 2009)
Amman, Jordan through a Disaster • Worldwide awareness campaign
Risk Management Master Planning
• Local capacity building
approach
• Building and strengthening a Global
Platform for Local Authorities

World Bank/GFDRR Project -


Phase 1
• Jun – Dec 2008
• Strengthening the DRM capacity of
local government units in the
Philippines

Source: Violeta Somera-Seva, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Asian Urban Task Force (UTF).”
URBAN DRR Case Study: EMI Projects on Urban DRR

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Source: Violeta Somera-Seva, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Asian Urban Task Force (UTF).”
URBAN DRR Case Study: PURR

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Overview

• PURR is an ad hoc coalition composed of UCLG, ICLEI, Metropolis,


CITYNET and EMI, set up as an advocacy and support initiative to
local authorities worldwide

Objective

• Worldwide awareness campaigns about risk reduction in regions


regularly affected by natural disasters
• Building capacity at the local level to foresee and manage risks by
transferring technical know-how to local actors and decision-
makers
• Setting up a global platform for local authorities and their partners
in order to build and promote a sustainable strategy for disaster
risk reduction within the broader international context

Source: Violeta Somera-Seva, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Asian Urban Task Force (UTF).”
URBAN DRR Case Study: ADPC Promise Program

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Overview

• Program for Hydro-Meteorological Disaster Mitigation in Secondary Cities in Asia


(PROMISE)

Member Lead institution City Activities


countries
Bangladesh Bangladesh Disaster Chittagong • Enhancement of emergency response
Preparedness Center (BDPC) capacity
• City demonstration projects
Indonesia Bandung Institute of Metro
Technology (ITB) Jakarta
• Setting up community level EOC
• Safer shelters
Pakistan Aga Khan Planning and Hyderabad
Building Services • Guidelines
Philippines Center for Disaster Dagupan
• Improve construction practices
Preparedness (CDP) • Small scale disaster mitigation initiatives
• Regional level capacity building initiatives
Sri Lanka Lanka Jathika Sarvodaya Kalutara • National level capacity building initiatives
Sangamana (Sarvodaya)
• School safety programs
Vietnam Center for International Da Nang • Advocacy for mainstreaming DRR
studies and Cooperation • Regional networking
(CECI)
• Information dissemination
Source: ADPC, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Reducing Disaster Risk in Urban Areas.”
URBAN DRR Case Study: United Nations University

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Activities for 2009
• Disaster Management
• International Programs
• Flood Risk Assessment
• Landslides
• Managing Basin Water Cycle
• Urban Water Cycle
• Mekong Basin - Research Network
• GEOSS/AWCP Capacity Development
• Climate Change
• Adaptation for global dimming
• Workshop: Making Adaptation Work

Initiative on Catastrophic Flood Risk Reduction: The need for an Asia Pacific Initiative on
Catastrophic Flood Risk Reduction was identified at a regional workshop in 2003 with
representation from Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Lao
PDR, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.

Source: Akhilesh Surjan, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Asian Urban Task Force (UTF).”
URBAN DRR Challenges and Recommendations

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Challenges

• As urban centers grow and develop, there are new risks


• Increased floods, underground space flooding, etc.
• Ensuring human security in urban areas
• Infrastructure development that takes into consideration vulnerability
• Guidelines for catastrophic flood resistant urban communities
• Training programs for professionals
• Rapidly training trainers, especially in preparation for extreme events
• The implementation of local-level urban DRR faces both challenges and opportunities on the ground
• To fast track collective action among local governments and local government organizations must be
vigorously pursued and supported

Recommendations

• Urban renovation and rejuvenation


• Enforcement of construction standards
• Raising of standards of practice, care and work ethics
• More favorable legal and institutional arrangements
• Building a culture of prevention
• DRR mainstreaming through systemic strategic planning
• Generation of resources –financial, human & technical
• Collective action, e.g., Partnership for Urban Risk Reduction (PURR)
Part 4: Community Based
Disaster Risk Reduction

Contents
• Overview
• HFA and CBDRR
• Process
• Critical Guidelines
• Risk Governance
• Critical Perspectives
• Case Study: DelPHE Project and RRCs
• Case Study: CBDRM Joint Advocacy Network
Initiative (JANI) in Vietnam
• Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country
CBDRR Case Studies
Community Based
Disaster Risk Reduction
• Case Study: Bangladesh
• Case Study: Vietnam
• Case Study: Myanmar
• Case Study: IFRC
• Case Study: IFRC Malaysia
• Case Study: IFRC Sri Lanka
• Case Study: IFRC Philippines
• Case Study: ADRRN
• Case Study: Langkawi, Malaysia
• Challenges in CBDRR
COMMUNITY DRR Overview: Community Based

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Disaster Risk Reduction
Definition

• A process of disaster risk management in which communities at risk are engaged in the
identification, evaluation, analysis, planning, monitoring of disaster risks in order to reduce
their vulnerabilities and enhance their response capacities
• Sustained involvement of communities in the process of development decision-making to
ensure reduction of risks to potential disasters that threaten them, and facing disasters
better collectively and individually

Characteristics include

• Combination of top-down and bottom-up approaches


• Flat organizational structure
• People-centric approach
• Empowerment
• Community ownership
• Top-down approach
• Hierarchy
• Authoritative
• Government decision making
• Governmental ownership

Source: Aini Mat Said, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management”
and Vishaka Hidellage, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction; Involvement & Empowerment of
Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
COMMUNITY DRR Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction

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(CBDRR)
Comparison of roles and
responsibilities

Source: Bevita Dwi M., Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction; Involvement & Empowerment of
Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
COMMUNITY DRR HFA reinterpreted in a community-led process

Ch

Source: Manu Gupta , 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~
promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”
COMMUNITY DRR Community Based Disaster Management Process

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Source: Manu Gupta , 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting
resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”
COMMUNITY DRR CBDRM Critical Guidelines

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Overview Potential Application Potential Users

• Guidance on Shared • Serve as Benchmarks for • Individuals, groups,


Standards of the sector organizations &
Performance • Guidelines for Project departments
• Where “Sphere” Planning & Design • Concerned with the:
Guidelines were 15 • Indicators for Project • Planning, design and
years ago Evaluation & Impact implementation of
• Developed under PDR Assessment community based
SEA Phase 3 in March • Basis for Advocacy & initiatives & projects
2006 Policy formulation • Evaluation of
• Drafted in 2005-2006 at • Materials for staff community based
4 National Workshops orientation/training initiatives
and 1 Regional • Advocacy on
Workshops mainstreaming CBDRM
• Work in Progress • Policy making on
community-based
disaster risk reduction

Source: Mel Capistrano, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment
of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
COMMUNITY DRR CBDRM Critical Guidelines

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Level 4:
• Related to all the preceding levels: core values, strategy
Implementation and tactics
Principles

Level 3: Tactical
• Practical outworking of the strategic principles
Principles

• Policy direction of CBDRM that will be


Level 2: Strategic Principles informed and be based on the ethical
principles

• Underlying shared beliefs and


concerns of the organization
Level 1: Ethical, Core Value Principles and of its mandate as it seeks
to undertake CBDRM

Source: Mel Capistrano, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
COMMUNITY DRR CBDRM Critical Guidelines

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Level 1: Ethical, Level 2: Level 4:
Level 3: Tactical
Core Value Strategic Implementation
Principles
Principles Principles Principles

PRINCIPLE 1. Observe Basic PRINCIPLE 9. Baseline Data


Rights PRINCIPLE 5. Strategic
Considerations
PRINCIPLE 10. Measuring PRINCIPLE 15. Cultural
Quantifiable and Non- Adaptation of Indicators
Quantifiable Indicators
PRINCIPLE 2. Share
Information concerning those
‘at-risk’ PRINCIPLE 11. Measuring
Minimum Requirements
PRINCIPLE 6. Trust vs Control
PRINCIPLE 12. Relevance of
PRINCIPLE 3. Share Indicators
Assessment Information
PRINCIPLE 13. Updating of
indicators within a context of PRINCIPLE 16. Side-Effects
PRINCIPLE 7. Ensuring Staff dynamic change
PRINCIPLE 4. Collaborate Commitment and
rather than compete Competence
PRINCIPLE 14. Mainstreaming

Source: Mel Capistrano, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
COMMUNITY DRR CBDRM Critical Guidelines

Ch Process 2: Select Process 3: Build


Process 1: Undertake
communities for rapport and
groundwork for
CBDRM through risk understand the
CBDRM
assessment community

Process 4: Process 5: Process 6:


Participatory disaster Community-managed Participatory
risk management implementation of risk monitoring and
planning reduction measures evaluation

Source: Mel Capistrano, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
COMMUNITY DRR CBDRM Critical Guidelines Process Outcomes

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Outcome 3:
Outcome 1: Outcome 2:
Community
Community-Based Community Disaster
Hazard, Vulnerability,
Organization (CBO) Risk Reduction Fund
Capacity Map (HVCM)

Outcome 4:
Outcome 6:
Community Disaster Outcome 5: CBO
Community Drills
Risk Management Training System
System
Plan

Outcome 7: Outcome 8: Outcome 9: Active


Community Learning Community Early Link with Local
System Warning System Authorities

Source: Mel Capistrano, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
COMMUNITY DRR Risk Governance

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Source: Andrew Collins, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms
through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”
COMMUNITY DRR Risk Governance

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Policy Context

• The institutionalization of disaster risk reduction in recent years has created


greater realization of the relevance and need of studies that can inform the
manner in which risk and resilience can be locally governed. i.e. Hyogo Accord
(2005)

Proactive Engagement

• Strategy to engage civilians


• Identify risks, vulnerabilities and hazards
• Locally owned prevention and response
• Counteract moral/social downturns in society, with potential economic and
environmental benefits
• Benefits
• Engage knowledge, attitudes and practice
• Sustainability
• Address multiple hazards and risks, not just some

Source: Andrew Collins, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms
through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”
COMMUNITY DRR Risk Governance

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Balancing Issues

Source: Andrew Collins, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms
through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”
COMMUNITY DRR Risk Governance

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Household based resilience building

Source: Andrew Collins, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms
through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”
COMMUNITY DRR Risk Governance

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Strengthened Community

Source: Andrew Collins, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms
through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”
COMMUNITY DRR Risk Governance

Ch
Weakened Community

Source: Andrew Collins, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms
through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”
COMMUNITY DRR Risk Governance

Ch
From integrated vulnerability to integrated wellbeing

Source: Andrew Collins, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms
through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”
COMMUNITY DRR Risk Governance

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The Community Risk and Resilience Committee

• Community based risk and resilience assessment is the


beginning of a process whereby local people take the lead in
building their capacity to manage their own disaster risk
reduction processes
• It can produce a high level of acceptance at community
level
• Political context within which it operates has a crucial
influence – gates open and close
• Broad concept of community involvement in risk reduction
is not new but is hugely under-utilized, awaiting wider sets
of experiences.
• Links rights, representation, knowledge, capacity and
disaster risk reduction

Source: Andrew Collins, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms
through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”
COMMUNITY DRR Risk Governance

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Purpose of RRC programme

• To trial a series of Risk and Resilience Committees to identify the circumstances


within which they may effectively enhance community owned hazard and
vulnerability mitigation
• To examine the impact of Risk and Resilience Committees in varied settings as a
community based approach to disaster reduction
• To seek empirical evidence for strengths and opportunities in a people centered
risk reduction and resilience building approach
• To understand locally based governance of risk and resilience

Activities

• Joint community-university-government research and learning on localized


disaster risk reduction
• Assessment of the manner in which communities build resilience
• Assessment how risk and resilience committees can improve wellbeing (i.e. not
just to cope with disaster but through promotion of sustainable development
and wellbeing)
• Monitor changes in risk, resilience and wellbeing

Source: Andrew Collins, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms
through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”
COMMUNITY DRR Risk Governance

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Applications of RRC

• Disaster risk reduction


• Health risk reduction
• Community strengthening
• Good governance
• Cost effectiveness
• Sustainable development
• Preparedness

The risk and resilience process

• Reducing knowledge gap (R+R assessment)


• Localizing solutions (R+R management)
• Engaging people (R+R governance)
• Empower people – communication and research
• Sensitize institutions - same
• Delineate responsibilities of the state
• Legislate rights of individuals, and responsibilities of informal and private sectors

Source: Andrew Collins, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms
through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”
COMMUNITY DRR Risk Governance

Ch
Questions

• Is there evidence of the need for new forms of local risk and
resilience governance, such as through RRCs, or similar, or are we
really looking at small adjustments to existing societies using
existing community routines?
• Uncertainty ongoing over balance of individually driven motivation
to risk manage versus structurally motivated interventions

Towards some conclusions

• Putting people at the centre of change.


• People interact with and adapt to hazards, manage risks, demand
rights, develop resilience and secure livelihood niches
• However, supportive research and governance contexts are needed
to identify how to harness this to reduce conflict and other
risks, regenerate societies and enhance community wellbeing

Source: Andrew Collins, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms
through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”
COMMUNITY DRR Critical perspectives and concerns on CBDRM

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Critical Perspectives on CBDRM

• Effective CB approaches need strong state support (Veron 2006)


but DM in poorer countries is characterized by missing expertise
of the state (Rajan 2002)
• Poor and marginalized groups may not get their interests met as
local elites may capture resources (Pelling 2007, Veron 2006)
• CBDRR may be an added burden to communities, especially when
not matched by resources (Allen 2006, Mansuri and Rao 2004)
and where livelihood strengthening is a higher priority than
disaster preparedness (Paton and Johnson 2001, Chen, Liu and
Chen 2006)
• Little research on effective institutional arrangements (Rajan
2002) or factors promoting/undermining community institutions
(Coombes 2007)

Source: Samantha Jones, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms
through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: DelPHE Project and RRCs

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Study Overview

• DelPHE project: ‘People centered hazard and vulnerability mitigation for DRR
in Nepal and Bangladesh’
• RRCs: Municipal or village platforms that monitor, record and promote
localized DRR and dialogue
• Two very different institutional arrangements formed the comparative case
studies

Research Questions

• Where does ‘the community’ think responsibility for DM should lie?


• Do CBDRR institutions represent the interests of marginalized/ vulnerable
groups?
• Are communities interested/ motivated in DRR (or only livelihood
strengthening)? Is DRR an added burden?
• What institutional arrangements are most effective, sustainable and show
greatest capacity for DRR?

Source: Samantha Jones, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms
through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: DelPHE Project and RRCs

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Study conclusions

• Panchkhal and Dhankuta of DelPHE project differed considerably


in terms of where communities felt responsibility for DRR should
lie
• Motivation in elite groups/ socially minded to contribute some
time but directing agenda (elite control)
• Longstanding power imbalances make true representation of
marginalized groups challenging (elite capture?)
• DM capacity is not very strong, but institutionally embedded
arrangements show greatest potential
• At the CBO/VDC level, livelihood strengthening activities may be
better supported
• Municipality may be the most appropriate institutional level for
DRR – with independent, representative committees

Source: Samantha Jones, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms
through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: CBDRM Joint Advocacy Network

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Initiative (JANI) in Vietnam

Existing national DRM networks in Vietnam


JANI Members
• CARE International in Vietnam (CARE)
• Save the Children Alliance
• Netherlands Red Cross
• Development Workshop France (DWF)
• Canadian Centre for International
Studies and Cooperation
• (CECI)/ACTAID
• Action Aid
• ADRA
• WHO
• World Vision
• Spanish Red Cross
• Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre
(ADPC)

Source: Aslam Perwiz , Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of
Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: CBDRM Joint Advocacy Network

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Initiative (JANI) in Vietnam
Integration of CBDRM into
Better synergy/information sharing Public Awareness Raising
development
• Regular Coordination Meetings – • CBDRM integration training • Media Campaigns for DRR at
Align with the DM Working Group workshops (advocacy skill, national and local levels
• Online CBDRM repository integration skill) (engagement of the media into
(www.ccfsc.org.vn/ndm-p) • Integration of DM into school DRR, joint TV and radio broadcasts,
• Conceptualize CBDRM and develop curriculum etc)
CBDRM framework (what it is, how • Policy dialogue platforms (disaster • Advocacy activities on the National
to do, procedures, target audience, management legislation, and International Disaster Days (22
etc) regulations, NDMP, etc) May and 2 October)
• Disaster tours (for experience • Technical workshops on the
sharing, relationship strengthening, National Strategies and SNAP
human resource building)
• CBDRM Good Practices (leadership,
human resources, means and
logistics on the spot)
• Promote Indigenous knowledge on
DM and CC (linking local
knowledge and scientific research)
• Joint Partnership and innovative
IEC materials (leaflets, brochures,
articles, etc)

Source: Aslam Perwiz , Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country
COMMUNITY DRR

Ch
CBDRR Case Studies

Background

• Theme of RCC 7 Meeting, Colombo, May, 2008 was ‘Community


led disaster risk reduction’
• 12 RCC member countries submitted Country Papers on CBDRR
• 5 RCC member countries presented country experiences on
national programmes on CBDRR at the RCC 7 Meeting
• 28 delegates from 19 RCC member countries participated in a
group discussion during the meeting on meeting the challenges to
institutionalize and up scale CBDRR
• Working Paper on ‘Implementing national programs on CBDRR in
high risk communities: lessons learned, challenges and way
ahead’ developed by the RCC for the 3rd Asian Ministerial
Conference on DRR, 2-4 December, 2008

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country
COMMUNITY DRR

Ch
CBDRR Case Studies
Lessons Learned from RCC country experiences
Outcome 1: CBDRR
prioritized in the
National Policies and
Frameworks on DRR
Outcome 7: National
Outcome 2: National
initiatives on Capacity
DRR Plans identify
Building for CBDRR
CBDRR as a priority
and Partnerships for
component
CBDRM

Outcome 6: Funding Outcome 3: National


schemes for CBDRR Programs on CBDRR

Outcome 4: Integration
Outcome 5: National of CBDRR in National
Tools on CBDRR and Local Development
Planning

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country
COMMUNITY DRR

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CBDRR Case Studies
CBDRR prioritized in the National Policies and Frameworks on DRR

India
• National Disaster Management Framework mandates the preparation of
community based mitigation, preparedness and response plans

Lao PDR
• National Strategic Plan for Disaster Management to 2020, 2010 and
Action Plan 2005, recognizes the importance of involving the community
in dealing with disaster risk and the necessity to build their capacity

Malaysia
• The National Security Council Directive No. 20 (NSC No. 20 ) attaches
priority to CBDRR through educational programmes and drill or exercises.

Mongolia
• National Disaster Risk Reduction and Disaster Management Framework
for Action 2006-2015 identifies CBDRM as a priority direction for
supporting vulnerable population in hazard prone areas

Pakistan
• Identifies CBDRM one of the nine priorities (Priority 6) of the National
Disaster Management Framework

Sri Lanka
• National Disaster Management Plan 2008-2012 and National Disaster
Management Policy emphasize the importance of community
engagement in disaster management

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country
COMMUNITY DRR

Ch
CBDRR Case Studies
National DRR Plans identify CBDRR as a priority component
• National Plan for Disaster Management

Bangladesh (2007-2015) recognizes community


empowerment which is operationalized by
CBDRR as one of the six key result areas

• National Action Plan for DRR (2006-2009),

Indonesia Indonesia, prioritizes implementation of


CBDRR and integrating it with the local
development master plan

• Road Map for Safer Sri Lanka (2006-2015)

Sri Lanka prioritizes CBDRR as one of its seven


program components

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country
COMMUNITY DRR

Ch
CBDRR Case Studies

National Programs on CBDRR

India
• GoI DRM Programme -2002-2008, initiated in 25 districts in 3
States and expanded to 169 multi-hazard prone districts in 17
States based on the 1st edition of the Vulnerability Atlas of India

Sri Lanka
• Program Component 6 of the Road Map for Safer Sri Lanka aims to
establish a sustained national program on CBDRM to build the
resilience and capacity in at-risk communities for response and
disaster risk management. This is planned to be achieved in a
phased manner over next 10 years

Thailand
• Over the past years the Department of Disaster Prevention and
Mitigation had up scaled the implementation of CBDRR initiatives
from 51villages in 2004 to 367 in 2007

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country
COMMUNITY DRR

Ch
CBDRR Case Studies

Integration of CBDRR in National and Local Development Planning


• The Strategic National Action Plan (SNAP) on DRR (2008-2013), in its

Cambodia
implementation plan of the first two years includes Integrating DRR
into the formal commune development planning process

• CBDRR activities are led by the Island Development Committees. Local

Maldives
authorities are members of the Island development committees and
they act as the link between the regional head office and the Ministry
of Atolls Development and the National Disaster Management Center

• Have integrated CBDRM into national and sub-national development

The Philippines
plans such as the Philippine Medium Term Development Plan

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country
COMMUNITY DRR

Ch
CBDRR Case Studies

National Tools on CBDRR


• Developed the tool on Community Risk Assessments
(CRA) and Risk Reduction Action Plans (RRAP)

Bangladesh

• Ongoing initiative to produce multi-hazard maps under

The the project on Hazard Mapping and Assessment for


Effective Community-based Disaster Risk Management -
READY project. It has three main components: multi-

Philippines hazard identification and assessment, community-based


disaster preparedness and mainstreaming risk reduction
into the local development planning process

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country
COMMUNITY DRR

Ch
CBDRR Case Studies
Funding schemes for CBDRR

• A minimum of 25% of the total Local Disaster Risk Reduction

Bangladesh Funding Guidelines (LDRRF), is earmarked for community


proposals drawn from the Community Risk Assessment
(CRA) and Risk Reduction Action Plan (RRAP) processes.

• Identified priority projects and budget estimates for program

Sri Lanka component six on CBDRR in their Road Map. Total budget
estimates for CBDRR is more than USD 28M phased over a
10-year period

• Cabinet has approved central budget for CBDRR in 2007—

Thailand USD 2.6M for evacuation drills in provinces and districts; and
USD 377,000 for One Tambon One Search and Rescue
(OTOP) project

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country
COMMUNITY DRR

Ch
CBDRR Case Studies
National initiatives on capacity building for CBDRR

• Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme


(CDMP) of the Government of Bangladesh has

Bangladesh identified Capacity Building as one of priorities

• National Disaster Management Authority of Pakistan


has developed training manuals for communities and

Pakistan district authorities. It is also in the process of


establishing the National Institute of Disaster
Management (NIDM) that will offer courses for CBO,
NGOs, local authorities on CBDRR

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country
COMMUNITY DRR

Ch
CBDRR Case Studies
Partnerships for CBDRR in RCC member countries

Vietnam Cambodia
•Disaster Management •Cambodian Disaster
Working Group Risk Reduction Forum
(DMWG) (CDRR Forum)

The Philippines Indonesia


•Corporate Network •Indonesian Society
for Disaster for Disaster
Response (CNDR) Management (MPBI)

Nepal
•Disaster
Preparedness
Network (DP-Net)

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country
COMMUNITY DRR

Ch
CBDRR Case Studies

Challenges in implementing national CBDRM programs

• Conceptual understanding on CBDRR


• Community largely dependent on relief & support
• Linking with Local Development Planning
• Most development partners (NGOs) have the tendency of bypassing government
mechanism while implementing DRR projects at the community level.
• Need to increase capacity and skills at community level to improve livelihoods and
food security and reduce environmental degradation
• Creating ownership
• Increased participation and involvement of the sub national governments
• Integrating Gender
• Linking local DM plans to relevant marketable livelihood training, micro finance
and disaster insurance

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country
COMMUNITY DRR

Ch
CBDRR Case Studies

Scaling up implementation of CBDRR CBDRR implementation activities of NGOs


programmes in all high risk communities and CBO
• Policy agenda for CBDRR such as integration • Advocacy and networking; Cost-benefit
of analysis to influence policy makers
• CBDRR in the national development policy • Institutionalization through sustained
framework and Poverty Reduction Strategy dialogue between government, NGOs and
Papers CBOs
• Funding for CBDRR • Funding/Resources for CBDRR program
• Partnerships (NGOs/Government) for implementation at the local level
implementation of programmes • Establishing and strengthening coordination
• Capacity Building and regulatory mechanism between
• Institutional capacity & commitment, NGOs, CBOs and government agencies.
delegation authorities • Building capacity of CBOs and NGOs
• Community awareness and ownership, • Clarity of role of CBOs/NGOs in the whole
knowledge of benefits process
• Sustainability by engagement of community
• Transparency, credibility and politicization

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country
COMMUNITY DRR

Ch
CBDRR Case Studies

Steps for sustained implementation of Steps necessary for linking CBDRR


CBDRR programs to development planning
• Establish clear policy framework for • Increasing linkage of CBDRR programs
support by national governments and to development planning with
partnerships between local strengthened partnership between
government and CBOs national disaster management office
• Setup /adapt appropriate and suitable and national planning agency
institutional mechanisms to • Increasing linkage of CBDRR in
accommodate CBDRR Sectoral Planning such as in
• Establishing scheme for recognition of development of school curriculum and
good practices in CBDRR and utilizing training of teachers
experiences of CBDRR award scheme • Capacity building of technical people
in member countries in the planning and sectoral agencies
• Enhanced resource from national and on CBDRR.
local government • Adoption of appropriate legislations
outside of the executive branch

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country
COMMUNITY DRR

Ch
CBDRR Case Studies

Role of UN agencies, partner organizations, and donors in scaling up CBDRR

• Appreciate and promote CBDRR as a window of opportunity for community empowerment


• Linking CBDRR to development planning and implementation
• Support CBDRR backed-up by local authorities and integrating local/traditional knowledge
with science and technology
• Serve as bridge among communities, governments, donors, and other stakeholders
• Involvement of private sector in DRR
• Support formulation of national policies, plans or strategy papers on CBDRR as part of
disaster risk management framework
• Prioritize high-risk communities
• Support capacity development
• Support and disseminate research and documentation of good/bad practices
• Revise agency policies
• Resource mobilization for CBDRR
• Set an environment for transparency and accountability to communities

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: Bangladesh

Ch

Source: Masud Siddiqui, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: Bangladesh

Ch
Tools for Effective
Community Risk Assessment Frameworks and Models Policy Reform
and Management
• National Models • Visualizes what needs to be • Policy reforms create the
Frameworks done and how the pieces top down support
• Policy Reform fit together mechanisms necessary for
• Advocacy • Creates a common operational zing and
conceptual understanding sustaining development
• Institutional reform and
among stakeholders risk reduction efforts
capacity building
• Provides guidance for the • Policy opens the door to
• Guidelines and Planning
review of policy and mainstreaming which is
Frameworks
planning frameworks and essential for effective and
• Collaborative partnerships sustained risk reduction at
also the design of training
• Funding Mechanisms and other tools the community level
• Coordination Mechanisms (ECNEC Decision)
• Policy reform opens the
door to more effective
regional cooperation

Source: Faud Hassan Mallick, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction
Platforms through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: Bangladesh

Ch
Guidelines and Planning
Advocacy Institutional Reforms
Frameworks
• Advocacy creates a common • From the highest to lowest • CRA and RRAP Guidelines have
and united understanding of risk levels been developed through
reduction among non- • Expanded roles to include risk collaborative process
practitioners reduction and emergency • Follows international risk
• Advocacy brings on board the response management standard
key stakeholders including • Engagement in the management • Provides uniformity in how we
political, policy, government, NG of risk reduction efforts at the identify and manage community
O, media and the community broader community level risk
• Mainstreaming community risk • Links with government risk
reduction action plans into reduction funds
institutional systems • All hazards and all sector
analysis incorporating climate
change impacts and other
hazard prediction models
• Provides the basis for
developing uniform partner
capacities
• Ensures full involvement of
communities in identifying and
• managing risk

Source: Faud Hassan Mallick, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction
Platforms through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: Bangladesh

Ch
Collaborative Partnerships Funding Mechanisms

• Over 70 collaborative partner • The key to successful CRA is in


organizations supporting the ability to fund risk reduction
national risk reduction efforts at projects
the community level • Government programs such as
• Includes government, INGO, VGF, FFW, CFW and KABITA
NGO, LNGO, Private Sector targeting RRAP’s for the
(technical agencies), regional identification of risk reduction
partners priorities
• ToT and Capacity Building • Grants program to assist local
provided by government government disaster
• Robust monitoring and management committees in
evaluation systems established implementing community risk
• Regular refresher courses for reduction projects
core trainer group

Source: Faud Hassan Mallick, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction
Platforms through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: Bangladesh

Ch
National Coordination and Knowledge
CRA Tools
Management
• A National CRA Working Group is formed • CRA Guidelines follows international risk
under the leadership of DG-DRR to provide management standard
quality assurance and coordinate CRA • CRA process adherence to human rights
activities in Bangladesh through compliance with social and gender
• UN, International Organizations, GoB inclusion framework
relevant agency, academic • Risk reduction action plan documents CRA
institutions, research organizations and outcomes and priorities
national and local NGOs are the member of
the working group
• The working group is responsible to
coordinate, avoid duplication and
overlapping of similar activities, disseminate
CRA outcomes and to do advocacy for using
CRA information in development
program/project designing
• CRA working group aims to open a web
base interface for all relevant stakeholders’
CRA information dissemination

Source: Faud Hassan Mallick, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction
Platforms through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: Bangladesh

Ch

Source: Masud Siddiqui, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: Bangladesh

Ch

Source: Masud Siddiqui, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: Bangladesh

Ch

Source: Masud Siddiqui, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: Bangladesh

Ch

Source: Masud Siddiqui, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: Vietnam

Ch
P2: Provision of the capacity building
P1: Establishment and strengthening
to the DRR response agencies at
of institution and legislation on
provincial, district and community
CBDRM
levels
• Review and improvement of existing • ToT curriculum development
DRR management institution • Establishment of a professional
(includes the establishment of the CBDRM training team at all levels
DRR Center at national and provincial • Improvement of the EW&D system at
levels) provincial and district levels
• Development of CBDRM guidelines • Provision of CBDRM training to key
• Development of guidelines on the officials
integration of the DRR plan into the • Disaster vulnerability study
CD plan
• Adaptation of the DRR into the
• Creation of a CBDRM platform for Climate Change
multi-stakeholders including private
• Database system on DRR
sector
• Disaster damage assessment system
• Integration of the DRR into the
school curriculum

Source: Đào Xuân Học, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: Vietnam CBDRM

Ch
P4: Improvement of the small scale DR
P3: Strengthening of the community’s response
mitigation structures system at disaster
and resilience
vulnerable community
• Community training curriculum development; • Development of the essential infrastructure
• Establishment of a professional CBDRM system
training team at community (school teachers) • Improvement and development of the natural
• Establishment the warning & dissemination disaster protection system
and drill system in community
• Integration of the DRR plan into the CD plan
and Poverty Reduction plan
• Establishment of the M&E system in
community
• Development of guideline on community DRR
• Provision of annual CBDRM training to
community
• Community database system
• Disaster damage assessment system
• Community vulnerability study

Source: Đào Xuân Học, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: Vietnam

Ch
Lessons Learned Challenges

• Legislation and institution in DRR • Unification of the risk reduction of


has been established and developed all disaster types
at all levels • Overlap of institution and legislation
• High level of commitment given by in some areas of DRR
DRR agencies at all levels and • High commitment but low
community achievement
• Socialization of the DRR for a long • Difference of DRR capacity among
period the institutional levels
• Gov. and community are proactive • Understanding on DRR at
and motivate in DRR community
• Strong institution in emergency • Low achievement of the integration
response of DRR into the development plan
• DRR is not a new concept at • Difference of level of interest on
community DRR of the responsible agencies
• Involvement of the private sectors in • Coordination and cooperation
emergency response among Gov. agencies and between
Gov. agencies and private sectors

Source: Đào Xuân Học, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: Myanmar

Ch
Cyclone Nargis Organizations
NGOs & Cyclone Nargis CBOs& Cyclone Nargis FBO & Cyclone Nargis

• MRCS: Largest NGO and • Town Association: Bogale, • Buddhist: Sitagu, Ahsin
working with IFRC Pyapone, Laputta, Sein Kein Da and etc
• Mingalar Myanmar: 700 Manadalay • Christian
villages, Livelihoods & • Main Focus: Relief • Islam and etc.
CBDRM Program
• Metta Foundation: Ethnic • Village / Community Base
Based, Livelihood, WASH Organization: Relief and
• Shalong Foundation: Recovery Program
Ethnic Based, Psycho-
social
• Yadana Metta: Health
Sector Based Organization
• Nargis Action Group:
Business Based
Organization
• CBO (Towns, Villages)
• FBO (Buddhist, Christian,
Islam)
• Business Company and
Chamber of Commerce

Source: Phone Win, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: Myanmar

Ch
Cyclone Nargis Organizations

Business Company and Professional


Chamber of Commerce Association
• Construction • Health: Myanmar
Companies: Medical
Htoo, Yuzana, Dagon, Association, Health
Eden, Asia World & Worker Association
etc • Engineering:
• Chamber of Myanmar Engineering
Commerce: – Association, Myanmar,
UMFCCI, Fishery Architect Association
Federation

Source: Phone Win, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: Myanmar

Ch
Disaster Risk Management National Level
DRM ToT Program

• Collaboration between Ministry and MM


• Completed 4 batches
• Produce 150 trainers until now
• Plan to produce minimum 40 trainers per month

Participants Development Evaluation Expected outcomes

• From 6 State & • Jointly designed and • Intense engagement • 150 Local Trainers
Divisions developed by the of participants trained in (DRM ToT)
• From Nargis & Non Ministry, UN • Agreement on follow • 180 Local trainees
Nargis Area agencies, INGOs and up actions trained in township
• Mostly Teachers & local NGO • Collaboration level by local trainers
Administrators • Delivered by various between the • 40 villages local-level
local and Ministry, UN disaster risk
international agencies, INGOs and assessments
resource persons local NGO undertaken
• A mix of knowledge, • 40 local-level DRM
skills and practice Action Plans
sessions developed

Source: Phone Win, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: Myanmar

Ch
DRM ToT Program
Partnership More Space Trust Building

• National: • Local organizations • Between


• Ministry of Social can work together Government, Local
Welfare, with the ministry Organization, Local
Myanmar Red • Local Organizations Community and
• Cross Society, can work directly International
CBOs with community Organizations
• International • International • Maintaining Trust is
Community can important
• ASEAN, ADRRN,
Mercy Malaysia, work directly with
ADPC, Local Organizations
• Action Aid, DFID,
IMC, Singapore
Government

Source: Phone Win, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: IFRC: Legal Issues

Ch
Establishment of National People-centered early warning
Public education
Platforms for DRR systems
• Domestic legislation should • Domestic legislation should • Domestic legislation should
• Establish and support • Clarify the role of RC • Protect the public’s right to
National Platforms National Societies in early know about hazards and
• Integrate RC National warning, bearing in mind risks
Societies into National liability/capacity concerns • Enable and encourage
Platforms • Enable access to organizations to inform the
• Recognize the auxiliary role information about hazards public about hazards and
of RC National Societies to to facilitate early warning risks
public authorities • Establish a multi-hazard • Establish standard
• Encourage greater approach information about the DRR
involvement of civil society • Approve the use of relevant to prevent contradictory
early warning technology messages reaching
such as GPS communities
• Integrate DRR information
into school curriculum
• Approve the use of relevant
early warning technology
such as GPS

Source: Victoria Bannon, 3 December 08, Side Session on “Building Safer and Resilient Communities through Disaster Risk
Reduction actions of Red Cross and Crescent National Societies”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: IFRC

Ch
Legal Issues
Community participation in Land management and urban
Building Codes Strengthening accountability
decision making planning
•Domestic legislation should •Domestic legislation should •Domestic legislation should: •Domestic legislation should
•Formally recognize and •Clarify the role of National RC •Ensure the establishment •Ensure that governments are
ensure government Societies regarding relocation and enforcement of hazard fulfilling their obligation of
participation in existing of populations following land resilient building codes primary responsibility for
community-based DRR zoning, which respects the •Integrate good practices and DRR
activities Fundamental Principles of draw on other expertise •Ensure sufficient budget
•Ensure that government at the RC regarding the development allocation for DRR activities
all levels involves community •Ensure that, in the case of of building codes and implement transparency
participation in decision- zoning or resettlement, all •Identify priority buildings for measures
making people are provided with safe construction or •Establish basic minimum
•In developing legislation on essential supplies and retrofitting such as standards on disaster risk
DRR, governments should: services, with particular schools, hospitals and blood reduction, supported by
•Consult communities and regard to especially centers training programmes
civil society organizations vulnerable people •Ensure basic liability
during the development and •Ensure that National RC protection for civil society
drafting process Societies have continuous organizations engaged in DRR
access to minorities and activities
other vulnerable populations
to provide essential services
•Establish evacuation points
as part of urban planning
regulations

Source: Victoria Bannon, 3 December 08, Side Session on “Building Safer and Resilient Communities through Disaster Risk
Reduction actions of Red Cross and Crescent National Societies”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: IFRC

Ch
Strengthening accountability Preparedness for response

• Domestic legislation should • Domestic legislation should:


• Ensure that governments are • Establish clear institutional
fulfilling their obligation of primary arrangements for disaster response
responsibility for DRR • Clarify the role of National RC
• Ensure sufficient budget allocation Societies in disaster response
for DRR activities and implement • Anticipate and plan for receiving
transparency measures international disaster response
• Establish basic minimum standards
on disaster risk reduction,
supported by training programmes
• Ensure basic liability protection for
civil society organizations engaged
in DRR activities

Source: Victoria Bannon, 3 December 08, Side Session on “Building Safer and Resilient Communities through Disaster Risk
Reduction actions of Red Cross and Crescent National Societies”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: IFRC

Ch
Legislative Advocacy Manual for National RC
The Way Forward
Societies
• Guidelines for the Domestic Facilitation and • Key messages for integration into domestic
Regulation of International Disaster Relief and legislation
Initial Recovery Assistance (IDRL Guidelines) • Examples, cases studies, good practices
• Not legally binding, but endorsed by different • Advocacy approaches
international forums
• The IDRL Guidelines provides
recommendations to Governments on:
• Facilitating international cooperation for
disaster relief (e.g.. enable fast and easy to
access to people affected by disaster, allow
visas, customs and tax exemptions etc)
• Effectively managing international relief
operations (e.g.. ensure good coordination,
promote good quality and accountability
standards, ensure all organizations abide by
humanitarian principles)

Source: Victoria Bannon, 3 December 08, Side Session on “Building Safer and Resilient Communities through Disaster Risk
Reduction actions of Red Cross and Crescent National Societies”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: IFRC Malaysia

Ch
Malaysian Red Cross Society Strategic Plan
MRCS Auxiliary Roles
2005-2009
• A 5-year Strategy to strengthen MRCS • National Security Council Directive 20
capacity in caring for the most vulnerable • Auxiliary role to the following ministries
in the community • Ministry of Women, Family and
• Core areas: Community Development (JKM)
• Promotion of Fundamental Principles • Ministry of Foreign Affairs
and Humanitarian Values • Ministry of Health
• Disaster Management including Risk • Ministry Youth & Sports
Reduction
• Ministry of Higher Learning
• Healthcare
• Ministry of Education
• Organizational development
• National Security Council Directive 20
• MRCS Institute (undertakes Training
• Ministry of Welfare
Program)
• Preparation of food
• Distribution of relief to affected
victims
• Registration and rehabilitation for
victims

Source: Hisham Harun Hashim, 3 December 08, Side Session on “Building Safer and Resilient Communities through Disaster
Risk Reduction actions of Red Cross and Crescent National Societies”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: IFRC Malaysia

Ch
Area selection

• Disaster Prone Areas, recommended by PMI, LGU, NGO


• Community has commitment to have active participation on disaster risk reduction activities
• How LGU & NGO will ensure their support for program implementation

Capacity building

• Building a “culture of coping with crisis” and “culture of disaster risk reduction”
• Number of volunteers, staff and community members received training and had skilled to delivery
of disaster risk reduction
• Provided necessary skilled from LGU and NGO

Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment

• Consistent application of Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment by using several tools, i.e. PRA
tools, Baseline Survey, etc
• Conducting Hazard and Risk Mapping to map out hazard, risk, vulnerability and capacity lies at
community
• Community is able to identify hazard, risk, vulnerability and capacity
• LGU & NGO is able to acknowledge its strengths and weaknesses to contribute with community
vulnerability and capacity

Source: Bevita Dwi M., Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction; Involvement & Empowerment of
Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: IFRC Malaysia

Ch
Community Action Plan

• Community is able to consider ways to mitigate against disaster risk and


impact, covering health, environment, livelihood and climate change issue,
etc
• Prioritize risk, vulnerability and solution based on locally resources
• Define role and responsibilities for each related stakeholders (Community,
PMI, LGU, NGO)
• Integrate into Master’s Plan to reduce community vulnerability

DRR Promotion

• Having knowledge and understanding about Hazard, Risk, Vulnerability and


Capacity in their respective areas can inform and be a catalyst for wider
decision making then translated into practical risk reduction measures
• Conducted by volunteers and community members by using peer educator
approach, assisting by community leaders, for sustainability purpose
• Involving technical support from LGU and NGO for several issues, such as
health, environment, climate change, etc

Source: Bevita Dwi M., Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction; Involvement & Empowerment of
Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: IFRC Malaysia

Ch
Preparedness to Response

• Community has emergency response planning at individual and community


level
• Enhance knowledge of disaster sign, safe evacuation route and danger warning
signal and establish structure of EWS to deliver message promptly and
effectively across the community
• Mobilization of volunteer to respond disaster effectively, in coordination with
LGU and NGO
• Conducting joint simulation of Disaster Response amongst stakeholder
(Community, PMI, LGU, NGO, etc.)

Risk Mitigation

• It is identified based on priority problem and solution


• It accomodates environment, livelihood, health and integrate climate change
components
• It elaborate community resources, LGU’s and NGO technical support and
funding from planning, implementation, and maintenance
• It has reduced the potential risk and problems related with local hazards
Source: Bevita Dwi M., Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction; Involvement & Empowerment of
Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: IFRC Malaysia

Ch
Challenges The Way Forward (at PMI level) The Way Forward (at LGU)

• Many actors has caused • Addressing the risk in broader • Mainstreaming DRR into
overlapping on the DRR context (associated with Development Policy, Planning
activities at the community level environmental and Budgeting
• Not all of DRR activities haven’t degradation, poverty, populatio • Establish a mutualistic
been integrated into LGU’s n growth, urbanization, climate environment for DRR linkages to
Development Policy, Planning change, etc) and integrate it into the global climate change
and Budgeting disaster risk reduction adaptation that contributes to
• Acknowledgement of programme disaster occurrence
Community Participation, not • Strengthen capacity to deliver • Provide early warning system
just “a victim” profressional services to the infrastructure to deliver
• DRR issue has been growing in most vulnerable people through message promptly and
broader context (associated its links to communities and effectively across the
with environmental volunteer network community
degradation, poverty, • Expand community based • Supports to the beneficiaries
population growth, programming through wider and stakeholders participation
urbanization, climate change, engagement and participation • Encourage the DRR culture by
etc) of beneficiaries and relevant increasing disaster risk
• Incoherent linkages of Action stakeholders awareness at community level
Plan for DRR and Action Plan for
Climate Change Adaptation
• Sustainability of DRR
Programme at community level

Source: Bevita Dwi M., Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction; Involvement & Empowerment of
Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: IFRC Sri Lanka

Ch
Sri Lankan Red Cross Society
Public Awareness in DRR Public Awareness in DRR cont.
engagement in DRR
• The Sri Lanka Red Cross • Awareness campaigns/Poster • Disaster Early Warning
Society identified as one of Exhibitions on DRR • Facilitation of Tsunami Alert
the main actor of the national • Short Drama lessons learnt (September
DM plan of SL Govt Festivals/Competitions 2007) with key stakeholders
• Representation DRM at all related to disasters of the GoSL and other
levels • CBDRR agencies
• DRM Capacity Building/ • Community Awareness • Mass awareness Rallies
Public Awareness campaigns • Mock drills
• Response Preparedness • Risk reduction group • Simulation exercises
• Public Early Warning activities • Warning messages
Dissemination • IEC Materials distributions (Reliability/ accuracy/
• CBDRM to communities related to response)
• SLRCS developed its 5 year DRR • Importance of volunteers
strategic plan (2009-2013) in • School DRR • Health promotion awareness
line with the govt. mandate • School awareness rallies related to DRR
• This strategy is in line with • School Poster competitions • Water and sanitation
IFRC Strategy 2010 and HFA • Teacher trainings on DRR awareness especially during
2005-2015 disasters
• Exhibitions on DRR

Source: S. H. Nimal Kumar, 3 December 08, Side Session on “Building Safer and Resilient Communities through Disaster Risk
Reduction actions of Red Cross and Crescent National Societies”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: IFRC Sri Lanka

Ch
Achievements in DRR Issues and challenges

• Member of the National Disaster • Integration of DRR in to the


Management Coordination development programme
Committee (NDMCC) of SL govt. • Harmonization of disaster
• MoU to be signed with the DMC of management at all levels
the Ministry of DM & HR to • Lack of legal authority to the
implement DM activities disaster management govt.
• Development of national CDBRM institutions
framework for Sri Lanka • Lack of system & resources on last
• Initiation of CBDRM/EWS in more mile warning dissemination and
than 500 communities in 15 districts response mechanism
• Participation in the regional DRR • Long term commitment from the
curriculum development and field donor community to integrate DRR
testing into sustainable development
• Key partner of the GoSL national DM
and Health plan

Source: S. H. Nimal Kumar, 3 December 08, Side Session on “Building Safer and Resilient Communities through Disaster Risk
Reduction actions of Red Cross and Crescent National Societies”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: IFRC Philippines

Ch
Overview PNRC Tasks

• Vision • organizes DRT in PNRC establishments;


• To be the foremost humanitarian organization • conducts DMT courses and assist in the training
in the Philippines, in services provided and of DCC and their emergency welfare service
number of people served units at all levels;
• Six major activities • assist in providing emergency relief assistance
• Disaster Management to victims of disasters;
• Community Health and Nursing • makes available whole blood and its derivatives
• Blood Program in times of disasters;
• Safety Services • interfaces its’ other emergency welfare services
(warning, rescue, evacuation, medical/nursing,
• Social Services
first aid / ambulance and social services) with
• Red Cross Youth the activities of member agencies at all levels;
• Legal Mandate • provides tracing services (local and foreign)
• To establish and maintain a system of national during emergencies
and international relief in time of peace and in
time of war and apply the same in meeting
the emergency needs caused by typhoons,
floods, fires, earthquakes, and other natural
disasters and to devise and carry on measures
for minimizing the suffering caused by such
disasters

Source: Catherine Marie G. Martin, 3 December 08, Side Session on “Building Safer and Resilient Communities through
Disaster Risk Reduction actions of Red Cross and Crescent National Societies”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: IFRC Philippines

Ch
Relationship with Government Integrated Community Disaster Planning Programme

• Member of the National Disaster Coordinating Council • Features


• Represented in the Local Government Units as Member • Community-based
of the Provincial/City Disaster Coordinating Council • Multi-sectoral
• Member of the Task Force for the consolidation and • Multi-disciplinary
formulation of the Strategic National Action Plan for • Proactive
Disaster Risk Reduction in the Philippines
• Responsive
• Replicable
• Based on urgent needs
• Community-owned and managed
• Components
• Prevention
• Engineering
• Physical protection measures
• Legislative actions
• Mitigation
• Risks and resource mapping
• Preparedness
• Formation and Organization of Disaster Action
Teams(BDATs)
• Development of Information, Education and
Communication (IEC) Materials
• Community Disaster Mitigation Measures

Source: Catherine Marie G. Martin, 3 December 08, Side Session on “Building Safer and Resilient Communities through
Disaster Risk Reduction actions of Red Cross and Crescent National Societies”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: IFRC Philippines

Ch
ICDPP Effects and Impacts Key lessons learned

• Reduction of the Communities’ Vulnerabilities to • Social preparation should be done with out the idea of
Physical Hazards implementing a project, but simple integration and
• Capacity Building of the beneficiaries assessment of the situation
• Organizational Capacity Building of the Chapter • The prodding of the LGU to have counterpart and to
• Improved Community Relations of the Chapter influence the development planning process is a very
good innovation
• Enhanced LGU relations and involvement
• CBDM trainings and events must be incorporated and
• Training of LGU Officials on DM
mainstreamed into the formal calendar and curriculum
• Meeting of Municipal Officials and all barangay of the community, and schools
captains to explain the goal and mechanics of the
• Utilizing and re-enforcing existing community ethics,
program
values and strategy and plan of the PNRC in itself
• Formation of TF in the LGU that would implement the
• The trained volunteers in the community should be
disaster mitigation project
acknowledged, accepted and integrated in the existing
• Providing financial contribution for the disaster structure of the local government
mitigation projects
• We cannot build safe and resilient communities
• Providing technical assistance in designing the through our DRR actions alone. We make our
mitigation projects contribution but the systematic reduction of risk can
• Implementation and monitoring of the projects only be achieved through building a strong working
partnership between all stakeholders- communities,
local and national government, local NGO and other
local organization.
• DRR initiatives must be reinforced with local legislations

Source: Catherine Marie G. Martin, 3 December 08, Side Session on “Building Safer and Resilient Communities through
Disaster Risk Reduction actions of Red Cross and Crescent National Societies”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: ADRRN

Ch
Mission

• Promote coordination and collaboration among NGOs for effective


and efficient disaster reduction and response in the Asia-Pacific
region
• ADRRN member NGOs working in Asia at the grassroots, directly in
touch with the “Change Agents” – workers, community
leaders, school teachers, masons, health workers

Activities

• “Inamura-no printed in eight Asian languages


• Swayam micro-credit programme
• Tsunami resource centre, Indonesia
• Hands on training
• Bio-island promotion
• Working with village disaster management committees

Source: Manu Gupta, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction; Involvement & Empowerment of
Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
COMMUNITY DRR Case Study: Langkawi, Malaysia

Ch
Overview

• After the Indian Ocean Tsunami (2004), Government of Malaysia


allocated US$(RM4 million) towards a seismic and tsunami hazards and
risk study in Malaysia in September 2005
• Community Preparedness and Emergency Response Plan for Tsunamis in
Langkawi, Malaysia

Objectives:

• Evaluation and assessment of awareness, preparedness and weakness of


the community, local and state agencies in facing tsunamis
• Review and make use of existing tsunami risk assessment system for
evacuation route mapping
• Enhancement of public awareness through education of community
• Formulation of tsunami evacuation plan
• Observation and evaluation of a simulated tsunami drill

Source: Manu Gupta, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction; Involvement & Empowerment of
Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
COMMUNITY DRR Challenges in CBDRR

Ch
Community level initiatives are not Strengths of Local Governance
enough! • Represent local people
• Local interventions are not sufficient for • Closer to local communities
sustainable DRR • Lead local development
• Macro and micro level decisions have local impacts • Significant infulencing and decision making force
• Capacity to plan is low given with decentralization trends
• Formal leadership exists
• Need to link and influence local authorities

Weaknesses of Local governance


• Weak institutional setup
• Capacity gaps
• Disempowered
• Corrupt
• Mostly implementing/service provision arm of
government
• Low reputation

Source: Vishaka Hidellage, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
COMMUNITY DRR Challenges in CBDRR

Acceptance Ch Participation Resources


• Protocols – permission and • Lack of commitment and • Financial resources
consent participation from government • Infrastructure/facilities
• Accessibility - approaching gate agencies • Transport
keepers • Clash of activities
• Trust – assurance of impartiality • Loss of income of residents

Centralization of authority Turnover of Personnel Socio-economic variance


• Need approval from central • Transfer of government of local residents
authority personnel • Educational background
• Constraints in decision-making • Promotion • Economic status
• A long time lag for consent • Ethnic composition
• Lack of consultation with the • Political alignment
local community

Source: Aini Mat Said, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency
Management.”
ICT for DRR

Contents
• Statistics
• Case Study: ICT in Myanmar
• Case Study: International Telecommunication
Union
• Challenges
ICT DRR Statistics

Ch
The countries with the most disasters have the lowest connectivity
Asia and Africa have the highest occurrence of
floods and droughts however, the lowest
number of fixed and mobile telephones as a
percentage of overall population

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “The Role of ICTS in Disaster Management including
Disaster Risk Reduction.”
ICT DRR Case Study: ICT in Myanmar

Ch
High level imaging

Approaching cyclone
Pre-disaster
Post-disaster

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “The Role of ICTS in Disaster Management
including Disaster Risk Reduction.”
ICT DRR Case Study: International
Telecommunication Union

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “The Role of ICTS in Disaster Management
including Disaster Risk Reduction.”
ICT DRR Challenges

Ch
Challenges

• Need to forge multi-disciplinary partnerships


• Need for better coordination
• Need for disaster prediction, detection and
monitoring systems (emergency. telecom + GIS)
• Need for linking Climate Change and Disaster
Management
• Need for Standard Operating Procedures
• Need to develop and integrate National Emergency
Telecommunications Plans into Disaster Management
Plans
• Need to ensure redundancy and resilience in the
network

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “The Role of ICTS in Disaster Management
including Disaster Risk Reduction.”
Part 6: Early Warning
And Communication
Contents
• Tsunami Early Warning
• Case Study: IOC Tsunami Early Warning
• Case Study: Earthquake Observation in China
• Case Study: Regional Multi-Hazard Integrated
Early Warning System (RIMES)
• Emergency communication
• Amateur radio
• Case Study: Telecom Malaysia disaster alert
system
• Early warning and media
• Case Study: ABU Technical Committee Early
Warning Broadcasting System
• Case Study: Early Warning Broadcasting System in
Japan
• Case Study: Early warning and media in
Bangladesh
• UNDAC Preparedness Missions
EARLY WARNING Tsunami Early Warning

Ch
Tsunami probability
Pacific ocean Mediterranean sea
Tsunami warning systems in four oceans
Atlantic ocean Indian ocean

4%
12%

25%
59%

Source: Peter Koltermann, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”
EARLY WARNING Tsunami Early Warning

Ch
Purpose of early warning systems

• Identify, detect, verify and predict natural extremes, such as


tsunami, cyclones, earthquakes with potential implications to mankind (upstream
component)
• Raise awareness and preparedness to react appropriately to warnings of such
extreme events (downstream component)

End-to-end system Build National / Regional Capacity to:

• From detection to evacuation • Assess national tsunami (and ocean-


• overall clear responsibility related ) risk (Hazard assessment)
• legal authority • Operate national /regional warning
• accountability centre covering local and regional
tsunamis (warning guidance)
• authenticity
• Promote education/preparedness
• national, regional, local clear line
and risk reduction against tsunami
of command
(and ocean-related) hazard
(Mitigation and Public Awareness)

Source: Peter Koltermann, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”
EARLY WARNING Tsunami Early Warning

Ch
Generation mechanisms for tsunamis

Source: Peter Koltermann, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”
EARLY WARNING Case Study: IOC Tsunami Early Warning

Ch
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC)

• Established in 1960 in UNESCO


• In 1965 the IOC established the ICG/ITSU International Coordination Group for the Tsunami Warning &
Mitigation System in the Pacific (PTWS)
• In response to the 1960 Chilean earthquake and tsunami:
• Recommends & coordinates tsunami programmes, including timely ocean wide tsunami warnings
• Successful & operational since more than 40 years
• System is based on 26 national and 4 regional centers
• Central system with PTWC and JMA on 24/7 watch
Tsunami threat worldwide

Source: Peter Koltermann, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”
EARLY WARNING Case Study: IOC Tsunami Early Warning

Ch
End-to-end tsunami early warning system

Source: Peter Koltermann, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”
EARLY WARNING Case Study: Earthquake Observation in China

Ch
China Digital Seismic Observation Network Monitoring capacity

M≥4.0 nationwide
M ≥2.5 50 percent
of land area
M ≥1.5 provincial
capitals and their
adjacent areas in
the Eastern part of
China
M ≥1.0 capital
area

Source: Ibrahim Komoo, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and
Local Levels ”
EARLY WARNING Case Study: Earthquake Observation in China

Ch
China Earthquake Precursory Network

Source: Ibrahim Komoo, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and
Local Levels ”
EARLY WARNING Case Study: Earthquake Observation in China

Ch
China Digital Strong Ground Motion Network

Source: Ibrahim Komoo, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and
Local Levels ”
EARLY WARNING Case Study: Earthquake Observation in China

Ch
China GPS Network

Source: Ibrahim Komoo, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and
Local Levels ”
EARLY WARNING Case Study: Regional Multi-Hazard Integrated

Ch
Early Warning System (RIMES)
Objective: Establish, maintain and operate a Regional Early Warning facility to cater to differential needs and
demands of countries to address gaps in the end-end multi-hazard early warning system

Institutional Arrangements Services Costs

• Regional Steering Committee • Tsunami watch • Capital cost for tsunami information
heads of national focal points to • Capacity building and technology and capacity building requirements
provide policy transfer to NMHSs for providing of member countries: US$ 4.5
advice, guide, monitor and evaluate localized hydro hydro- million – UNESCAP
implementation of regional meteorological disaster risk • This compares very favorably with
activities. Myanmar as Chair, Sri information the US$115 million required to
Lanka and Thailand as Vice-Chairs • Enhancing capacities to respond to establish tsunami EWS for 23
for 2 years. early warning information at developing/ least developed
• Regional Technical Committee national and local levels for disaster countries
experts to provide guidance preparedness and management • Approximate investment cost by
• Working Group • Acting as a test-bed to identify Australia, India, Indonesia, Iran, a
Lao PDR, Maldives, Myanmar, Sri- promising new, emerging nd Malaysia US$250 million
Lanka, Thailand to ensure system technologies and pilot test, and • Capital cost for weather and climate
and institutional sustainability make it operational through information and capacity building
demonstration of tangible benefits requirements of member -
countries: US$1 million – Danida
• Total annual recurring cost: US$ 1.5
million (for tsunami and all other
hazards)

Source: Abdul Muhusin Ramiz, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
EARLY WARNING Case Study: Regional Multi-Hazard Integrated

Ch
Early Warning System (RIMES)
Ownership by Countries Next steps What makes RIMES possible

• Member countries collectively • The Working Group, through • Economy of scale and
manage and draw services Maldives scope, with least recurring
from RIMES Secretariat, submitted a cost
• Member Countries need not proposal to UNESCAP to • Integration of all early warning
put up their own system mobilize resources to support services into one holistic
• Member countries need not regional facility operation system
depend on other tsunami while member countries • System built to address needs
watch providers incorporate support into and demands of countries
national budgets, and work with differing capacities and
out international agreements vulnerabilities
to formalize system ownership
• Catalytic investment by
under UNESCO/IOC framework
UNESCAP for tsunami and
• Maldives received approval of capacity building subsystems
around US$ 375,000 from
• Critical investment by DANIDA
UNESCAP to undertake
for hydro- meteorological
activities for sustaining RIMES
subsystem to transform EWS
• Another proposal submitted to into a multi-hazard end-to-end
UNESCAP: Recurring cost for early warning system
first year August 2009-July
• Full ownership by Member
2010 and partial recurring cost
Countries
for 2nd year August 2010 –
July 2011
• Member States to meet partial
costs of RIMES from July 2010-
June 2011 and fully meet all
costs from July 2011 and
beyond

Source: Abdul Muhusin Ramiz, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
EARLY WARNING Emergency Communication

Ch
Overview

• Emergency communication is communication method employed when


regular communication methods such as the telephone and various radio
services are disabled or overwhelmed
• It has been shown countless number of times that timely and reliable
communication is the most important need during emergencies and disasters
to avoid loss of life, property and to speed up relief and recovery especially in
the first 72 hours

Need

• Each individual, family or organization is responsible for its own alternative


means of communication in the event that regular communication method is
unavailable
• Emergency communication complements regular communication method
during peace time
• Emergency communication must work when other conventional methods of
communication fail

Source: Malaysian Amateur Radio Emergency Services, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for
Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”
EARLY WARNING Emergency Numbers Around the World

Ch

Source: Rozinah Anas, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and
Local Levels ”
EARLY WARNING Emergency Numbers Around the World

Ch
Global trends

• An increasing number of nations are


adhering to the international movement
of developing a country-wide 3-digit
public safety system
• As a result of this trend, international
organizations have been formed as a
platform to exchange best practices
between participating countries

Source: Rozinah Anas, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and
Local Levels ”
EARLY WARNING Emergency Numbers Around the World

Ch
Countries with Consolidated Emergency Numbers

Source: Rozinah Anas, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and
Local Levels ”
EARLY WARNING Emergency Numbers Around the World

Ch
Countries with Unconsolidated Emergency Numbers

Source: Rozinah Anas, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and
Local Levels ”
EARLY WARNING Emergency Communication

Ch
Problem of landline and cellular
Satellite Phone Trunk radio systems
phones during emergencies
• These phone systems: • The use of satellite phone for • Trunk communication systems
• Are sized for peaks during emergency and disaster for do not cover all areas
business and consumer SAR is not practical. To place a • Trunk communication system
use, for the peaks during in call, the phone needs to find is designed for urban areas
regular use and NOT peaks the satellite signal and
during an emergency establish a link. This takes time
• Usually rely on copper or and requires operation in an
fiber optic cables which open area
when exposed to the • Usage is very limited in
elements are prone to tropical rain forest areas.
damage especially in Satellite phones do not work
flood, high wind and storm in sheltered or confined spaces
conditions
• Are usually not portable AND
reliable enough to meet the
demands of an emergency
• These are the common
reasons why regular public
communication means may
not be to function effectively
during emergencies

Source: Malaysian Amateur Radio Emergency Services, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for
Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”
EARLY WARNING Emergency Communication: Amateur Radio

Ch
Overview

• Amateur radio, also known ass ham radio is a hobby enjoyed by several hundred
thousand people in the US and by several million people worldwide
• Radio amateurs call themselves “radio hams” or simply “hams”
• Frequencies are specified by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU)

Benefits

• Amateur radio does not rely on services and intermediary facilities provided by common
carriers and phone companies and thus is immune to disruptions normally faced by the
telephone system
• Regardless of the specific brand model of radio equipment, radio amateurs who use the
same frequency band and mode can communicate with each other
• Radio amateurs use a wide range of radio transmissions, each one with its particular
strength in overcoming the barriers to radio communications – voice, digital, morse
• Radio amateurs use their equipment regularly which verifies that it is maintained and
operational
• Radio amateurs can be distributed throughout the community, near schools, community
halls, and park facilities which are often used as evacuation shelters

Source: Malaysian Amateur Radio Emergency Services, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for
Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”
EARLY WARNING Emergency Communication: Amateur Radio

Ch
Radio amateurs assisting in
Radio amateurs in action Radio Amateurs Cont.
emergencies
• During an emergency, radio • Earthquake in China – 2008 • Wildfires in Colorado – 2002
amateurs may communicate • Hurricanes Katrina and Rita • Tornado in Maryland – 2002
with various/multiple –2005 • Flooding in Kentucky – 2002
agencies on various • Asian Tsunami – 2004 • World Trade Center and
frequencies and
• Hurricanes Pentagon terrorist attack –
transmission modes
Charlie, Frances, Ivan, and 2001
• Unlike EMS communication Jeanne in Florida – 2004 • Flood in Texas and Louisiana
equipment, amateur radio
• Severe weather in Virginia – (Storm Allison) –2001
equipment does not have
2004 • Earthquake in India – 2001
the restriction of limited
radio channels/frequencies • Tornadoes in Illinois –2004 • Wildfires in Kelowna – 2001
or single-mode operation • Amtrak train accident in • Earthquake in El Salvador –
Mississippi –2004 2001
• Earthquake in Central • Ice storms in Southwest –
California – 2003 2000
• Hurricane Isabel – 2003 • Tornado in Alabama – 2000
• Northeast blackout – 2003 • Avalanche in Alaska – 2000
• Midwest tornadoes – 2003 • Fires in Los Alamos, New
• Pahang Flood – 2001 Mexico – 2000

Source: Malaysian Amateur Radio Emergency Services, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for
Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”
EARLY WARNING Emergency Communication: Amateur Radio

Ch
Recommendations
Official federal and local government
Establishment of a common radio frequency recognition and support of the role amateur
for inter-agency communication during an radio can play during and after an emergency.
emergency. Based on experience, during Local amateur radio clubs and operators can
disasters like the Highland Tower play a significant role in assisting the
collapse, Asian Tsunami, and floods of Johor respective emergency management services
and Pahang, there was the absence of a in communication and coordination, thus
common radio frequency for the various alleviating the communication role of and
emergency and rescue agencies allowing respective agencies to focus on their
specific roles

The inclusion of amateur radio organizations


Appointment of an official body to manage in the standard operating procedure of
the deployment of radio amateurs in the emergency and disaster response. Advance
theatre of operations planning saves precious time during actual
deployment

Source: Malaysian Amateur Radio Emergency Services, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for
Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”
EARLY WARNING Emergency Communication: Amateur Radio

Ch
Recommendations
Joint coordination drills of no less
than once a month until an
optimum level of communication A review of the communication
coordination between the radio and coordination process and
amateur volunteers and the technology be made
respective emergency
management services is achieved

The introduction of a Weather


The formation of a
Alert Radio News service to inform
Communication Working Group to
the public about the weather in
formalize communication
their area. This has worked very
system/protocol during disasters
well in the US, especially in areas
for this region
prone to natural disasters

Source: Malaysian Amateur Radio Emergency Services, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for
Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”
EARLY WARNING Case Study: Telecom Malaysia

Ch
Disaster Alert System

Disaster Alert System (DAS)

• A system used to inform and alert public


in the event of any disaster
• Able to alert people in targeted area of
incoming disasters such as tsunami and
earthquake
• Capable of reaching public in shortest
possible time : 50,000 to 150,000 calls
within 15 minutes
• Different types of alert messages based
on level and type of disaster
• Available 24/7 all year round
• Priority dialing based on predetermined
groups
• Slice and dice information of every
outbound calls – dashboard view and
customized report

Source: Rozinah Anas, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and
Local Levels ”
EARLY WARNING Case Study: Telecom Malaysia

Ch
Disaster Alert System

Global trends Telecom Malaysia MERS999 Benefits of MERS999

• An increasing number of nations • Provide uniformity and • Improves the quality of


are adhering to the international consistency in processing information and therefore the
movement of developing a Emergency Call requests by having quality of decisions
country-wide 3-digit public safety • Standardized pre-planned call • Eliminates wasteful processes and
system categorization and prioritization information related delays so that
• As a result of this protocols for each call type Public Safety professionals can
trend, international organizations • Clear written policies and focus on their core activity
have been formed as a platform to procedures governing proper use • Improves interactions and
exchange best practices between of and compliance to the call collaboration between agencies
participating countries taking protocols • Allows us to access, share and
• Structured call processing process information from
protocols for handling scaleable computer and communications
incidents including large-scale devices from anywhere and at
incidents both natural and anytime
manmade disasters. • Provides valuable data for
• Given the opportunity to start management and operations
from a clean slate, Malaysia has a analysis
unique opportunity today take • Reduces costs of operation
capitalize on the experiences of • Shows objective evidence of
more established countries in this Government commitment to
field better serve their citizens

Source: Rozinah Anas, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and
Local Levels ”
EARLY WARNING Early Warning and Media

Ch
Warnings overview

• Warnings or Emergency Messages are nationally mandated


• Each country has to decide itself
• Warnings have an information part, and an active instruction part: RUN TO A-HILL!
• Warnings are followed by a cancellation. That is equally important, do not ignore
• Advisories, Alerts, Alarms are international – they are not warnings!

The media and tsunami warnings

• Problem is not whether or not broadcasters or other media technologies will broadcast warnings but
who initiates the warnings.
• A Government responsibility, not the responsibility of broadcasters

News and freedom of the press

• Broadcasters can say and broadcast whatever they like. They cannot broadcast an 'emergency
message' unless it comes from an authority which has the power to do so.
• They should NEVER change the warning !!!!!
• They cannot be forced to broadcast that
• message...
• They relay such messages because it is in the
• public interest to do so and is often part of the
• charter for the licensing requirements of a
• radio/TV station

Source: Peter Koltermann, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”
EARLY WARNING Early Warning and Media

Ch
News and freedom of the press

• Broadcasters can say and broadcast whatever they like. They cannot broadcast an
'emergency message' unless it comes from an authority which has the power to do
so
• They should NEVER change the warning
• They cannot be forced to broadcast any particular message
• They relay such messages because it is in the public interest to do so and is often
part of the charter for the licensing requirements of a radio/TV station

What media can do

• ABU can ask all its members to commit to relaying urgent messages on
tsunamis, cyclones, earthquakes, when received from the authorities
• Do not question the “Warning”: There is no time!
• Agree on a standard procedure with the responsible agencies NOW
• Empower the night editor to act, not to call back. Do not have the night editor of
SLBC (Sri Lanka) or RRI (Indonesia) or FBC (Fiji) or MBC (Maldives) to scramble for a
memo
• Train together, every week

Source: Peter Koltermann, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”
EARLY WARNING Case Study: ABU Technical Committee Early

Ch
Warning Broadcasting System

TASKS

• Implementation of EWBS in the ABU region


• Techniques employed for EWBS
• Media suitable for EWBS (SW, MW, FM, etc)
• Connection of broadcasting stations to governmental or
international organizations which issue the disaster forecast
• Emergency warning codes (Intrinsic code, Area code, Time
code, etc.)
• Receivers for EWBS including digital broadcasting

Deliverables

• Guidelines for implementation of EWBS in the ABU region


• A set of rules that may be observed in establishing EWBS in the
ABU region

Source: Kazuyoshi Shogen, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”
EARLY WARNING Case Study: ABU Technical Committee Early

Ch
Warning Broadcasting System

Elements of Disaster Relief Broadcasting

• Disaster detection and prediction


• Warning for evacuation in advance of disaster
• Notification of correct information to the public
• Providing of well-being information

The Emergency Warning Broadcasting System (EWBS) uses broadcasting


facilities to alert people and enable them to prepare for emergencies

EWBS signals embedded in analogue TV and radio broadcasts will

• Automatically switch on or change channel to the one providing warning and information in
TV and radio sets in the home and handheld receivers and,
• Issue an emergency bulletin, alerting people to an impeding disaster, e.g. an
tsunami, earthquake, cyclone, flood, or volcanic eruption

Source: Kazuyoshi Shogen, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”
EARLY WARNING Case Study: ABU Technical Committee Early

Ch
Warning Broadcasting System

Some issues to be overcome in the


implementation of EWBS in the ABU region
• The equipment for issuing the control signal installed in
broadcasting stations
• The EWBS receivers
• The regulation put up by the government and the support for
EWBS by the government
• The attribution of EWBS control signal and the security
against the abuse of EWBS
• Connection of broadcasting stations to governmental or
international organizations which issue the disaster forecast
• Funding of the EWBS

Source: Kazuyoshi Shogen, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”
EARLY WARNING Case Study: ABU Technical Committee Early

Ch
Warning Broadcasting System
Case Study: Japan
Earthquake and tsunami
EWBS over analogue EWBS over digital Earthquake early warning
information services via
broadcasting broadcasting information
data broadcasting
• In operation since 1985 • In operation since 2000 • Has been provided • Has just been provided
• To terrestrial and for satellite TV channels since January 2007 since 1 October 2007
satellite TV channels and 2003 for terrestrial • To digital satellite • To analogue and digital
and AM/FM radio TV channels TV, digital terrestrial TV satellite TV
services • The EWBS signals are and One-Segdata channels, analogue and
• The control signal is multiplexed with the broadcasting digital terrestrial TV
dual tones, which are broadcast signals channels, One-
readily audible to the • Automatic activation of Segservices and AM/FM
human ear TV set in the home and radio services
handheld receivers • The information issued
• They are still under from the
development Meteorological Agency
• The issue is to reduce using P wave detection
the amount of power
these devices
consumewhile they are
in stand-by mode
• NHK is currently
developing technology
to reduce such power
consumption

Source: Kazuyoshi Shogen, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”
EARLY WARNING Case Study: ABU Technical Committee Early

Ch
Warning Broadcasting System
Case Study: South Korea, Nepal, China, India
South Korea Nepal China India

• KBS is now doing indoor • The model for EWBS • The standard for CMMB • The work on attributing
outdoor tests of the network and delivery includes EWBS, which EWBS codes in India is
DMB receiver system as well as code automatically changes being carried out by Mr.
compatibility by using configuration are channel Mohammed Shafique
test stream studied Ansari of AIR in NHK
• By first test result of LG • This work has been Science and Technical
& Samsung DMB carried out by Mr. Research Laboratories
receivers in April UdayaKrishna as a visiting researcher
2007, there was no Shresthaof Radio Nepal under NHK Research
problem by T-DMB in NHK Science and Award 2008
AEAS (Automatic Technical Research
Emergency Alert Laboratories as a
Service) signal visitingresearcher
• KBS do the second under NHK Research
indoor test for other Award 2006
ten company receivers
in September 2007, all
receivers normally
operate with T-DMB
AEAS signal. After
preparing the system
experimental On-Air
was doing later in last
year

Source: Kazuyoshi Shogen, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”
EARLY Case Study: Early Warning
WARNING

Ch
Broadcasting System in Japan

Source: H. Minamizaki, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”


EARLY Case Study: Early Warning
WARNING

Ch
Broadcasting System in Japan

Source: H. Minamizaki, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”


EARLY Case Study: Early Warning
WARNING

Ch
Broadcasting System in Japan

Source: H. Minamizaki, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”


EARLY Case Study: Early Warning
WARNING

Ch
Broadcasting System in Japan

Classification Broadcasting Zone Broadcasting media

Warning of large-scale earthquake Nationwide All 8 NHK channels (TV & radio)

Tsunami warning Nationwide, or by prefecture or All 8 NHK channels


region (TV & radio)

Broadcasting request about Be prefecture or region General TV, Radio-1, FM


natural disaster from local
government

Source: H. Minamizaki, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”


EARLY Case Study: Early Warning
WARNING

Ch
Broadcasting System in Japan
• Consultation by Radio Technical Council
1980

• Consultation of basic EWBS by Radio Technical Council


1981

• Draft of EWBS by Radio Technical Council


1982

• Ministry of Post and Telecommunications reaches agreement with


1984 broadcasting stations and other organizations

• EWBS legislation enacted


1985

NHK starts EWB on General-TV, Educational-


TV, Radio-1 and -2 FM and BS-1

• NHK starts EWB on BS-2


1986

• NHK starts EWB in English on sub-audio channel of General-TV, BS-1 and


1988 -2, and Radio-2

• NHK starts EWB in Chinese, Korean and Portuguese on its sub-audio


2007 channel of General-TV,BS-1 and -2, and Radio-2

Source: H. Minamizaki, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”


EARLY Case Study: Early Warning
WARNING

Ch
Broadcasting System in Japan

Track record Prevalence of Test Broadcasting


• Emergency Warning EWBS receivers at NHK
Broadcasting has
been aired 15 times
• Analog receivers • (First day of every Everyday training
(radio & TV) about month, 11:59:00 –
in Japan. 550,000 sets 11:59:50, General-
for EWB, breaking
• All of the broadcasts • Digital TV about TV, Radio-1, FM) news of
were tsunami 200,000 sets • to promote EWBS earthquakes after
warnings • to check EWBS the last newscast
receivers at homes at NHK Tokyo
• to check EWBS News Center
equipment in
broadcasting stations

Source: H. Minamizaki, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”


EARLY WARNING Case Study: Early warning and media in

Ch
Bangladesh

Overview

• Standing orders on Disaster (SoD) were


introduced in 1999 by the Ministry of Food and
Disaster Management, which includes the media
role for DRR:
• “BTV Must Telecast on receipt of warning signal
no 4 along with explanation given by Bangladesh
Metrological Department every one hour and
continue such telecast if advised by the Ministry
of Food and Disaster Management”

Source: S M Morshed, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”


EARLY WARNING Case Study: Early warning and media in

Ch
Bangladesh

Distribution of Radio for


Capacity Building Initiative Capacity Building for Media award on disaster
Fisherman in the coastal
for BMD Media Persons management
belt
• Strengthen capacity of • CDMP provided Radio • CDMP imparting training • Ministry of Food &
Bangladesh set for the fisherman in on Risk Reduction Disaster Management
Meteorological the coastal belt through Feature Writing for the introduced Media Award
Department (BMD) Cyclone Preparedness students of Journalism on Disaster Management
• MoU signed between Programme(CPP) to Department, University in 2005 with the support
Ministry of Defense and facilitate the access to of Dhaka of CDMP with a aim to
MoFDM for data sharing disaster information • After training course the encourage the Media
• Computerized 35 met- students interact with person for the
observatory stations the beneficiaries of production of Risk
CDMP at community Reduction
• Developed and deployed
level and then prepare Report/feature
web-based data
acquisition system for features on local risk
fetching and reduction initiatives
disseminating met-data
and information
• Installed LAN, broadband
Internet connection
• Developed website for
BMD

Source: S M Morshed, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”


EARLY WARNING Case Study: Early warning and media in

Ch
Bangladesh

Regular Programme on Inclusion of Risk Reduction


Prospects for Strengthening
Disaster Management with Issues in National Television
Media Role towards DRR
Bangladesh Television Debate Competition
• CDMP Advocacy • As part of strengthening • Expansion of Private TV
Component supporting information service on Channels
Bangladesh Television for disaster management risk • Endorsement of Rights to
production of a regular reduction issues has been Information Act 2008
monthly programme on included in the National • Establishment of
disaster management on Television Debate Community Radio in
different issues Competition on stage Bangladesh by Non-
owned BTV and private TV GovtInitiatives
channel ATN Bangla
• Commitment of Young
Journalists for Risk
Reduction Reporting

Source: S M Morshed, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”


DISASTER PREPAREDNESS UNDAC Preparedness Missions

Ch
OCHA

• In 1991 the GA adopted Resolution 46/182 to strengthen the UN


response to complex emergencies and natural disasters under a
Department of Humanitarian Affairs (DHA) within the UN Secretariat
• In 1998, DHA was reorganized into OCHA. In 2008 OCHA employed
1,700 staff members in New York, Geneva and in the field
• OCHA’s Core Functions are:–Policy development–Advocacy of
humanitarian issues–Coordination of humanitarian emergency
response
• Mr. John Holmes was appointed ERC and USG of Humanitarian
Affairs in 2006, following Mr. Jan Egeland
• Missions in Asia include:
Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Mongolia, Philippines, Lao
PDR, Bhutan, Cambodia (planned in 2009)

Source: Gerhard Putman, 3 December 08, Side Event C on “Strengthening National Response Preparedness in Asia – UNDAC
Preparedness Missions Experience”
DISASTER PREPAREDNESS UNDAC Preparedness Missions

Ch
OCHA Response Mechanisms and Tools

24 hours duty ReliefWeb, IRIN & Emergency Cash


system HIC Grants

Register of
Environmental Disaster MCDA & CM
Emergency Section Management Coordination staff
Capabilities

Brindisi RDRAs and OCHA


Warehouse field and offices

Source: Gerhard Putman, 3 December 08, Side Event C on “Strengthening National Response Preparedness in Asia – UNDAC
Preparedness Missions Experience”
DISASTER PREPAREDNESS UNDAC Preparedness Missions

Ch
OCHA Response Mechanisms and Tools
UNDAC Support On Site Operations
modules (from Coordination
UNDAC Teams
(from IHP Centre (OSOCC) in
Countries) field

Standby Partners
Virtual OSOCC
International (short term staff
(evolving into
Urban SAR Teams for OCHA Field
GDAS)
Offices)

The surge capacity

Source: Gerhard Putman, 3 December 08, Side Event C on “Strengthening National Response Preparedness in Asia – UNDAC
Preparedness Missions Experience”
DISASTER PREPAREDNESS UNDAC Preparedness Missions

Ch
Lao Bhutan Philippines

• Translation of UNDAC • March 29, 2008 • November/December


Mission Report in local • Stakeholder workshop – 2004 after consecutives
language ToR typhoons
• Continued consultations • Review documents • UNDAC Mission
by IASC-CT with NDMO • Relevant stakeholders • Mission assessment
• Prioritization of • Roles/responsibilities, res report:
recommendations for ources, expectations, gaps • Re-affirmed NDCC’s
implementation Four-Point Plan of
• Field visit –accompanied
• Wider consultations: in- by focal persons Action for Disaster
country and regional Preparedness
• Levels of government
actors • Underscored NDCC’s
• Report writing
roadmap to improve
• Presentation of the capacity
assessment findings –
• Served as impetus for
NCDM
the re-definition of
Office of Civil Defense’s
Vision and Mission

Source: Gerhard Putman, 3 December 08, Side Event C on “Strengthening National Response Preparedness in Asia – UNDAC
Preparedness Missions Experience”
Part 7: Space and
High Technology Tools

Contents
• Case Study: UNESCAP space tools for DRM
• Case Study: UN-SPIDER
• Case Study: Sentinel-Asia
• Case Study: Asian Seismic Risk Reduction Center
• Case Study: India Space Programme
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: UNESCAP space tools for DRM

Ch
Overview

• Regional arm of UN Secretariat in the Asia-Pacific


• The biggest of five UN regional commissions
• 62 member and associate members
• Population about 60% of world total

Regional Space Applications Programme (RESAP)

• Initiated by Ministerial Conference on Space Applications for


Development, 1994, Beijing, China
• Continued by second Ministerial Conference on Space Applications for
Sustainable Development, 1999, New Delhi, India
• Capacity building at policy, institutional and technical levels
• Promoting operational use of space technology in priority fields
• Focused on disaster management since 2002

Source: Wu Guoxiang, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: UNESCAP space tools for DRM

Ch
Disaster risk reduction as priority focus area

• ESCAP resolution 64/1 established its subsidiary bodies:


• Committee on Disaster Risk Reduction
• Policy options and strategies on multi-hazard DRR
• Regional cooperation mechanisms for DRR, including space and other technical
support systems
• Multi-hazard assessment, preparedness, early warning and response to disaster
risks
• Committee on Information and Communications Technology
• ICT applications for DRR

Established sub-programme on ICT


and DRR, and the ICT and DRR Division for its implementation
• RESAP to be implemented by Space Applications Section
• As a comparative advantage of ESCAP

Source: Wu Guoxiang, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: UNESCAP space tools for DRM

Ch
ESCAP efforts related to space applications

• Focused on analytical and normative work for capacity building at


policy and institutional levels
• Through regional cooperation:
• Sharing of information, communications and space technology
infrastructure and resources through strengthening existing and
developing regional cooperative mechanisms
• Regional cooperative mechanisms on use of satellite information
for disaster management
• Exploring possibility of regional and sub regional disaster
management communication supporting capacities
• Promoting regional network of networks on multi-hazards disaster
management related information sharing and analysis
• Enhance disaster preparedness and early warning at community
level, with emphasis on use of community e-centers, including those
connected through communication satellites

Source: Wu Guoxiang, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: UNESCAP space tools for DRM

Ch
Current initiatives in the region
Regional cooperation initiatives

• Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF)


• Sentinel-Asia with resources of India, Japan, Korea, Thailand
• Using both earth observation and communication satellites
• Asia-Pacific Multilateral Cooperation on Space Technology and
Applications (AP-MCSTA) towards APSCO with 9 founding members
• 8-satellite constellation for disaster monitoring
• First phase --3 satellites: 2 launched

Other initiatives supporting cooperation

• UN Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and


Emergency Response (SPIDER)
• International Charter on Space and Major Disasters
• China, India, Thailand and FAO to support drought disaster management

Source: Wu Guoxiang, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: UNESCAP space tools for DRM

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Promoting Regional Cooperative Mechanisms

Objective: towards a regional space information supporting platform for disaster reduction
• Based on existing and planned initiatives covering the region
• To create a scientifically sound, diplomatically acceptable and politically relevant
• Harmonized platform for affordable access and effective use of satellite information products and services
• For effective disaster management and decision making

Policy studies conducted by ESCAP


• Framework on regional cooperation on space technology supported disaster management
• Framework on space information products and services for disaster management

Cooperation projects with JAXA to promote Sentinel Asia

Joint activities with UN OOSA to promote UN SPIDER


• As a regional component of UN SPIDER

Cooperation with AP-MASTA and APSCO

Major contributions ESCAP may make


• Assist national capacity building at technical and institutionallevels –partnership of local service providers and end-users
• Recommendation of national policy frameworks for effective adoption of such technical tools and for regional cooperation
• Identifying national needs for relevant space information products and services, and their delivery channels
• Harmonizing initiatives for consistent products and services
• Developing end-user network for easier access to and benefit from these initiatives and to adopt operation models

Source: Wu Guoxiang, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: UNESCAP space tools for DRM

Ch
Promoting Regional Cooperative Mechanisms

Objective: towards a regional space information supporting platform for disaster reduction
• Based on existing and planned initiatives covering the region
• To create a scientifically sound, diplomatically acceptable and politically relevant
• Harmonized platform for affordable access and effective use of satellite information products and services
• For effective disaster management and decision making

Policy studies conducted by ESCAP


• Framework on regional cooperation on space technology supported disaster management
• Framework on space information products and services for disaster management

Cooperation projects with JAXA to promote Sentinel Asia

Joint activities with UN OOSA to promote UN SPIDER


• As a regional component of UN SPIDER

Cooperation with AP-MASTA and APSCO

Major contributions ESCAP may make


• Assist national capacity building at technical and institutionallevels –partnership of local service providers and end-users
• Recommendation of national policy frameworks for effective adoption of such technical tools and for regional cooperation
• Identifying national needs for relevant space information products and services, and their delivery channels
• Harmonizing initiatives for consistent products and services
• Developing end-user network for easier access to and benefit from these initiatives and to adopt operation models

Source: Wu Guoxiang, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: UN-SPIDER

Ch
Promoting Regional Cooperative Mechanisms
Objective

• The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) is responsible for
promoting international cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space, and
assisting developing countries in using space science and technology.
• The Office implements the decisions of the United Nations General Assembly
and of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its two
Subcommittees, the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee and the Legal
Subcommittee.

Source: UN-SPIDER, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: UN-SPIDER

Ch
Promoting Regional Cooperative Mechanisms
Main activities of the office

• Secretariat for the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) and its
two Subcommittees (Establishment of a legal and regulatory framework governing
space activities)
• Implement the United Nations Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster
Management and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER)
• Implement the United Nations Programme on Space Applications
• Secretariat for the Inter-Agency Meeting on Outer Space Activities
• Executive Secretariat of the International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite
Systems (ICG)
• Treaty obligations

UN-SPIDER

• The United Nations General Assembly established the “United Nations Platform for
Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UN-
SPIDER)”as a programme within the United Nations to provide universal access to all
types of space-based information and services relevant to disaster management.
(A/RES/61/110)

Source: UN-SPIDER, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: UN-SPIDER

Ch

Source: UN-SPIDER, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: UN-SPIDER

Ch

Source: UN-SPIDER, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: UN-SPIDER

Ch
Space-based solutions

Satellite communications
help warn people who are at
risk, especially in remote
areas. They help connect a
disaster zone to the outside
world.

Images from earth


Global navigation observing satellites
satellite systems enable help assess the damage
us to obtain positional caused by disasters like
information on events earthquakes, volcano
that have to be mapped eruptions, oil spills and
floods.

Source: UN-SPIDER, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: Sentinel-Asia

Ch
Overview

• The Sentinel Asia initiative is a collaboration between Space agencies and Disaster management
agencies, applying remote sensing and Web-GIS technologies to assist disaster management in
the Asia-Pacific region
• Sentinel Asia is lead by the Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF) to share Disaster
information in the Asia-Pacific region by the Sentinel Asia System and to make the best use of
Space technologies for disaster management support in the Asia-Pacific region

Source: Chu Ishida, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: Sentinel-Asia

Ch
Main activities

Emergency
observation
Emergency Wildfire
observation monitoring
request

Capacity Flood
building monitoring

MTSAT

Source: Chu Ishida, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: Asian Seismic Risk Reduction Center

Ch
Overview

• Regional Specialized Collaborative Center


• Recommended at the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction 2005
Kobe, Japan
• Tehran, Iran hosting the center
• Launched in May 2007
• Agreement formed between Government of Iran and UNISDR

Objectives

• Enhancing capacities in the field of seismic risk reduction and vulnerability


assessment
• Reducing human losses and economic damages caused by seismic risks and
disasters
• Facilitating exchange of information, knowledge and expertise on seismic risk
reduction among governments and institutions and enhancing public awareness
• Promoting regional and inter-regional networking and partnerships on disaster
risk reduction (DRR)
• Assisting governments in implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action
(HFA)

Source: S.M.R. Emami, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: Asian Seismic Risk Reduction Center

Ch
Functions

• To develop existing methods or establish appropriate ones for exchange of


information, knowledge and expertise on seismic risk reduction and support related
scientific programs and public awareness raising activities in the region
• To mobilize and coordinate adequate resources and make necessary arrangements to
conduct and support policy oriented research on seismic risk reduction
• To hold specialized trainings courses, workshops and seminars on seismic risk reduction
• To contribute towards implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action, including support
for the establishment of national platforms on risk reduction and mainstreaming disaster risk
reduction into developmental programs as well as providing technical assistance

Expected results

• Building a culture of safety and resilience and enhancement of public awareness and
knowledge on seismic risks
• Training and research at academic level on seismic risk reduction
• Training and enhancing awareness of authorities, managers and experts dealing with
disasters in countries of the region and seeking the attention and support of policy-makers
• Assessment and analysis of seismic risk reduction Mainstreaming disaster risk reduction
(DRR) in the countries’ development programs
• Facilitating access to necessary information and data by specialists working on disaster in the
countries of the region

Source: S.M.R. Emami, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: Asian Seismic Risk Reduction Center

Ch
Advocacy and Communication

• Collection, compilation and dissemination of relevant knowledge and information on


seismic risks, vulnerabilities and capacities
• Supporting the related scientific programs
• Enhancement of public awareness
• Sharing of research findings, lessons learned and best practices
• Campaigning through schools, hospitals, medias and authorities for greater public
awareness of the earthquake hazards
• Planning the modalities of participation of public in prevention and risk reduction
• Enhancing knowledge networking by means of website, e-newsletter, periodical
earthquake risk management and planning meetings on different aspects of
earthquake risk reduction
• Developing common approaches for training and capacity building on best practices to
strengthen national capacities forearthquake risk reduction, community
preparedness, and risk communication (including earthquakes
• Working on earthquake risk management issues through holding specialized training
courses, workshops and seminars
• Developing specific training and self-learning programs on seismic risk reduction
targeted at specific sectors (developmentplanners, local government officials, etc.)

Source: S.M.R. Emami, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: Asian Seismic Risk Reduction Center

Ch
Enhance Technical, Research and Human Capacity

• Mobilization of adequate resources for seismic risk reduction


• Promotion of seismic risk assessment
• Developing seismic early warning systems
• Supporting integration seismic risk reduction into sustainable
development programmes
• Support researches on seismic risk reduction
• Transfer of know-how, technology and expertise to enhance
capacity building for earthquake risk reduction
• Support enforcing more effectively the urban building codes
designed to make buildings more earthquake resistant and
extending control to the smaller towns and the country side
• Supporting and developing earthquake zonation and micro-
zonation
• Supporting new building retrofitting approaches
• Identifying various capacities on seismic risk reduction in the region

Source: S.M.R. Emami, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: Asian Seismic Risk Reduction Center

Ch
Promote Regional Cooperation

• Establish a network of seismic related


institutions and organizations in the region
• Establish a network of relevant national
responsible bodies in the countries of the region
• Defining new ways and means for promotion of
regional collaboration on SRR
• Developing guidelines for retrofitting historical
buildings
• Developing the capacity for building material
quality

Source: S.M.R. Emami, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: Asian Seismic Risk Reduction Center

Ch
Promote and Support Implementation of HFA

• Support establishing or strengthening National Platforms


on disaster risk reduction
• Exploring the possibility forserving as a regional platform
on SRR, DRR and DRM
• Support countries of the region in developing national
strategies on seismic risk reduction

Source: S.M.R. Emami, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: India Space Programme

Ch

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: India Space Programme

Ch
Systems for watch on weather and climate

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: India Space Programme

Ch
Satellite (INSAT) based Emergency Community Systems

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: India Space Programme

Ch

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: India Space Programme

Ch

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: India Space Programme

Ch
DMS: Operational Services provided currently
Floods Earthquake
• Flood Inundation Maps • Damage Assessment
• Damage Assessment
• Hazard Zonation
• Bank Erosion Studies

Cyclone Landslide
• Inundation Maps • Damage Assessment
• Recession Maps • Hazard zonation
• Damage Assessment

Drought Forest Fire


• Monthly Agril Drought • Active Fire Detection
Report • Damage Assessment
• End-of-the-Season Agril.
Drought Report

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
SPACE TOOLS Case Study: India Space Programme

Ch
Other activities
Communications Remote Sensing & GIS

• Education, Awareness • Agriculture


• Healthcare, Hygiene • Water Resources - Surface water
• Training, Skill development & groundwater
• Information dissemination • Potential Fishing Zone
• Strengthening Panchayat Raj • Watershed development
• Rural Empowerment • Wasteland mapping &
monitoring
• Drought assessment, monitoring
& proofing
• Flood & cyclone monitoring
• Fuel wood & fodder assessment
• Land Information Systems
• Rural Roads connectivity

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
Part 8: Safe Hospitals

Contents
• World Campaign on Safe Hospitals
• Case study: Western Pacific Region Safe Hospitals
Campaign
• Case study: Philippines Safe Hospital Campaign
• Case study: Nepal Safe Hospitals Campaign
• Case Study: Bicol Regional Training and Teaching
Hospital (BRTTH)
SAFE HOSPITALS World Campaign on Safe Hospitals

Ch
The Regional (Asian) Context

• Asia region highly vulnerable to disasters


• Regional health facilities have sustained considerable damage in the
wake of these events. Although, progress has been achieved in
several countries, much remains to be done

•The location, design specifications and resilience of the material used, all contribute to
Buildings a hospital’s ability to withstand natural hazards

Patients •Damage to hospitals multiplies patient vulnerability and increase in numbers

Hospital beds •Increase in demands for emergency care

•The loss or unavailability at the time of disaster, hiring outside personnel to sustain
Health workforce response capacity – add to the overall economic burden

Equipments •Damage to non-structural elements can cost 80 percent of the total costs

•Electrical power, water and sanitation, waste management and disposal – can affect
Basic lifelines and services the entire health facility

Source: Arun Mallik, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on
Hospitals Safe from Disasters ”
SAFE HOSPITALS World Campaign on Safe Hospitals

Ch
Social/political issues Health issues Economic issues

• Safe hospitals have • Disasters create an • Hospitals represent an


symbolic social value; intensive demand for enormous investment for
losing a health facility leads health services. In addition any country
to a sense of insecurity and to treating disaster • Destruction or loss of
social/political instability victims, hospitals must functionality poses a major
• Health facilities are quickly resume treatment economic burden
occupied around-the-clock of everyday emergencies • Direct economic losses
with the most vulnerable and routine care involve more than the
population • The hospital network are structure: the value of non-
• Disaster-resilient hospital integral components of a structural elements can be
must be able to protect the nation’s public health higher than the structure
lives of patients and staff system itself
and continue to function • The long-term impact of • US$350 million estimated
losing these services is amount for projects and
difficult to quantify and programmes to rebuild
therefore may be health facilities in Aceh
overlooked post tsunami
• US$57 million to rebuild
health facilities after the
Gujarat earthquake of 2001

Source: Arun Mallik, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on
Hospitals Safe from Disasters ”
SAFE HOSPITALS World Campaign on Safe Hospitals

Ch
Case: Gujarat, India

• January 26, 2001 a magnitude 7.7 earthquake destroyed 227 health facilities in Gujarat, India
• All health facilities were rebuilt to international standards to make this critical infrastructure disaster
resilient

Case: Nepal

• Vulnerability assessments for structural and non-structural aspects of hospitals in Kathmandu


• Specific methods were used to cover the architecture typical in Kathmandu

Regional Consultation

• Regional consultation on keep health facilities safe from disasters, held in New Delhi from 15-17 April 2008
• Increase awareness and understanding of the issues surrounding “hospitals safe from disasters”
• Identify opportunities to strengthen disaster risk reduction and preparedness in health facilities during and
beyond the two-year global awareness campaign launched by UN/ISDR and WHO
• Develop a national and regional framework plan of action, including mechanisms to capture progress

WHO-ECHO Project

• Regional roll out of ISDR campaign in:


• Cambodia
• Lao PDR
• Philippines
• Vietnam

Source: Arun Mallik, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on
Hospitals Safe from Disasters ”
SAFE HOSPITALS World Campaign on Safe Hospitals

Ch
Evidence based
assessments and
mapping

Advocacy and Appropriate tools


awareness activities and guidelines

Capacity for
Structural integrity
disaster
of health facilities
preparedness and
ensured
response enhanced

Source: Arun Mallik, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on
Hospitals Safe from Disasters ”
SAFE HOSPITALS Case study: Western Pacific Region Safe

Ch
Hospitals Campaign
Mission

• Through a concerted effort across WHO, to increase the capacity and self reliance of countries in the
prevention of disasters, preparation for emergencies, mitigation of their health consequences, and the
creation of a synergy between emergency action and sustainable development

Situation in Western Pacific

• Health systems frequently fail as a consequence of disasters from natural hazards


• Essential health services are disrupted due to loss of functionality of health facilities during disaster
• Lack of knowledge, skills, tools and plans of local health officials on disaster preparedness and emergency
management
• Weak guidelines for safe construction and designs
• Facilities are located in unsafe places
• Concept of health as a system of services dependent on functioning of infrastructure and logistics

Activities in Western Pacific Region

• Managing crisis situations


• Capacity building
• Development and dissemination of health knowledge
• Health emergency & humanitarian action projects
• Strengthening institutional capacity of WHO
• Strengthening collaboration with national and international partner agencies

Source: Art Pesigan, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on
Hospitals Safe from Disasters”
SAFE HOSPITALS Case study: Philippines Safe Hospital Campaign

Ch
Strategy for Safe Hospitals in the Philippines
Protocols, Pro
Policies Plans cedures, Guid People
elines

Physical
Promotion Program
Facilities Partnership
and Advocacy Development
Enhancement

Peso and
Practices
Logistics

Source: Carmencita A. Banatin, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign
on Hospitals Safe from Disasters”
SAFE HOSPITALS Case study: Philippines Safe Hospital Campaign

Ch
Policies Policies (organizational) Plans

• AO 168 – “National Policy • Institutionalized Health • Hospital Emergency


on Emergencies and Emergency Management Preparedness, Response,
Disasters” unit in all health facilities and Rehabilitation Plan, a
• AO 155 – “Implementing directly under the Head requirement in licensing
Guidelines for Managing of the Office of all hospitals whether
MCI during Emergencies • Designated HEMS government or private
and Disasters” coordinators, assistant • Developed “Easy Guide
• AO 182 – “Code Alert coordinators and for HEPRRP
System for DOH Hospitals response teams Development”
during Emergencies and • Organizational shift • Updated plans for the 72
Disasters” during emergencies DOH hospitals and 17
• Department Circular FAO • Hospital Emergency regions
– 64-A – “Health Incident Command • Presently assisting all
Emergency Alert System System other private and LGU
Reporting” hospitals to
develop/update their
own plans

Source: Carmencita A. Banatin, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign
on Hospitals Safe from Disasters”
SAFE HOSPITALS Case study: Philippines Safe Hospital Campaign

Ch

Protocols, guidelines, procedures People Physical facilities enhancement

• Manual of Operation for Hospitals(2nd edition) includes: • Training needs assessment with the health sector (2003) – • Operation center
dispatching, alerting, reporting, communication, MCI, etc. targeted 6 groups • Equipped ambulances for emergencies
• Pocket Emergency Tool (2 edition) with WHO
nd • Training agenda to include management and skills • Special hospital service units/facilities; identification of receiving
• Manual of Treatment Protocols for common diseases during • Training modules developed facilities for WMD
emergencies and disasters • Decontamination areas for the BCRN hospitals
• Guidelines on an Integrated Code Alert System • Toxicology centers in the country
• Adaptation on the IASC Guidelines on Mental Health • Hospital assessment
Psychosocial Services (MHPSS)

Source: Carmencita A. Banatin, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign
on Hospitals Safe from Disasters”
SAFE HOSPITALS Case study: Philippines Safe Hospital Campaign

Ch
Safe Hospitals Program Partnership building Practices Peso and logistics

• Launching of the program • Organization of the • 10 P’s as evaluation tools • Actively involved in
last August 2008 health sector -2001 for all hospitals advocacy creating
• Technical working group • Establishment of the • Postmortem evaluation demand for such services
(TWG) for health cluster – 2006 of major events and • Increasing awareness and
structural, non-structural • Establishment of hospital disasters role of policy makers in
and functional network to include • Clustering approach in DRR
• Manual (with WHO) for referral systems disaster management • Providing inputs to
use of hospital • TWG composition from • Research and evidence policies and planning
administrators members of the health based management especially in government
• Nationwide drill of all sector • MCM Survey 2005 with budget preparations
DOH hospitals last July • Establishment of WHO • Co-sharing with
2008 nutritional and WASH • Developed MCM module LGU/Health Sector in
• Assessment tool for clusters based on the study training, drills, and other
hospitals for their • Increasing partnership HEMS activities
• WHO Project 2006 –
preparedness to with the academe in evaluation of damaged • Established good
emergencies and terms of training and health facilities and networking and
disasters development of modules inputs into the collaboration with
• Nationwide research for development of policy on partners
all tertiary hospitals using the design and • “Opportunities in times
the tool construction of health of adversities”
• Advocacy to academe for facilities in Typhoon- • Effective external fund
development and prone areas sourcing to augment
inclusion to their meager budget in the
curriculum past

Source: Carmencita A. Banatin, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign
on Hospitals Safe from Disasters”
SAFE HOSPITALS Case study: Nepal Safe Hospitals Campaign

Ch
Overview

• 80 percent of hospitals have life safety threat to occupants (patients and


medico) and in the case of disasters, will be completely non-functional
• 20 percent will be partially functional

Source: Amod Mani Dixit, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on
Hospitals Safe from Disasters”
SAFE HOSPITALS Case study: Nepal Safe Hospitals Campaign

Ch
Structural assessment is that retrofitting is necessary

• Most hospitals
• Feasible
• Easy
• Cost effective
• Some hospitals
• Possible
• Complex
• Non-Structural assessment: lifelines
• Most rely on city lifeline system
• Some alternatives exist in each hospital mitigation
• Moderate earthquake – low cost and easy
• Severe earthquake – high cost and difficult

Source: Amod Mani Dixit, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on
Hospitals Safe from Disasters”
SAFE HOSPITALS Case study: Nepal Safe Hospitals Campaign

Ch
Outcome of possible intervention

Source: Amod Mani Dixit, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on
Hospitals Safe from Disasters”
SAFE HOSPITALS Case study: Nepal Safe Hospitals Campaign

Ch
Earthquake Hospital DRR activities of NSET
Community Free Clinic Capacity building

• WDMC 17 • Multi-hazard HOPE


Implementing COURSE
• GON/DUDBC Financial • HOPE training for
Supporting (Partial) instructors
• NSET: Technical • 4-5 days
support • OFDA-PEER
standard
• Monitored
• 5 days

Source: Amod Mani Dixit, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on
Hospitals Safe from Disasters”
SAFE HOSPITALS Case study: Nepal Safe Hospitals Campaign

Ch
Need to work even in condition of “no policy”

Policy Program Implementation

Alternative approach

Activity Plan Policy

Nepal • Retrofit our hospital buildings


• Increase non-structural safety

Campaign • Insure safety of critical facilities


• Increase capacity

Source: Amod Mani Dixit, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on
Hospitals Safe from Disasters”
SAFE HOSPITALS Case study: Nepal Safe Hospitals Campaign

Ch
What is required next in Nepal
Political Risk Identification & Education and Knowledge
Feasibility/Commitment Monitoring Management
• Legal Framework-New • Financial and Technical • Flood management
Paradigm of Thinking Resources • Accessibility to
• Institutional • Political Support Training
Mechanisms should • Resistance from • Lessons Internalized and
be at Highest Level Administrator Practiced
• Credibility-public • Workers about • Two influence policy
Interest Liability • Sharing of best
• Risk Communication • Risk Communication Practices
Specific to Policy Making Strategy • Piloting –Testing-
• Advocacy/synthesis • Information to Refining-Dissemination
• Leadership Communities
• Indication of Priorities
• Workable Time Line
/Indicators

Source: Amod Mani Dixit, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on
Hospitals Safe from Disasters”
SAFE HOSPITALS Case study: Nepal Safe Hospitals Campaign

Ch
What is required next in Nepal
Preparedness for Effective
Reducing Risk Factors
Response
• Policies to Fix Existing • Pre event Planning (Facility)
Buildings: • Emergency Operating
• Structural, Non-structural & Procedures/Information
functional deficiencies Management
• Hospital System, Customize to the
Preparedness/Evacuation Plans type of Disaster
• Reducing Underlying Exposure • Provincial- Local- national
of Population to Hazards (Flood • Community Reach-out and
plain Construction, standards Involvement
etc.) • Logistical and Resource
• Absorbing Liability Planning

Source: Amod Mani Dixit, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on
Hospitals Safe from Disasters”
SAFE HOSPITALS Case Study: Bicol Regional Training and

Ch
Teaching Hospital (BRTTH)

Overview

• The Bicol Regional Training and Teaching


Hospital is in Albay, Philippines
• Average of 22 typhoons in a year in the
country; 3-5 pass through the Province of
Albay
• Typhoon Reming hit on November 30, 2006
• Extraordinary disaster response
• Hospital rebuilt after disaster

Source: Rogelio G. Rivera, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on
Hospitals Safe from Disasters ”
SAFE HOSPITALS Case Study: Bicol Regional Training and

Ch
Teaching Hospital (BRTTH)

Typhoon
Reming

Destruction of all facilities and


equipment In spite of
• Cut off lifelines: electricity, water this, hospital
system, communication systems
• Hospital personnel direct victims services
• Replenishment of hospital remained
supplies were difficult due to
inaccessibility and closed
functional
establishments

Source: Rogelio G. Rivera, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on
Hospitals Safe from Disasters ”
SAFE HOSPITALS Case Study: Bicol Regional Training and

Ch
Teaching Hospital (BRTTH)
Stages of hospital response activities

Post-Impact Phase
• Rapid assessment of
damages
• Assessment of In-Patient
Impact phase Conditions
• Restoration of lifelines
• Code Red • Clearing and Restoration of
• HEMS, doctors, nurses and Communication System
staff on duty were called for • Networking and
an emergency meeting coordination
• HEICS – Hospital Emergency • Gov and NGO assistance
Incident Command System
• Logistics management
was activated
Pre-impact phase • Identification of problems i.e.
• Nov. 29, 2006 Code White was electrical power
declared water, supplies, manpower
• HEMS - Health Emergency and transport
Management Staff was • Contingency measures
mobilized
• Unit heads were advised to
secure their respective areas
Source: Rogelio G. Rivera, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on
Hospitals Safe from Disasters ”
SAFE HOSPITALS Case Study: Bicol Regional Training and

Ch
Teaching Hospital (BRTTH)
What made the difference in the disaster response?

Dedicated and Organizational


Trained personnel
committed staff structure in place

Implementation of
Office procedures emergency
Organizational shift
shortened procurement
system

Established
hospital
emergency
preparedness

Source: Rogelio G. Rivera, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on
Hospitals Safe from Disasters ”
Part 9: Disaster Risk Reduction
and Education

Contents
• Overview
• The Education Model
• Building community capacity through education
• Structure of DRR Educational Interventions
• Case Study: School Earthquake Safety in Nepal
• Conclusions and Recommendations
Overview: Schools as centers for
DRR Education

Ch
implementing change

Source: Manu Gupta., Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction; Involvement & Empowerment of
Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”
DRR Education The Education Model

Ch
School DRR programs make Safeguard Students, Teachers
community safer • Reduced conflicts with authorities in
• DRR Knowledge permeates into Post-Disaster situation
Households and ultimately to the
community

Importance of
School DRR
Programs

Centre for Continuity of DRR Provide Training


• Continuous Disaster preparedness – opportunities:
Evacuation Drills, Culture of Safety • Masons, builders, contractors, hous
ewives

Source: Amod Dixit, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR: promoting
resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”
DRR Education The Education Model

Ch To Teach To Learn
and and
Empower Experience

To Practice
and
Reflect

Source: Manu Gupta , 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR:
promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”
DRR Education Building community capacity through education

Ch
Education and public
awareness is not a ‘dip-
stick’ exercise but
consciously built into
the DRR process

Source: Manu Gupta , 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~
promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”
DRR Education Structure of DRR Educational

Ch
Interventions

Source: Manu Gupta , 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~
promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”
DRR Education Global Open Forum for Risk Education

Ch

Source: Manu Gupta , 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~
promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”
Disaster Preparedness Education for Children
DRR Education

Ch
with Disabilities

Estimated 433,333,333 10.6% of the population


650,000,000 disabled
people in Asia and Pacific in Asia and Pacific is
people
are disabled (2/3 of total) disabled

Biwako Millennium Framework (BMF) Plus Five 2003 –2012

• Biwako Millennium Framework for Action Towards an inclusive, barrier-free


and rights-based society for persons with disabilities in Asia and the Pacific
• “Disability-inclusive disaster management should be promoted. Disability
perspectives should be duly included in the implementation of policies and
initiatives in this area, including the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015, an
international framework for promoting the commitment of Governments to
disaster management. Universal design concept should be integrated into
infrastructure development in disaster-preparedness and post-disaster
reconstruction activities”

Source: Sae Kani, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting
resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”
Disaster Preparedness Education for Children
DRR Education

Ch
with Disabilities

Bangkok Action Agenda (October 2007)

• Design formal and informal educational strategies and materials


specifically for children with various disabilities, with their
participation, and in accordance with their needs
• Reach out to children who are not in schools, including children
with disabilities
• Update the minimum standards for the construction and
operation of school buildings to incorporate disaster
mitigation, allow for flexibility to suit local condition and ensure
that new school construction and disaster management
planning includes the application of “accessibility standards” for
students and staff with disabilities
• Special outreach efforts should be made to reach children with
disabilities, their teachers and parents, both in mainstreamed
school settings and special schools.

Source: Sae Kani, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting
resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”
Disaster Preparedness Education for Children
DRR Education

Ch
with Disabilities
1.Generally low skills of teachers for 2. Lack of appropriate simple DRR
teaching CWDs education materials for CWDs
• Continuous capacity building of teachers for • Special teaching materials needed for each
CWDs is needed disability such as Visual materials for deaf
• Acknowledgement and better social status and audio and Braille based materials for
of teachers for CWDs blind
• Teachers’ guide for how to teach DRR for
more complex disabilities is needed

Challenges for
sustainability of DRR
education for CWDs

3.Low awareness and understanding on 4. Low awareness and lack of active


disability issues among community initiatives of national and local government
members on disability issues
• Increased awareness and acceptance of • Better information flow between different government
departments regarding assistance available for CWDs
families with CWDs in the community and their families
• Increased capacity of community in DRR in • Budget allocation for improving physical accessibility to
order to assist families of CWDs school buildings and for safe evacuation

Source: Sae Kani, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting
resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”
DRR Education Case Study: School Earthquake Safety in Nepal

Ch
Overview

• Most schools in Nepal are


especially public schools are
vulnerable to disasters
• There is an urgent need to address Schools in Kathmandu Valley
safety of schools, including
disaster curricula for
children, teachers, parents
• There are methods and means to
make schools in Nepal safer
against hazards
• These methods are
technically, socially, economically
and politically feasible and
affordable
• Strategic intervention by
Government is necessary

Source: Amod Dixit, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting
resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”
DRR Education Case Study: School Earthquake Safety in Nepal

Ch
Nepal Draft National Strategy

• Focused on the development of a national program to


reduce vulnerability of school buildings to natural
hazards
• Planned survey of all existing school to create a
vulnerability profile
• Institutionalization of disaster preparedness and drills
• Plan for training all teachers, management
committee, and parents
• Development of draft curricula for secondary level
• Development of school maintenance plans

Source: Amod Dixit, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting
resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”
DRR Education Case Study: School Earthquake Safety in Nepal

Ch
Components of NSET School Challenges
Earthquake Safety Programs
Hazard vulnerability assessment of school buildings
Need to cover about
35,000 public schools and
Repair/Retrofit to national building code level and higher about 15,000 private
schools
Earthquake preparedness plan and conducting drills
• Provide earthquake awareness programs to students, teachers and parents
• Disaster safety clubs: new or existing Institutionalization in the
existing education system
Earthquake awareness programs in the hinterland communities •Implement National Strategy for
Disaster Risk Management
• Shake table demonstration •Develop National Strategy for
School DRR
• Awareness materials - explanation
• Students to conduct awareness programs in communities

Mason training on earthquake resistant construction technology

Student/teachers exchange, meetings, and summits

Source: Amod Dixit, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting
resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”
DRR Education Case Study: School Earthquake Safety in Nepal

Ch
Building Technology

Source: Amod Dixit, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting
resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”
DRR Education Case Study: School Earthquake Safety in Nepal

Ch
Building Technology

Source: Amod Dixit, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting
resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”
DRR Education Conclusions and Recommendations

Ch
Conclusions and Recommendations
• The Hyogo Framework of Action and Disaster Risk Reduction FA/DRR
cannot be achieved without safer schools
• Methods of comprehensive disaster education and school safety has
been shown to be feasible
• Development and implementation (with budget allocation) of formal
and non-formal education and awareness programs should be
mandatory in annual plans of governments in the education sector
• There should be a fixed percentage allocation of budget outlay in
education sector for retrofitting of vulnerable schools and
preparedness plans and drills
• Create special task forces on knowledge and public awareness within
national platforms/NDMOs
• Education Sector needs to be more inclusive addressing disaster
prevention education on priority

Source: Manu Gupta , 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~
promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”
Part 10: Indigenous
Knowledge and DRR

Contents
• Overview
• Transferring Indigenous Knowledge
• Case study: Kyoto University Activities
• Case Study: Major Initiatives in Transferring
Indigenous Knowledge
INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE Overview: Indigenous Knowledge

Ch
Context

• Increasing trend of disasters


• Evolution of DRR field versus indigenous knowledge existence
• Compelling evidence
• Technology and IK – cultural invasion
• Mandated by Hyogo Framework for Action
• Cost effectiveness

Entry Points Thematic focus Tools

• Climate change and • Mountain • Education


food security • Coast • Advocacy
• Rural development • River • Institutionalization
• Gender • Water strategies
• Urban risk reduction • Housing • Research, documenta
tion, implementation

Source: Author unknown, 2 December 08, Side Session on “Indigenous Knowledge and Disaster Risk Reduction”
INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE Indigenous Knowledge

Ch
Definition

• Definition: Indigenous knowledge is the knowledge that people


in a given community have developed over time, and continue
to develop. It is based on experience, often tested over
centuries of use, adapted to local culture and
environment, dynamic and changing

Needs

• Raise awareness about the importance of indigenous


knowledge for disaster risk reduction
• Analyze the value and transferability of indigenous knowledge
for reducing vulnerability
• Develop ways to further integrate indigenous knowledge into
disaster-related policy and practice

Source: Author unknown, 2 December 08, Side Session on “Indigenous Knowledge and Disaster Risk Reduction”
INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE Transferring Indigenous Knowledge

Ch
Overview

• Transferable indigenous knowledge is the traditional art of disaster


reduction that is indigenous to specific region (s) but having potential
to be applied to other regions and having time-tested reliability

Criteria for transferring indigenous knowledge

• Originated within communities, based on local needs, and specific to


culture and context (environment and economy)
• Provides core knowledge with flexibility for local adaptation for
implementation
• Uses local knowledge and skills, and materials based on local ecology
• Has been proven to be time tested and useful in disasters
• Is applied or applicable in other communities or generations

Source: Rajib Shaw, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting
resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”
INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE Transferring Indigenous Knowledge

Ch

Source: Rajib Shaw, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting
resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”
INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE Transferring Indigenous Knowledge

Ch
Implementation issues in transferring knowledge

How to transfer What to transfer Whom to transfer Who to transfer

• Documentation • Principles and • Vulnerable • Community leaders


• On-site visit Methodology communities, policy • External facilitators
• DRH database makers
• Workshops
• Internal, external
facilitation
• Link to modern
technology

Source: Rajib Shaw, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting
resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”
INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE Transferring Indigenous Knowledge

Ch
Transfer of knowledge classification
Three phases of
Five thematic areas Two types of TIK
Disaster Cycle
• Mountain • Based on • Pre-disaster
Ecosystem technology • During disaster
• Coastal Zone • Based on belief • Post-disaster
Management systems
• Integrated Water
Resource
Management
• Arid land
management
• River basin
management
• Housing and Shelter

Source: Rajib Shaw, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting
resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”
INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE Transferring Indigenous Knowledge

Ch
Transferring indigenous knowledge in education

• Cross-discipline collaboration
• Civil society: Document and analyze
• Education and Research Community: Validation and analyze
• Policy maker: Policy decision
• Regional and International organization: Policy advocacy
• Steps (not necessarily in this order)
• Education: link to curriculum
• Policy: regional, national and local advocacy and decision
• Pilot: Implementation and validation

Source: Rajib Shaw, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting
resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”
INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE Transferring Indigenous Knowledge

Ch
•Priority Thematic areas

Critical •Climate change and food security


•Rural development
•Urban Risk reduction

Entry Points
•Gender and inclusion

•Research, documentation
•Education

Policy Tools
•Advocacy
•Institutional Framework

•Establishment of a resource group

Action •Documentation and research


•Education
•Policy advocacy

Agenda
•Enabling environment
•Change agents
•Special focus areas

Source: Rajib Shaw, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting
resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”
INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE Case study: Kyoto University Activities

Ch
2006 2007 2008

• Development of • Criteria • Development of


the concept of TIK development of TIK TIK databases
• Field Survey in (July 2007) (April to December
Japan (January • Seven Templates of 2008)
2007) TIK (March to • Good practice
• Idea -Workshop in December 2007) document (Oct 07
Delhi (February • Action Workshop in to July 08)
2007) Delhi (February • Policy Workshop in
2008) Kyoto (July‘08)
• Side event in KL
(December 08)
• Policy Document of
IK and DRR (Feb 09)

Source: Rajib Shaw, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting
resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”
Case Study: Major Initiatives in Transferring
INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE

Ch
Indigenous Knowledge

Recommendations and Policy


International Workshop on Indigenous document (from International
Good practices publication
Knowledge and Disaster Risk Reduction Workshop on Indigenous Knowledge
and Disaster Risk Reduction
• “Indigenous Knowledge for Disaster • Kyoto, Japan (July, 2008) • Recommendations
Risk Reduction: Good Practices and • Objectives • Create a database of IK practices
Lessons Learned from experiences in • To discuss the transferability issues • Distribute responsibilities according
the Asia-Pacific Region” of indigenous knowledge in Disaster to institutions, identifying what role
• Provide a forum for knowledge Risk Reduction –what to and task each
sharing transfer, who transfers, whom to contributor/participant can
• Build awareness for indigenous transfer to and how to transfer complete
knowledge as an effective tool for • To discuss the policy implications of • Establish general guiding principles
reducing risk IK –to link practice and policy and to help guide policy
• Share concrete successful experiences enhance the use of IK in decision • Analyze and assess examples of
and strategies making IK, both positive and negative; Both
• Inspire all practitioners and policy • To identify future directions in failures and good practices can
makers to consider knowledge and research and implementation provide lessons
invest in gathering cases • Ownership of IK is with the
• Trigger further analysis for policy community, so validation should be
making and curriculum development done by communities (CBDM
process)
• Engage with policy makers, from the
beginning and at different levels in
order to identify issues
• Specific focus areas can help guide
discussion, advocacy and policy

Source: J. Baumwoll, 2 December 08, Side Session on “Indigenous Knowledge and Disaster Risk Reduction”
Part 11: Hyogo Framework of
Action (HFA)

Contents
• Overview
• HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9
• Role of Stakeholders
• Case Study: AADMER and HFA Implementation in
ASEAN
• Case Study: SAARC and HFA Implementation in
South Asia
• Case Study: India and HFA Progress
• Case Study: Red Cross/Red Crescent and HFA
Implementation
Implementing HFA Hyogo Framework of Action: Overview

Ch
Priorities of Action

Source: Manu Gupta , 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~
promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”
Implementing HFA HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9

Ch
Dimensions of reporting
National Reporting

• Coordinated by National HFA Focal points through national consultations


• Findings recorded on “HFA Monitor” developed by UNISDR

Regional Reporting

• Sub-regional progress reports coordinated by regional inter-governmental institutions


(ASEAN, SAARC, SOPAC)
• Regional synthesis report on progressing HFA implementation (UNISDR)

Thematic Reporting

• Reporting on sectors or cross-cutting issues relevant for the region

Global Reporting

• Regional inputs to the ISDR Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction (GAR) for
the 2009 Global Platform on DRR

Source: UNISDR, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo
Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”
Implementing HFA HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9

Ch
Roll Out of 2007/9 HFA Review Process
Reporting period: July 2007-June 2009

In Asia & Pacific

• Formulation of Regional HFA Progress Review Framework to guide


regional and national level roll-out in Asia & Pacific
• Introductory sessions at various regional meetings:
• ISDR Asia Partnership Meetings, February and September 2008
• Meeting of the Pacific Disaster Risk Management Partnership Network
March 2008, Suva (jointly with SOPAC)
• Orientation Workshop on Biennial HFA Progress Review, April
2008, Bangkok (jointly with UNDP)
• Regional Consultative Committee Meeting, May 2008, Colombo (jointly
with ADPC)
• Regional pilot testing of HFA Monitor in May 2008
• Technical assistance arrangements with UNDP and ADPC to assist
selected countries with HFA reporting
Source: UNISDR, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo
Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”
Implementing HFA HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9

Ch
Roll Out of 2007/9 HFA Review Process
Reporting period: July 2007-June 2009
National level

• Complete (13):Australia, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Iran, South


Korea, Lao PDR, Marshall Islands, Nepal, New Zealand, Philippines, Sri
Lanka, Vanuatu
• Ongoing (7):Bhutan, India, Maldives, Samoa, Singapore, Pakistan, Cambodia

Regional Level

• Sub-regional Reports (2):draft reports by ASEAN, SAARC, SOPAC


• Regional Synthesis Report (1):interim draft report prepared by UNISDR

Thematic Reports

• Report on Urban Disaster Reduction in Asia (Regional Task Force on Urban DRR)
• Report on Space Technology Applications in Asia (UNESCP and ADRC)

Source: UNISDR, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo
Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”
Implementing HFA HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9

Ch
Lessons Learned: Positive Impact of HFA Reporting
• Reached out to new stakeholders, usually not part of official DRR
functions
• More commitment towards shared responsibilities to achieve DRR
objectives
• Humanitarian sector more aware of relationship of DRR and
development/MDG (Bangladesh)
• Learning and capacity building, especially of newly appointed HFA
focal organizations
• Opportunities to review long-term national DRR visions and priorities
in relation to HFA (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Philippines)
• Enhanced capacity of NDMOs to initiate strategic analysis of DRR
(Nepal, Sri Lanka)
• HFA reporting more widely accepted as important political obligation
and plans to institutionalize the process in some countries

Based on findings from the joint UNISDR and UNDP initiative to support national HFA reporting capacities in
selected countries: Indonesia, Maldives, Sri Lanka, India, Philippines, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Lao PDR

Source: UNISDR, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo
Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”
Implementing HFA HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9

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Lessons Learned: Challenges

• Comprehensiveness of reports is determined by the level of participation


of sectors and stakeholders
• Individuals tasked to coordinate progress review did not have adequate
training in DRR monitoring and evaluation
• Limited networking and facilitation skills weakened the consultation
processes
• Tight reporting schedules and deadlines put additional pressures
• Commitment of HFA Focal Point influenced effectiveness of reporting
• Assessment of progress often subjective with little objective evidence
provided
• HFA reporting framework lacks a section on profiling risks and baseline
information
• Some repetition and overlap in reports due to nature of the five HFA
priorities
• Difficulty of non-native speakers to fully grasp meaning of progress
indicators and drivers
Source: UNISDR, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo
Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”
Implementing HFA HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9

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Recommendations for Immediate Follow-up Action

• Review of HFA reporting guidelines and ‘HFA Monitor’ by those


involved in the current reporting cycle
• Analysis of trends and patters of reporting, including strengths and
weaknesses
• Identify strategy to close eventual information gaps of national
reports
• UNISDR and UNDP to continue their collaboration to:
• Carry out a training needs assessment of focal organizations/
individuals designated with HFA reporting functions
• Devise a strategy to build M&E capacities (as part of UNDP
systematic DRR capacity assessment process)
• Consider developing and roll-out of a training module on HFA/DRR
monitoring & reporting
• Clarify supportive role and operational responsibilities of regional and
sub-regional organizations and institutions in the reporting process

Source: UNISDR, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo
Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”
Implementing HFA HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9

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Regional Progress Overview

1. Regional Frameworks - based on 2. Regional Mechanisms - aim to


HFA priorities and principles accelerate HFA implementation
• ASEAN Agreement on Disaster • SAARC Centre (2006)
Management and Emergency • Regional Platforms on DRR/DRM:
Response Asia (2007), Pacific (2008)
• ASEAN Regional Programme on • UNESCAP Regional Disaster
Disaster Management Management Committee (2008)
• Pacific Regional DRM Framework
for Action 2005 –2015 (SOPAC)
• SAARC Comprehensive Regional
Framework for Action 2006-2015
• APEC Strategy for DRR and
Emergency Response & Prep.
2009-2015

Source: UNISDR, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo
Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”
Implementing HFA HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9

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Regional Progress Overview

3. Regional Meetings - More high 4. Regional Partnerships and


level participation, alignment and Networks - better organized
synergies exchange, linking more partners
• Asian Ministerial Conferences on • World Bank Global Facility for
DRR (China ‘05, India ’07, Malaysia Disaster Reduction & Recovery
’08) (2006)
• Pacific Regional Disaster • ISDR Asia Partnership (2003;
Management Meetings (since 14 UNISDR)
years) • Pacific Disaster Risk Management
• ACDR (Seoul 2006, Kazakhstan Partnership Network (2006; SOPAC)
2007)
• RCC (Hanoi
2005, Kunming2006, Bangkok
2007, Colombo 2008)
• South Asia Policy Dialogues
(2006, 2007)

Source: UNISDR, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo
Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”
Implementing HFA HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9

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Progress at a Glace
New Revision of Legislation Bangladesh, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Sri
Lanka
New Institutional Frameworks and Systems India (NDMA), Maldives (NDMC), Pakistan
(NDMA), Sri Lanka (NDMC), Thailand (NDWC)
New National Platforms/Coordination Indonesia, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka
Mechanisms
National DRR Strategies and Frameworks Bangladesh, Bhutan, Fiji, India, Indonesia,
Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Vietnam
Strategic National Action Plans Cambodia, China, Cook Islands, Indonesia,
Philippines, PNG, Republic of Marshall Islands,
Samoa, Thailand, and Vanuatu
Dedicated Resources for DRR India, Indonesia, Mongolia, Nepal

Source: UNISDR, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo
Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”
Implementing HFA HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9

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HFA Strategic Goal 1
The integration of disaster risk reduction into sustainable development policies and
planning
• Range of initiatives to design and enact new DRR policies, plans and legislations has
been impressive

But:
• Policies and plans not based upon comprehensive multi-hazard risk and capacity
assessment

• No adequate budgets available and implementation is dependent upon selective


external support

• Weak buy-in from stakeholders in line ministries which jeopardizes mainstreaming


objectives

• Participation of a wide cross-section of stakeholders in policy and planning development


remains weak

Source: UNISDR, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo
Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”
Implementing HFA HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9

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HFA Strategic Goal 2
The development and strengthening of institutions, mechanisms and capacities to build
resilience to hazards
• Most progress has focused on strengthening national level capacities of disaster
management/disaster reduction authorities

Therefore:
• More needs to be done to build capacity of local government and community level
actors, as well as of key development sectors

• Multi-stakeholder platforms are also required at the sub-national and local levels

• Public awareness campaigns and school education programs need to devise long-term
and coordinated strategies

• Curricula and DRR trainings require more targeted, hazard and sector specific inputs

• Role of women remains largely ignored and their capacities remain under-utilized

Source: UNISDR, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo
Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”
Implementing HFA HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9

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HFA Strategic Goal 3
•The systematic incorporation of risk reduction approaches into emergency preparedness,
response and recovery programs
• The linkage between hazard monitoring, risk assessment, and disaster preparedness,
including early warning and response, remains insufficient

Therefore:
• Greater emphasis needs to be placed on local risks, capacities and knowledge that
influence community decisions to act

• Alternative financial instruments to relieve from the burden of response and recovery
are needed, e.g. micro-finance, micro-insurance and reinsurance

• Contingency plans need to consistently cover disaster recovery to ensure risk reduction
is note ignored in the aftermath of disasters

Source: UNISDR, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo
Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”
Implementing HFA Role of Stakeholders

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Overview Innovative Partnership
• The Need for Policy Research between stakeholders
on Integrating DRR into • Policy and Decision-makers
Development Planning Policy • Scientists
Framework to Implement
Hyogo Framework for Action • Local Communities
(HFA) Priorities • Private Sectors

Policy and Decision-makers Scientists


• Provide institutional and legislative • R&D to Address Knowledge Gap
frameworks • Promote Informed Decision-Making
• Allocate adequate resources • Provide Expertise and Advisory
• Effective implementation in an Services
integrated manner • Education and Training
• Facilitate capacity building

Local communities Private sectors


• Be aware and informed • Mobilize resources
• Be responsive and proactive • Promote risk financing
• Implement community based DRR • Implement projects with DRR in mind
• Build culture of resilience • Corporate social responsibility

Source: Ibrahim Komoo, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and
Local Levels ”
Implementing HFA Role of Stakeholders

Ch

Source: Ibrahim Komoo, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and
Local Levels ”
Implementing HFA Role of Stakeholders

Ch

Source: Ibrahim Komoo, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and
Local Levels ”
Implementing HFA Interaction between Stakeholders

Ch

Source: Ibrahim Komoo, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and
Local Levels ”
Implementing HFA Case Study: AADMER and HFA

Ch
Implementation in ASEAN
Disaster Management in
ASEAN

• Disaster management is one


of the founding principles of
ASEAN dating back 40 years

• Momentum created and


sustained since 2003

• Major disasters provided


critical momentum

• Disasters remain a major


challenge to achieve a disaster-
resilient community by 2015

Source: Adelina Kamal , 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo
Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”
Implementing HFA Case Study: AADMER and HFA

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Implementation in ASEAN
ASEAN Committee on Disaster Management (ACDM)

ASEAN Regional Programme on Disaster


Objective Institutional Framework
Management (ARPDM)
•“To enhance regional cooperation in all •ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Disaster •Launched in Bali, Indonesia, in May
aspects of disaster management including Management (AMMDM) 2004, ARPDM outlines five regional priorities:
prevention, mitigation, preparedness, respons •ASEAN Standing Committee (ASC) •Establishment of ASEAN Regional Disaster
e and recovery through mutual assistance •ASEAN Committee on Disaster Management Management Framework
activities in order to minimize the adverse (ACDM) •Capacity Building
consequences of disasters on the economic an
•ASEAN Secretariat •Sharing of Information and Resources
social development of Member Countries”
•Promoting Collaboration and Strengthening
Partnerships
•Public Education, Awareness and Advocacy
Programme

Source: Adelina Kamal , 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo
Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”
Implementing HFA Case Study: AADMER and HFA

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Implementation in ASEAN
ASEAN Committee on Disaster Management (ACDM)

ASEAN Agreement on Disaster


Legal framework Management and Emergency
Response (AADMER)
• ASEAN Agreement on Disaster • Objective :To provide effective
Management and Emergency mechanisms to achieve substantial
Response (AADMER) reduction of disaster losses in lives
• Initiated in mid 2004, mandate given and in the social, economic and
3 weeks before tsunami, draft environmental assets of the
negotiated in 2005 within four Parties, and to jointly respond to
months disaster emergencies through
• Signed by Foreign Ministers of ASEAN concerted national efforts and
on 26 July 2005 in Vientiane, Lao intensified regional and international
PDR. Ratification underway cooperation (Article 2)
• Embodies ASEAN’s commitment to
effective disaster risk reduction

Source: Adelina Kamal , 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo
Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”
Implementing HFA Case Study: AADMER and HFA

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Implementation in ASEAN
Programs
ARPDM • A reference point, adaptation throughout
implementation, expire in 2010

ACDM • A regional mechanism with a mandate to pursue regional


cooperation on disaster management

AADMER • “THE” regional framework, comprehensive legal


document, yet to enter into force

ARDEX • Full-blown simulation exercise held yearly to test


preparedness

ADDM • The only region commemorating the International Day of


DRR jointly with its own Day

AHA • Potentially playing a key operational coordinating role

ACDM Online • Website to promote ACDM and inform public of its


activities

Source: Adelina Kamal , 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo
Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”
Implementing HFA Case Study: AADMER and HFA

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Implementation in ASEAN
Programs
• Two-year, five training priorities to support capacity
ASEAN -HFA Capacity Development
development in line with AADMER and HFA

ASEAN DISCNet • An information sharing network

OSADI • Disaster inventory database, tool for decision making

SASOP • Standby arrangements and standard operating procedure

ASEAN ERAT • Deployed for the first time for Cyclone Nargis response

PEA • Public education and awareness programme

Technical Working Group on Pandemic


& Preparedness Response (PPR)
• Promoting multi-stakeholder, multi-sectoral coordination in PPR

Source: Adelina Kamal , 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo
Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”
Case Study: SAARC and HFA
Implementing HFA

Ch
Implementation in South Asia
Overview

• South Asia has a multiplicity of natural hazards


• Layers of vulnerabilities
• High level of unmitigated risks
• Low levels of preparedness
• High incidence of disasters with large loss of lives and property

National initiatives

• Every country has set up new institutional mechanisms for disaster management
• 3 countries have enacted new laws, 3 countries have drafted laws, 2 are in the process of
doing so
• Early warning of disasters have improved
• Many innovative efforts being made to mainstream DRR in various sectors of
development, particularly
• Education at all levels, school safety
• Building bye laws, zoning regulations
• Housing design, construction technology
• Poverty alleviation, micro-finance and insurance etc
• Yet there lots and lots that remain to be done

Source: Dhar Chakrabarti, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 “Accelerating Progress in Implementing HFA in Asia
and the Pacific”
Case Study: SAARC and HFA
Implementing HFA

Ch
Implementation in South Asia

Regional initiatives

• SAARC Comprehensive Disaster Management


Framework
• SAARC Disaster Management Centre
• SAARC Road Maps on Disaster Management
• Community Based Disaster Risk Management
• Application of S&T for Disaster Management
• Coastal and Marine Risk Management
• Integration of DRR in Climate Change Adaptation
• Mainstreaming DRR in Development
Source: Dhar Chakrabarti, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 “Accelerating Progress in Implementing HFA in Asia
and the Pacific”
Case Study: SAARC and HFA
Implementing HFA

Ch
Implementation in South Asia
South Asia Disaster
Natural Disaster Rapid Unlocking Indigenous
Knowledge Network
Response Mechanism Knowledge
(SADKN)
• SAARC Summit in Aug • Documenting indigenous
2008 at Colombo knowledge on disaster
entrusted the risk reduction
responsibility to SDMC to • Four pilot projects of
develop a Natural Disaster documentation of IK
Rapid Response completed in Nepal, Sri
Mechanism for Lanka and India
coordinated and planned • Framework developed for
approach to meet integrating such
emergencies in South Asia knowledge with
• Work is in progress to community based disaster
develop Agreement on risk reduction
SAARC Natural Disaster
Rapid Response
Mechanism, and
Standard Operating
Procedure on NDRRM

Source: Dhar Chakrabarti, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 “Accelerating Progress in Implementing HFA in Asia
and the Pacific”
Case Study: SAARC and HFA
Implementing HFA

Ch
Implementation in South Asia

Challenge: Accelerating progress

• Good foundation made for DRR but lots more remain to be done
• Steps required for accelerating progress:
• Political: Raising awareness and generating demand for risk reduction
• Economic: More solid evidence that DRR pays
• Technical: Developing simple but useful tools for mainstreaming DRR in development
• Strategic: Building partnerships with corporate, media, civil society etc
• Level of both ‘total’ and ‘acceptable risks’ being very high in South Asia the focus of the
countries is more on preparedness for a better response
• Within the preparedness umbrella efforts more on:
• Pre-disaster planning at all levels
• Early warning and last mile connectivity
• Mock drills, evacuation, emergency medical preparedness
• Training, capacity building
• These are more cost effective and pays rich dividends in short period in reducing loss of
lives and properties

Source: Dhar Chakrabarti, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 “Accelerating Progress in Implementing HFA in Asia
and the Pacific”
Implementing HFA Case Study: India and HFA

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Progress
Priority 1

• Strong political commitment towards disaster risk reduction in India


• Disaster Management Act has been constituted in 2005
• Disaster Management Authority has been constituted at national state
and district level
• National Policy on disaster management is on anvil
• National Executive Committee has been constituted to assist National
Disaster Management Authority in executing its function which is
represented by the secretaries to the government of India in the
ministries or departments having administrative control on a variety of
disaster areas
• The requisite mechanisms for mainstreaming disaster risk reduction has
been laid down in the Act and every Ministry of Central and State
Government has been assigned roles and responsibilities to address
disaster risk agenda
• National Disaster Response Fund has been constituted
• National Disaster Mitigation Fund is in process of creation

Source: O. Ravi, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 “Accelerating Progress in Implementing HFA in Asia and the
Pacific”
Implementing HFA Case Study: India and HFA

Ch
Progress
Priority 2

• India has established an interim Tsunami Warning centre at National Centre for
Ocean Information Services ( INCOIS) Hyderabad.
• Government of India has identified key departments/organizations to provide
early warnings on different hazards
• Work is under progress to establish a Disaster Management Support Control
Room in Geological Survey of India and connected to NDMA and MHA to make
direct contact with the landslide prone states to collect landslide related data
• Central Water Commission (CWC) provides flood forecast on all major flood
prone rivers and inflow forecasts for selected important reservoirs. The
National Flood Atlas has also been prepared by the commission
• The National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) has been set up by the Survey
of India (Department of Science & Technology), to collect, compile, analyze
and prepare value added maps for use by various agencies in the field of DM;
for management of natural resources, industrial applications etc.
• National Emergency Operations Center (NEOC), in place since 2005.
Emergency Operations Centres opened up at the State and district level
• Macro scale Vulnerability Atlas for India has been prepared

Source: O. Ravi, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 “Accelerating Progress in Implementing HFA in Asia and the
Pacific”
Implementing HFA Case Study: India and HFA

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Progress
Priority 3

• Government of India in its 10th Five year Plan emphasized the need for integration
of Disaster Management in the existing education system
• Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) as well 13 other State Education
Boards have included Disaster management as a subject in the curriculum of
secondary education
• For effective curriculum transaction, the CBSE has taken up extensive training
programmes for teachers in a phased manner across the country
• Many of the state engineering and architecture colleges have introduced Hazard
Resistant Technology as a subject
• National Institution of Disaster Management, (NIDM) has been established
• NIDM has introduced web based Online Training Programme on Comprehensive
Disaster Risk Management Framework in collaboration with the World Bank
Institute
• India Disaster Knowledge Network is under development
• Few of the universities and autonomous institutes in the country running formal
courses on disaster management
• DMI Bhopal has also been identified as the regional training institute for imparting
training on Incident Command System by Ministry Of Home Affairs

Source: O. Ravi, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 “Accelerating Progress in Implementing HFA in Asia and the
Pacific”
Implementing HFA Case Study: India and HFA

Ch
Progress
Priority 4

• Ministry of Home Affairs, prepared a model guideline and has proposed


the necessary amendments to existing building byelaws, Town and
Country Planning Act, Development Control Regulations and Land use
Zoning regulations to ensure structural safety against natural hazard prone
areas- State governments are in the process of amending their
bylaws/DCR
• National Action Plan on Climate Change
• The Coastal Zone Regulations of Government of India in place.
• National Standards/Codes for construction practices relating to structural
safety from natural hazards including the National Building Code
• Hazard specific codes designed by Bureau Of Indian Standard to ensure
structural safety against natural hazards like Cyclone, Landslides and
Earthquakes.
• ‘Building Back Better’ has become the guiding principle of disaster
recovery and reconstruction programmes in India

Source: O. Ravi, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 “Accelerating Progress in Implementing HFA in Asia and the
Pacific”
Implementing HFA Case Study: India and HFA

Ch
Progress
Priority 5

• Capacities enhanced at institutional and community level to effectively


respond to a disaster
• Every Ministry /Department of central and state government will prepare
their Disaster Management Plans
• National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) has been constituted
• The National Emergency Communication Plan has been conceptualized by
NDMA to provide last mile connectivity
• Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India and United Nations
Development Programme is jointly implementing the largest Community
Based Disaster Risk Management Programme in the world covering 176
districts across 17 multi hazard prone states
• Revamping of the Civil Defence System in the country is under progress
• Ministry Of Home Affairs, GOI is also implementing the Disaster
Management Support Project with support of USAID which aims at
strengthening the existing Disaster Management systems for effective
response

Source: O. Ravi, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 “Accelerating Progress in Implementing HFA in Asia and the
Pacific”
Implementing HFA Case Study: Red Cross/Red Crescent and

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HFA Implementation
Red Cross activities for HFA Priority 1: Red Cross activities for HFA Priority 2:
Governance Risk Mapping
• Mainstreaming DRR • Risk Assessment and Mapping
• National Platform (Sri Lanka, Indonesia) • Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment (VCA)
• Support in the development of NDMC • Regional hazard maps (Mongolia)
(Cambodia) • DRR Indicators
• DRR in the development policy 2008 (Nepal) • Jointly with DFID, development of DRR
• Legislation to support DRR (incorporating IDRL indicators and characteristics of a disaster-
into Indonesia DM law and regulation) resilient community (South Asia Regional DRR
• Decentralization Programme)
• Disaster Management centers in 5 zones • Data Collection and Information Management
(Malaysia) • Disaster Management Information System;
• Political Commitment GIS/GPS (Indonesia)
• Working with NDMO, Climate Change Division
and Met Office to include climate change issues
in risk reduction programmes (Solomon Islands)
• Community Participation
• Community Vulnerability Reduction (China)
• Integrated Community Approach
(Indonesia, Kiribati)

Source: Jeong Park, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo
Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”
Implementing HFA Case Study: Red Cross/Red Crescent and

Ch
HFA Implementation

Red Cross activities for HFA Priority 2: Red Cross activities for HFA Priority 3:
Early Warning Knowledge Management
• Community-based Early Warning System • Information Sharing with Stakeholders
• Flood early warning system (Cambodia); • Dpnet(Nepal)
• Community awareness campaign as part • DRR forum (Cambodia, Indonesia)
of CBEWS • Exchange and Dialogue through
• “Last Miles” Networking
• Alarming villages by riding around on • RC/RC regional networks (e.g. Southeast
bicycles and shouting warning messages Asia RDMC, South Asia DMWG, Pacific
through megaphones(Bangladesh during EMCG)
Cyclone Sidr) • Research
• Radio Network • Role of women in DRR
• HF/VHF in disaster prone areas • Applied studies on the relationship
• Simulations between climate change and disasters
• Evacuation drills (Bangladesh, Sri (India)
Lanka, Thailand, Indonesia) • Participatory Action Learning

Source: Jeong Park, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo
Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”
Implementing HFA Case Study: Red Cross/Red Crescent and

Ch
HFA Implementation
Red Cross activities for HFA Priority 3: Red Cross activities for HFA Priority 4:
Education Risk Reduction
• School DRR • Sustainable Environmental Management
• Inclusion of DRR into school curricula (Nepal, Sri • Mangrove plantation to protect the sea dyke system
Lanka, Indonesia, Vietnam, Fiji, etc.) (Vietnam)
• Higher Education • Tree planting in CBDP programme (DPRK)
• Post graduate diploma course in disaster preparedness • DRR into Climate Change Adaptation
and rehabilitation (India) • Climate adaptation actions with DRR programme (Cook
• Community DRR Training Islands, Tonga)
• DRR training programme • Food Security for Resilience
• CBDRR handbook, jointly with ADPC ( • Vegetable garden as an alternative food source (Timor
Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Leste)
Lanka) • DRR into Health and Safer Hospital
• Public Awareness • Integration of CBDP and CBFA
• “Disaster Safety Mind” campaign (Thailand); • Construction of multi-hazard resilient health facility or
• Brochures, leaflets, posters, plays, puppet shows, street inclusion of Avian Influenza (Laos)
drama, TV shows, radio programme, etc. • Protection of Public Facilities
• Cyclone shelters (Bangladesh, India)
• Multi purpose community centers (Sri Lanka, Nepal)
• Recovery
• Micro-credit schemes for housing construction, small
boats or fishing nets
• Income generating activities (Indonesia, Sri
Lanka, Pakistan, India, etc.)

Source: Jeong Park, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo
Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”
Implementing HFA Case Study: Red Cross/Red Crescent and

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HFA Implementation
Red Cross activities for HFA Priority 5:
Cross-cutting issues
Preparedness
• Contingency Planning • Multi Hazard Approach
• Agreement with UNDP in community • Applied to community programmes(multi
contingency planning (Tsunami affected hazard early warning system)
countries) • Gender and Cultural Diversity
• Emergency Fund • Gender perspective into DRR policies and
• AusAID prepositioned emergency funding ( practices (strive to have more female
Indonesia) volunteers in Bangladesh)
• Volunteerism and Participation • Respecting traditional coping mechanisms and
• National Disaster Response Teams local wisdom
(Malaysia, Philippines) • Community and Volunteer Participation
• Regional Disaster Response Teams • Communities are at the centre of RC/RC
• Logistics actions, and volunteers are the backbone of
• Regional Logistics Units DRR actions
• Prepositioned stocks • Capacity Building
• Organizational development as part of core
program areas;
• Foundation of the Maldives Red Crescent Society

Source: Jeong Park, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo
Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”
Part 12: Mainstreaming
Disaster Risk Reduction

Contents
• Case Study: RCC Program
• Case Study: RCC Program in the Philippines
• Case Study: RCC Program in Sri Lanka
• Case Study: RCC Program in Nepal
• Case Study: RCC Program in Indonesia
MAINSTREAM DRR Case Study: RCC Program

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RCC 2: Comprehensive disaster risk
RCC 1: Integration of disaster risk management approach to be adopted by
reduction into national development all member countries and creating
process awareness, political will and support for
disaster management

RCC Recommendations
on Mainstreaming DRR
into Development

RCC 3: Members endorsed action by RCC


and its member countries to develop a
program to promote the CDRM approach RCC 4: Launched RCC MDRD Program with
building on work done in support from AusAID
Bangladesh, China, India, Vietnam and the
Philippines

Source: Loy Rego, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned
from the RCC MDRD programme”
MAINSTREAM DRR Case Study: RCC Program

Ch

Source: Loy Rego, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned
from the RCC MDRD programme”
MAINSTREAM DRR Case Study: RCC Program

Ch
Component 1: Mainstreaming DRR into National Development Process

• Themes include; National Development Plan, PRSP, Country Programming of


bilateral and multilateral development partners, EIA, NAPA
• Develop RCC MDRD Guidelines
• Provide guidance to RCC members and respective National Ministries on how to
initiate mainstreaming of DRR in the said theme
• Process document to complement the existing technical guidelines
• Provide examples of good practices from countries of the region
• Includes experiences from Implementing PIPs on the same theme under the
MDRD Program
• Undertake Priority Implementation Partnership (PIP) between RCC members and
national development agencies on Mainstreaming DRR
• Progress made
• RCC Guideline on Mainstreaming DRR into PRSP under development
• PIP on Mainstreaming DRR into National Development Planning currently being
undertaken in Nepal

Source: Loy Rego, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned
from the RCC MDRD programme”
MAINSTREAM DRR Case Study: RCC Program

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Component 2: Mainstreaming DRR into Sectoral Development Process

• Priority Sectors Identified: Agriculture, Education, Health, Housing, Infrastructure


• Specific Themes selected under each Sector for implementation
• Develop RCC MDRD Guidelines
• Undertake Priority Implementation Partnership (PIP) between RCC members and sectoral
agencies on Mainstreaming DRR
• Progress made
• RCC Guideline on Mainstreaming DRR into School Curriculum and Road Sector developed
• RCC Guideline on Mainstreaming DRR into School Construction and Land Use Planning
currently under development
• 6 PIPs undertaken/ongoing in 5 RCC member countries
• Health Sector in Bangladeh
• Education Sector in Cambodia
• Education Sector in Lao PDR
• Education Sector in the Philippines
• Road Sector in the Philippines
• Housing Sector in Sri Lanka

Source: Loy Rego, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned
from the RCC MDRD programme”
MAINSTREAM DRR Case Study: RCC Program

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Component 3: Advocacy for building awareness and political
support
• Development and dissemination of Advocacy Kits for
Ministers and Parliamentarians of RCC member countries on
“Why DRR Mainstreaming is needed?”
• Facilitate one national high table discussion on DRR in 3 RCC
member countries
• Conduct National Workshops on DRR for senior officials of all
key ministers in 3 RCC member countries
• Presentation on Mainstreaming DRR at relevant regional
meetings at Ministerial and senior official level and/or at
Regional Forums of Parliamentarians

Source: Loy Rego, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned
from the RCC MDRD programme”
MAINSTREAM DRR Case Study: RCC Program

Ch
Component 4: Knowledge Management Platform for
mainstreaming of DRR
• RCC MDRD Website currently under development
• RCC members were requested to nominate information and
knowledge management focal point
• Website; “Mainstreaming DRR in Asia”. Will host information on
initiatives in RCC member countries on mainstreaming DRR
• Questionnaire on status of mainstreaming filled by RCC member
countries in 2005, would be uploaded on the website
• Would include web pages on RCC MDRD Program (Progress
made and planned activities)
• Separate webpage on RCC (Past meeting, themes, proceedings)

Source: Loy Rego, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned
from the RCC MDRD programme”
MAINSTREAM DRR Case Study: RCC Program in the Philippines

Ch
Strategy in the Philippines Key sectors/government agencies

• Sectoral Approach - DRR being • Education Sector: Department of


mainstreamed in Education (DepEd)
policies, strategies, programs, projects • Infrastructure Sector: Department of
and activities by sector/agency Public Works and Highways (DPWH)
• Focus on critical sectors • Sub-National Development and Physical
• Infrastructure Planning: National Economic
• Education Development Authority (NEDA)
• Development Planning • Local Governance: Department of
• Local Governance Interior and Local Government (DILG)
• Priority Implementation Project / Pilot
Areas
• Technical Support from ADPC and UNDP
• Emerging need to shift from project-
based to partnership/programmatic
areas of collaboration
• Advocacy for building awareness and
political support

Source: Glenn J Rabonza, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons
learned from the RCC MDRD programme”
MAINSTREAM DRR Case Study: RCC Program in the Philippines

Ch
Education

• Safe Schools Program


• Building Safe Learning
Environments (BSLE) Project
• PIP on Mainstreaming DRR in the
Education Sector
• Supported by ADPC, UNDP
Manila, and ECHO
• Impact of Disasters on Education
Sector
(physical/social/economic)
• DRM secondary school
curriculum modules
• Pilot-test (3 provinces)
• Training of Teachers
• Revision of Modules
Source: Glenn J Rabonza, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons
learned from the RCC MDRD programme”
MAINSTREAM DRR Case Study: RCC Program in the Philippines

Ch
Infrastructure Local Governance

• Title: Mainstreaming DRR into the planning • Mainstreaming activities (strengthening of


process before construction of new roads LDCCs, Gawad KALASAG, integration of DRM
and bridges in Philippines into local development planning, etc)
• Implementation Period: June 2006- June • Community-Based DRM
2007 • PDRSEA Phase 4 (ADPC and ECHO)
• Implemented by: • Documentation of DRM Good Practices
• Department of Public Works and Highways (Oxfam Great Britain)
(DPWH), Philippines • Donor funded projects
• Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC) (GTZ, AusAID, JICA, USAid, Oxfam, and ECHO)
• Supported by UNISDR and SIDA • Global Facility for Disaster Risk Reduction
• NDCC-TWG Working Group Project (GFDRR)
(DPWH, ASEP, PICE, MGB • Identification of “At Risk” Provinces
DENR,PHIVOCS, PAGASA, and OCD) • Risk Transfer Mechanisms
• PIP developed in-depth study with
recommendations
• National Workshop was conducted in
February 2007 to seek feedback on the
findings of the PIP and to identify the ‘way
forward’

Source: Glenn J Rabonza, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons
learned from the RCC MDRD programme”
MAINSTREAM DRR Case Study: RCC Program in the Philippines

Ch
Gaps and Challenges Identified Sustaining MDRD Initiatives

• Development of a national DRR mainstreaming


• There is a need to improve/update the policies framework and strategy with formal
and strategies of government agencies to allow endorsement from the national government
for the formal integration of DRR • Based on the national mainstreaming
mainstreaming to their regular functions framework and strategy, develop
sectoral/agency mainstreaming plans to
• This need is evident in varying levels of support facilitate the integration of DRR in agency-level
(often fragmented) given to DRR mainstreaming plans
• Expansion of NDCC umbrella and/or the
national DRR agenda to formally include other
• The geographical planning aspect of DRR
sectors such as
mainstreaming is facilitated by the national
housing, tourism, women, etc., and to formally
agency’s reach
include representatives from civil society and
other stakeholders
• There is limited capacity of sectors to • A review of the level of prioritization that DRR
implement program/project development and gets in agency-wide
management
• planning, programming and budgeting in the
agencies covered by the study
• Development of a national monitoring and
management framework for DRR

Source: Glenn J Rabonza, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons
learned from the RCC MDRD programme”
MAINSTREAM DRR Case Study: RCC Program in Sri Lanka

Ch
PIP Project in Sri Lanka Proposed Activities for Implementing PIP

• Government of Sri Lanka submitted an • Study of the Housing Sector in Sri Lanka
Expression of Interest to the RCC to • Identifying opportunities for incorporating
undertake PIP in the Housing Sector DRR in the National Housing Policy
• This is aimed at contributing towards the • Study of the Housing Sector Plans as a part
implementation of the ‘Towards a Safer Sri of National Physical Plan and identification
Lanka; Road Map for Disaster Risk of opportunities to incorporate DRR
Management’ by increasing disaster • Stocktaking of National Guidelines/ Codes/
resilience in Housing Sector Manuals on construction of houses
• Initial funding received by ADPC from • Study of a hazard prone province to identify
AusAID for the year 2008 to initiate the PIP gaps and propose recommendations on
• ADPC as the RCC Secretariat will provide integration of DRR in housing
technical support to the Government of Sri • National Workshop to highlight the gaps
Lanka in the implementation of the PIP and recommendations of the Technical
• Initial activities to be implemented over the Working Group and identify the next steps
period from November 2008 to January
2009

Source: Author unknown, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons
learned from the RCC MDRD programme”
MAINSTREAM DRR Case Study: RCC Program in Sri Lanka

Ch
PIP Implementation Mechanism

Source: Author unknown, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons
learned from the RCC MDRD programme”
MAINSTREAM DRR Case Study: RCC Program in Nepal

Ch
The Systematic interpretation of
Strategic Goals
DRR approaches
• The integration of DRR into • Several municipalities enforcing
Policies and Planning building code
• 10th National Development • Enactment of Local Self
Plan Governance Act (1999) – provides
• 3 yrs Interim Development Plan authority to Local Authorities
• Development & Strengthening of • Prepared National Strategy for
Institutions, and Capacities to DRM
build resilience to hazard • National Platform
• Establishment of Disaster Focal • Disaster Management Act
Desk in 10 key sectoral
Ministries
• Post Disaster Activities
• I/NGOs
• CBDRM

Source: Thir Bahadur, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned
from the RCC MDRD programme”
MAINSTREAM DRR Case Study: RCC Program in Nepal

Ch
Activities Expected Outcomes

• Initiation of mainstreaming DRR into • A substantive report


the periodic planning guideline and • Process followed by the PIP for
the annual planning integrating DRR into periodic and
• Guidelines for districts and annual Planning guideline of district
municipalities and municipal development planning
• Periodic planning guideline for village • Recommendation of the TWG for
development planning integrating DRR into periodic and
• Mainstreaming DRR into periodic plan annual planning guideline of district
of one hazard prone municipality and municipal development planning
• Conduct a national workshop – to seek • Process Followed by the PIP for
feedback from experts integrating DRR into periodic planning
guidelines on village development
planning
• Recommendations of the TWG for
integrating DRR into periodic guideline
on village development planning

Source: Thir Bahadur, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned
from the RCC MDRD programme”
MAINSTREAM DRR Case Study: RCC Program in Indonesia

Ch
Overview

• Mainstreaming into overall development planning


• Legal framework
• Long-term National Development Plan (PRJPN) 2005 – 2025
• Mid-term National Development Plan (RPJMN) 2004 – 2009
• Annual Government Work Plan (RKP)
• DRR Policy Recommendation on RPJMN 2004 – 2009
• Law on disaster management
• Law on the management of coastal areas and small islands

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons
learned from the RCC MDRD programme”
MAINSTREAM DRR Case Study: RCC Program in Indonesia

Ch

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons
learned from the RCC MDRD programme”
MAINSTREAM DRR Case Study: RCC Program in Indonesia

Ch

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons
learned from the RCC MDRD programme”
MAINSTREAM DRR Case Study: RCC Program in Indonesia

Ch
Housing and Infrastructure Agriculture

• Developing technical guidelines for the • Strengthening of institutions and


disaster risk assessment for the purposes regulation framework to improve
of spatial and land use planning and area resilient of farm production and reduce
risk disaster index drought risk
• Promoting the use of hazards risk • Strengthening food security, increasing
assessment into spatial and land use productivity, production competitiveness
planning and value added of agriculture and
• Formulating guidelines for hazard- fishery
resilient housing and infrastructure • Utilizing forests for diversification of
designs economic activities
• Promoting the utilization of hazard- • Supporting food production by taking
resilient building codes and into account gender quality and
disseminating in the community level; sustainable development
• Improving water resources management
in integrated manner to strengthen the
resilience to the increasing drought and
flood risks, specifically in national
strategic river basin in Java Island

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons
learned from the RCC MDRD programme”
MAINSTREAM DRR Case Study: RCC Program in Indonesia

Ch
Education Environment

• Integrating DRR modules into school • The inclusion of DRR in the Bali Action
curriculum and religious education at Plan is a major success that will have
local levels; positive repercussions for reduction
• Introduction of DRR into extra school risks in the future
curricula and youth scouts activities • Better collaboration between climate
and implementation public awareness change bodies, focal points and
on DRR experts and their DRR counterparts
• Developing DRR training modules for • More accessible DRR information and
teacher tools for climate change adaptation
• Promoting school retrofitting negotiators and managers
• Socializing and implementing the new
disaster management law, NAP-DRR
and NAPA at all administrative levels as
well as at the community level

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons
learned from the RCC MDRD programme”
MAINSTREAM DRR Case Study: RCC Program in Indonesia

Ch
Health Cross Sector

• Improving community • Developing End-to-End


resilient through the Early Warning System
provision of clean
water, sanitation and
waste management
• Formulating disaster
preparedness plans for
hospitals
• Developing DRR training
modules for managers
and staff at hospitals

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons
learned from the RCC MDRD programme”
MAINSTREAM DRR Case Study: RCC Program in Indonesia

Ch
Lessons Learned

• Shifting the paradigm mandated in the DM law No 24/2007 enhances the


participation form non-government multi stakeholders, mainly international
community and NGOs in the DM and DRR activities
• Indonesia experiences in recent disasters (Tsunami Aceh, Earthquake
Jogya, Tsunami Pangandaran, etc) implies to:
• generate government in the acceleration of the finalization and implementation
of DM and DRR regulatory and institutional frameworks
• enhance the awareness of people in the importance of DRR;
• attract international communities in supporting government in the promoting
DRR
• Commitment and support from international communities and donors significantly
provide advocacy policy frameworks and generate the implementation of
mainstreaming DRR into sustainable development, such as Program SCDRR
supported by UNDP, GFDRR by the World Bank, AusAID, JICA etc.

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons
learned from the RCC MDRD programme”
MAINSTREAM DRR Case Study: RCC Program in Indonesia

Ch
Challenges

• Develop technical guidelines as the derivation from the DM Law in line with the mainstreaming DRR
into sustainable development
• Integrate and synergize strategies adopted by each sectors into a holistic approach of DRR in the
development
• Formulate national strategy on the disaster education in order to synergize and to consolidate the
current disaster educations that has already introduced and implemented fragmentary in the local
levels by NGOs and International donors
• Develop law enforcement on the DRR implementation
• Strengthen capacity of government institutions and apparatus in the DM and DRR aspects
• Improve public awareness through campaign, simulation drill, etc
• Introduce DRR Sensitivity Planning Approach as the bottom up development planning approach
starting at the village levels
• Formulate policy recommendation and strategy for the implementation of CBDRM, that currently
implemented fragmentary by INGOs and NGOs at sub district and village levels
• Shift the international donors and community on the DRR implementation from ‘favorable areas’
(Aceh, Jogya, Central java, NTT) to other prone disaster areas , such as Sulawesi Island, South
Kalimantan, etc
• Formulate sustainable tools to link from rehabilitation and reconstruction stage to DRR and
mitigation efforts

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons
learned from the RCC MDRD programme”
Contents
Part 13: Regional and Country
Profiles

• ASEAN: Response to Cyclone Nargis


• UNISDR in Central Asia
• South Asia: SAARC
• Bangladesh
• China
• India
• Indonesia
• Korea: Beef Crisis
• Malaysia
• Philippines: Albay Province
• Solomon Islands: Gizo Tsunami
• Sri Lanka
• Vietnam
CASE STUDY ASEAN: Response to Cyclone Nargis

Ch
Overview

• Cyclone Nargis, 2-3 May 08


• The worst natural disaster in the country in living memory
• 84,537 dead with 53,836 missing
• 19, 359 injured
• 2.4 million severely affected
• 800,000 displaced with 30 percent in camps
• 37 townships affected covering 23,500km2
• 8th deadliest cyclone of all time
• Independent private broadcasters who only use notebook computers and
webcams

ASEAN situation

• This disaster put ASEAN on center stage


• Lack of access was the main concern
• ASEAN was expected to widen the space and bridge the gap
• Regional instruments were in place but not fully operational
• ASEAN was not fully equipped
• First-ever experience
• ASEAN is not an implementing agency

Source: Adelina Kamal, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction.”
CASE STUDY ASEAN: Response to Cyclone Nargis

Ch
ASEAN Response activities
• Activation of SASOP and AHA centre
• Daily situation updates, 24/7
monitoring, offers of
assistance, recommendations for
action
• First ERAT between 9-18 May 08

Source: Adelina Kamal, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction.”
CASE STUDY ASEAN: Response to Cyclone Nargis

Ch
Post-Nargis Joint Assessment Maintaining the momentum

• Are the NEEDS still there?


• Cooperation of both humanitarian and development • Has the ASSISTANCE been delivered?
actors • How to ensure SUSTAINABLE recovery?
• Role of ASEAN in humanitarian field • Next steps after 1 year:
• Brought together relief and recovery in one report • Periodic Review of situation on the ground
• Start planning for recovery efforts - Recovery
• Validating unimpeded access and Preparedness Planning (PONREPP)
• A snapshot of moment in time • Coordination at the township level
• Baseline for monitoring
• Basis for recovery planning

Post-assessment

• ASEAN-led mechanism to continue for another year


• Periodic review of assessment on the ground
• ASEAN was expected to widen the space and bridge
the gap
• Regional instruments were in place but not fully
operational
• ASEAN was not fully equipped
• First-ever experience

Source: Adelina Kamal, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction.”
REGIONAL PROFILE UNISDR in Central Asia

Ch
Objective

• Increase public awareness to understand risk, vulnerability and disaster reduction


• Obtain commitment from public authorities to implement disaster reduction policies and actions
• Stimulate interdisciplinary and inter-sector partnerships, including the expansion of risk reduction
networks
• Improve scientific knowledge about disaster reduction

National Coordination Activities in Central Asia

• National Platform reported by Kazakhstan


• Draft National Disaster Risk Management Strategy and Action Plan prepared by Tajikistan
• National reports on implementation of HFA submitted by Kazakhstan and Tajikistan
• National focal points assigned to represent governments in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and
Uzbekistan
• Integration of DRR into national strategies (NDS, PRS, UNDAF)

Regional Coordination Activities

• Regional DRR Initiative in Ferghana Valley (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan)


• Facilitating the establishment of a Regional DR and DRR Center in Almaty(Initiative of the Government of
Kazakhstan supported by OCHA)
• Promotion of the regional coordination mechanism in Central Asia
• Inclusion of Turkmenistan in DRR activities in CA

Source: Goulsara Pulatova, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “DRR initiatives in Central Asia.”
REGIONAL PROFILE UNISDR in Central Asia

Ch
Disaster Risk Reduction Education
• Tajikistan:
• Integration of disaster risk reduction into national secondary education curriculum
• Curriculum Revision Working Group
• DRR training program
• DRR manuals and school books
• Kazakhstan
• Development of DRR course for universities
• Local seismic risk management project in secondary schools
• Uzbekistan
• Voluntary search and rescue teams training program
• Development of educational materials and training modules
• Training of trainers and rescue teams

Capacity development
• Establish and strengthen the network of interaction, knowledge, and information exchange on
disaster prevention
• Conduct national and regional conferences and workshops

Seismic risk reduction


• Development of a manual on safer construction practices using local materials
• Raising awareness of secondary schools administrations about seismic safety rules through a series
of workshops for secondary school headmasters

Source: Goulsara Pulatova, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “DRR initiatives in Central Asia.”
CASE STUDY SAARC Disaster Management Framework

Ch
History

• The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) setup a Disaster Management Centre in 2007
• A Comprehensive Disaster Management Framework was developed in an Expert Group Meeting in Dhaka in
February 2006
• The Framework was approved by SAARC Environmental Ministers in July 2006 and adopted at the 14th SAARC
Summit of Heads and Governments in New Delhi in November 2007
• The framework is aligned with the implementation of the Hyogo Framework of Action
• Specific to South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka

Definition of disaster

• Holistic management of disasters covering all its phases – prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, relief and
reconstruction

Objectives

• Establish and strengthen the regional disaster management system to reduce risks and to improve response and
recovery management at all levels
• Identify and elaborate country and regional priorities for action
• Share best practices and lessons learnt from disaster risk reduction efforts at national levels
• Establish a regional system to develop and implement regional programmes and projects for early warning
• Establish a regional system of exchanging information on prevention, preparedness and management of natural
disasters
• Create a regional response mechanism dedicated to disaster preparedness, emergency relief and rehabilitation to
ensure immediate response
• Create a regional mechanism to facilitate monitoring and evaluation of achievements towards goals and strategies
REGIONAL PROFILE South Asia: SAARC

Ch
Objectives of SAARC Comprehensive Disaster Management Framework

• Establish and strengthen the regional disaster management system to reduce risks and to improve
response and recovery management at all levels
• Identify and elaborate country and regional priorities for action
• Share best practices and lessons learnt from disaster risk reduction efforts at national levels
• Establish a regional system to develop and implement regional programmes and projects for early
warning
• Establish a regional system of exchanging information on prevention, preparedness and management of
natural disasters
• Create a regional response mechanism dedicated to disaster preparedness, emergency relief and
rehabilitation to ensure immediate response
• Create a regional mechanism to facilitate monitoring and evaluation of achievements towards goals and
strategies

Expected Outcomes

• An efficient Disaster Management System


• Mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into the development policies and practices of the government at
all levels
• Disaster resilient communities that have enhanced coping capacities in relation to all hazards
• Development of policies and programmes that recognizes all risks to the communities, and mitigation
strategies that are based on a risk management assessment
• Greater levels of coordination and cooperation at national, regional and international levels; and
• Enhanced information, warning and reporting systems within governments at all levels

Source: Dhar Chakrabarti, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive
Framework on disaster Management”
REGIONAL PROFILE South Asia: SAARC

Ch
Priorities for Action

Establish Regional Information Sharing


Develop and implement risk reduction Establish Regional and National
and Develop Network of Institutions
strategies Response Mechanisms
and Organizations
• Development of methodologies and • Establish, strengthen and improve • Mainstreaming and advocacy
standards for hazard and vulnerability Regional Early Warning Systems • Community risk assessment
assessments • Develop systems and procedures to • Geo-information technologies
• Development of strategies to make a establish an effective Community • Research information database
right balance across Alerting System
• Emergency response management
prevention, preparedness, response • Establish and improve Search and
and recovery (PPRR) programming • Networking with relevant
Rescue Mechanism
national, regional and international
• Development and implementation of • Develop and standardize systems
risk Damage, Loss and Impact
Assessment
• Methodologies and Relief
Management Procedure
• Establish a post-disaster recovery and
reconstruction mechanism

Source: Dhar Chakrabarti, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive
Framework on disaster Management”
REGIONAL PROFILE South Asia: SAARC

Ch
Priorities for Action
Develop and implement disaster management training,
education, research and awareness programs
• Conduct training need assessment
• Develop strategies for HRD
• Develop training modules for various stakeholders
• Standardize training curriculum
• Mainstream disaster risk reduction in education at all levels
• Exchange trainers and experts
• Conduct research, documentation and publication
• Compile best practices and indigenous knowledge
• Develop indicators for measuring the impact of training

Apply the ICT for disaster management

Establish an effective monitoring and evaluation mechanism

Source: Dhar Chakrabarti, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive
Framework on disaster Management”
REGIONAL PROFILE South Asia: SAARC

Ch
Priorities for Action
Regional Road Maps

• SAARCC Disaster Management Centre has developed


Regional Road Maps on certain key areas of disaster
management through a consultative process.
• These include:
• (a) Community Based Disaster Risk Management
• (b) Application of S&T for Disaster Management
• (c) Coastal and Marine Risk Management
• (d) Integration of DRR in Climate Change Adaptation
• (e) Mainstreaming DRR in Development
• The Road Map on Earthquake Risk Mitigation and
Management will be finalized in December 2008

Source: Dhar Chakrabarti, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive
Framework on disaster Management”
REGIONAL PROFILE South Asia: SAARC

Ch
SAARC Comprehensive Disaster Management Framework

• Developed before the SAARC Disaster Management Centre was set up in Delhi
in 2007
• Developed in an Expert Group Meeting in Dhaka in February 2006
• Approved by SAARC Environment Ministers in July 2006
• Adopted at the Fourteenth SAARC Summit of Heads and Governments in New
Delhi in November 2007

Framework alignment with HFA

• The Framework is aligned with the implementation of the Hyogo Framework of


Action 2005-2015
• It is more specific to South Asian situation
• It provides a more comprehensive framework that includes not only pre-disaster
risk reduction but also post-disaster response and recovery
• In South Asia ‘disaster management’ means holistic management of disasters
covering all its phases – prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, relief
and reconstruction

Source: Dhar Chakrabarti, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive
Framework on disaster Management”
COUNTRY PROFILE Bangladesh

Ch
Government of Bangladesh’s vision on Disaster Salient statistics
Management: “To reduce the vulnerability of people,
especially the poor, to the effects of natural, environmental Total population 140 million
and human induced hazards to a manageable and
acceptable humanitarian level” Total geographic 144,000 sq km
Year Disaster Death area

1970 Cyclone 300,000 Population density 1000 per sq km


in coastal areas
1988 Flood 2,373
Floodplains 80 percent of area
1988 Cyclone 5,704
Rivers > 300 (57 transboundary)
1989 Drought 800
1991 Cyclone 138,868
1996 Tornado 545 Major hazards

1997 Cyclone 550 Floods Drought


Tropical cyclones Earthquake
1998 Flood 1,050 Storm surges Arsenic
2004 Flood 747 Tornados Fire
River bank erosion
2007 Flood 1,071
2007 Cyclone(SIDR) 3,363

Source: K H Masud Siddiqui, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
COUNTRY PROFILE Bangladesh

Ch
Disaster Management Institutional Framework

Source: K H Masud Siddiqui, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
COUNTRY PROFILE Bangladesh

Ch
Elements of National Development Risk Reduction System

Source: Masud Siddiqui, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.””
COUNTRY PROFILE Bangladesh

Ch
Disaster Risk Reduction Framework

Source: K H Masud Siddiqui, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
COUNTRY PROFILE Bangladesh

Ch
Disaster Risk Reduction Framework

Source: K H Masud Siddiqui, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
COUNTRY PROFILE Bangladesh

Ch
Resource Allocation for Preparedness

Source: K H Masud Siddiqui, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY Bangladesh: Cyclone SIDR

Ch
Factors that made a difference in Disaster statistics
response
1. Improved disaster prevention Death toll 3,406
measures including an improved
forecasting and warning system
2. Coastal afforestation projects Missing 1001
3. Cyclone shelters – 2033 and
2097 proposed Wounded 55,282
4. Embankments
5. Cyclone Preparedness Affected 8.9
million
Programme (CPP)
6. Increased resilience of the poor Loss of livestock 1.7
7. Paradigm shift from a relief million
centric approach to a more Crops damaged area 2.4
holistic, multi-disciplinary DRR million
approach acres
8. Community based disaster Affected educational 16,954
preparedness institutions
9. Volunteers – 42,000
Total economic loss US$1.7
million
Source: K H Masud Siddiqui, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY Bangladesh: Cyclone SIDR

Ch
Resource Mobilization
• GoB responded with timely aid and
assistance.
• Allocated US$ 6.7 million (for relief
and housing construction)
• Armed Forces launched search and
rescue and early relief operations
• US Marine Forces participated in
the rescue and relief operations
• Impressive coordination with
international donors, civil society
and INGOs
• A medium and long term disaster
funding strategy
• JDNLA identified the needs and
quantified financial requirements
which is US$ 360 million for
immediate recovery activities and
US$ 953 million for medium-to-
long term recovery and
reconstruction phases

Source: K H Masud Siddiqui, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY Bangladesh: Cyclone SIDR

Ch

Source: K H Masud Siddiqui, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY Bangladesh: Cyclone SIDR

Ch
Conclusions and recommendations

• The usual instruments for resource mobilization after any


catastrophic event are Flash Appeals or Consolidated Appeal
Process (CAP). These are not very applicable for countries like
Bangladesh since the process requires formal declaration of a
“state of emergency” by the Government. Such declaration are
difficult politically
• Bangladesh maintains very good cooperation with bilateral and
multi-lateral donors and Bangladesh is an example where it is
possible to mobilize resources of over US$200 million within
one week of Cyclone Sidr without a flash appeal or CAP
• Insufficient funds allocated for DRR/DP at all levels; should be
high in the list of priorities
• International support will be essential as domestic resources
and capacities are limited

Source: K H Masud Siddiqui, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
COUNTRY PROFILE China

Ch
Distribution of Earthquakes in China (1900-2004)

Source: Ibrahim Komoo, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and
Local Levels ”
COUNTRY PROFILE China

Ch
Earthquake Disaster Mitigation

• Improvement of legislation system and seismic design codes


• Law of the People’s Republic of China on Protection against and
Mitigating Earthquake Disasters
• New lab and facilities
• Engineering assessment for key projects
• National key construction projects
• Three Gorges Project
• Dayawan Nuclear Power Plant
• Qinghai-Tibet Railway Project
• Gas West-to-East Transportation Project
• Water South-to-North Transportation Project
• Electricity South-to-North Transportation Project
• Earthquake emergency response and awareness of earthquake disaster
mitigation

Source: Ibrahim Komoo, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and
Local Levels ”
COUNTRY PROFILE China

Ch

Source: Ibrahim Komoo, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and
Local Levels ”
CASE STUDY China: Earthquake in Wenchuan

Ch
Disaster Overview

Date 12 May 2008

Magnitude 8 Richter; surpassed Tangshan


earthquake
Affected areas Wenchuan county, Sichuan
province and 10 other provinces;
417 prefectures, 4667 counties,
48810 villages;
500,000 sq. km

Secondary Geo-quake hazards including land


disasters collapse, landslide, mud and rock
flow in Sichuan, Gansu, Shanxi
provinces might have occurred in
13,000 points resulting from the
earthquake. 35 quake lakes
were formed.

Source: Pang Chenmin 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY China: Earthquake in Wenchuan

Ch
Disaster Overview Continued
Economic loss US$12.4 billion (RMB 84.5
billion)
US$ 11.3 billion (RMB 77.2
billion) in Sichuan
Deaths (Oct 10, 69, 227
2008)
Affected 46,250,000

Evacuated 15,106,000

Missing (Oct 10, 17,923


2008)
Wounded 374,600

Collapsed 7,960,000
houses
Damaged 245,430,000
houses

Source: Pang Chenmin 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY China: Earthquake in Wenchuan

Ch
Response Activities
“In response to the destructive
large-scale earthquake, the All-out effort to
Command Rescue forces
Chinese government set life
save trapped
headquarter set-up dispatched
people
rescues as a top priority by
launching the operation of
earthquake resistance and
relief with rapid rescue Assurance of basic
Utmost assistance National mourning
efforts, wide resources life conditions
to injured people day introduced
mobilization and the most provided
extensive input to have
maximized rescue operation
and minimized the impacts Immediate
induced by earthquake.” Wide social repairing and Safeguarding the
mobilization restoration of market supply
lifeline projects

Strict prevention
Open media Scientific planning
from secondary
information flow for reconstruction
disasters

Source: Pang Chenmin 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY China: Earthquake in Wenchuan

Ch
Review and Lessons Learned

• Top priority was to rescue lives


• Unified guidance, scientific deployment, highly
effective operation system
• Rapid response, quick decision decision-
making, emergency response capacity
• Wide social mobilization, participation to make
the integrated effort
• Open information flow, policy
transparency, positive interaction with media
• International understanding and selfless support

Source: Pang Chenmin 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
COUNTRY PROFILE India

Ch
Salient Statistics

• 58.6% of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of moderate to


high intensity
• Of the 7,516 km long coastline, close to 5,700 km is prone to
cyclones and tsunamis.
• Floods are recurrent events causing huge damage to properties
and assets every year.
• 68% of the cultivable area is drought prone
• Hilly areas are at risk from landslides and avalanches

Social Vulnerability

• 90 % affected by disasters are poor, marginalized & small


farmers. Pockets of poverty are semi-arid & arid regions, flood
plains, mountainous regions of NE, Himalaya

Economic Impact

• More than 2% loss to GDP. In some States


(Assam, Bihar, AP), the loss is to the extent of 10-20 percent of
state GDP.
• Drought of 2001-02 led to 15% reduction in food production &
significant drop in GDP (210 Mt to 180 Mt)

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
COUNTRY PROFILE India

Ch
Multi-stakeholder mechanism for DRR

• A paradigm shift from response and relief-centric approach to proactive


prevention, mitigation, preparedness, rehabilitation and reconstruction
• Disaster Management Act, 2005
• Legal, Institutional, Financial and Coordination mechanisms at National, State, District and
Local level to integrate disaster risk reduction and mitigation in the developmental agenda
• National Executive Committee (NEC) comprising of Secretaries from key
Ministries/Departments of Government of India-a coordination mechanism
• National Policy on Disaster Management is on anvil
• National Plan on Disaster Management
• National Response Plan
• National Mitigation Plan
• National Capacity Building Plan
• “DRR is everybody’s business” in that every Ministry of Central and State Government has
been assigned roles and responsibilities to address DRR
• DRR integral part of planning process
• National/State/ District Disaster Response Fund
• National/State/ District Disaster Mitigation Fund
• “Building Back Better”-the guiding principle of disaster recovery and reconstruction
programmesin India

Source: O. Ravi, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive Framework
on disaster Management”
COUNTRY PROFILE India

Ch
Disaster Management: Long-term vision

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
COUNTRY PROFILE India

Ch
Resources for Disaster Management
• Disaster Management Act 2005
Legal & Constitutional Provisions: • National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
Autonomous • State DMA, District DMA
Authorities, Empowerment, Governance • National Executive Committee (NEC)
• National Disaster Response Forces

• Calamity Relief Fund (CRF)/ National Calamity Contingency


Fund (NCCF)
Financial Mechanisms: Finance • For 2005-10 US$4.7 billion (Rs. 21,333 Cr.); 2000-05, US$2.4
Commissions, Short term - Relief billion (Rs. 11,007 Cr)
Funding, Aid mechanisms, Long Term - DM
Act, Rehabilitation & Reconstruction Funds • Long term Mitigation Fund –US$1.183 billion (Rs. 5,323 Cr.) for
2 Yrs (2008 & 09)
• Cyclone, Earthquake, Flood & Drought Mitigation Funds

• Building Capacities
Technological Resources: Early Warning • Space enabled Disaster Management Support
Systems, Information, Communication &
Space, Technologies (ICST) • National Tsunami & Storm Surge EWS
• Modernization of Met. Observation Systems

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
COUNTRY PROFILE India

Ch
Legislation for DRR Disaster Preparedness for Effective Response

• National Rural Employment Act,2005-an unique • Tsunami Early Warning System established by Indian
legislation aims at livelihood security and reducing National Centre for Ocean Information Services (
vulnerability of community INCOIS), Hyderabad
• The Environment Protection Act ,1996 • Key Departments/ Organizations identified to provide
• Environment Policy,2006 early warnings on different natural hazards
• Coastal Zone Regulations • National Disaster Response Force
• Disability Act 1995 • The National Emergency Communication Plan to
• The National Policy for Empowerment of Women- provide last mile connectivity
gender mainstreaming for DRR • The National Flood Atlas has been prepared by the
• Panchayati Raj Act-73rd and 74th Amendment of the Central Water Commission
Indian Constitution • The National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) has
been set up by the Survey of India to
collect, compile, analyze and prepare value-added
maps for use by various agencies in the field of DM.
• Disaster Management Support Project –MHA-USAID
initiative (training on ICS, procurement of advance
search and rescue equipments etc.)
• Community Based Disaster Risk Management
Programme in 176 multi-hazard prone districts in the
country-an initiative of MHA-UNDP
• Emergency Operation Centers established at
National, State and District level for effective
coordination during disaster response

Source: O. Ravi, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive Framework
on disaster Management”
COUNTRY PROFILE India

Ch
Reducing the underlying risk factors through appropriate
Capacity Development for Disaster Risk Reduction
social, economic and sectoral development policies
• National Institution of Disaster Management, (NIDM) • The DM Act has made it mandatory for every
established. NIDM also hosts SAARC-DMC Ministry/Department at National and State level to
• National Disaster Management Programme (NDMP) for prepare disaster management plans and integrate DRR
training and capacity building of disaster managers. in the ongoing development programmes
• National Programme for Capacity Building of Engineers • DRR is not a stand-alone activity-integral part of
in Earthquake Risk Management developmental planning
• National Programme for Capacity Building of Architects • Climate Change is unequivocal-disaster vulnerability
in Earthquake Risk Management. closely linked to Climate Change
• Disaster Management in School Curriculum • Mitigation measures indispensable for sustainable
development
• National Action Plan on Climate Change-identified
Eight missions
• National Solar Mission
• National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
• National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency.
• National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan
Ecosystem
• National Water Mission
• National Mission for Green India
• National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
• National Mission for Strategic Knowledge on Climate
Change

Source: O. Ravi, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive Framework
on disaster Management”
COUNTRY PROFILE India

Ch
Some of the key developmental programmes
Contextual Challenges
with Disaster Risk Reduction content
• Drought Prone Area Programmeand Desert • Vast geographical spread and population
Development Programme. pressure
• National Rural Employment Guarantee • Multi-hazard profile of the country with
Scheme –provides wage employment in the diverse physical topography
rural areas, food security and creation of • Capacity gaps in implementing Disaster Risk
durable community assets Reduction measures
• ISRO Disaster Management Support (DMS) • The provisions of the DM legislation
Programme requires more time to get implemented on
• National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project ground
(US$350 Million) • Mitigation requires long-term planning and
• National Earthquake Risk Mitigation Project is resource intensive
(US $119 Million approx.) • Need to develop a strong mechanism for
• National Landslide Risk Mitigation Project disaster information sharing
• School Safety Project • Need to strengthen the knowledge
• Retrofitting of select life-line structures management systems
• Enabling environment and roadmap for
sustainable development

Source: O. Ravi, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive Framework
on disaster Management”
COUNTRY PROFILE India

Ch

Source: O. Ravi, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive Framework
on disaster Management”
COUNTRY PROFILE India:

Ch
Gujarat (Bhuj) Earthquake

Direct Losses Indirect Losses Tertiary losses

• Human lives • Export/ import • Long-term


• Livestock, other • Agricultural output development
animals • Industry/ Services • Overall investment
• Private property output climate
• Municipal • Remittance income • Funds reallocation
infrastructure • Fall in earning • Community
• Power/ potential due to migration/
Telecommunication disability, trauma relocation
infrastructure • Unemployment • Estimate US$628
• Health/ Education • Health hazards million
assets • Estimate US$2.07
• Estimate: US$3.15 billion
billion

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
COUNTRY PROFILE India

Ch
Gujarat (Bhuj ) Earthquake

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
COUNTRY PROFILE India

Ch
Gujarat (Bhuj ) Earthquake

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
COUNTRY PROFILE India

Ch
Gujarat (Bhuj ) Earthquake

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
COUNTRY PROFILE Indonesia

Ch
GoI Policies on Disaster Management

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, 3 December 08, High Level Round Table 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
COUNTRY PROFILE Indonesia

Ch
Integration of Disaster Management Plans

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, 3 December 08, High Level Round Table 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
COUNTRY PROFILE Indonesia

Ch
Policies on DRR financing

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, 3 December 08, High Level Round Table 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
COUNTRY PROFILE Indonesia

Ch
Comprehensive Planning and Funding
Arrangements for DRR

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, 3 December 08, High Level Round Table 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
COUNTRY PROFILE Indonesia

Ch
Position of NAP DRR within the Planning
and Budgeting Process

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, 3 December 08, High Level Round Table 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
COUNTRY PROFILE Indonesia

Ch
DM and DRR related budget allocation in
annual work plan 2007-2008

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, 3 December 08, High Level Round Table 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
COUNTRY PROFILE Indonesia

Ch
DM and DRR related budget allocation in
annual work plan 2009

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, 3 December 08, High Level Round Table 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
COUNTRY PROFILE Indonesia

Ch
Non-government budget for DRR
Multilateral and Bilateral Loan /Grants for DRR

• Institutional and Regulatory development at national and local levels


• Revitalization of Agriculture, Forestry and Rural Areas
• Conservation critical upstream watershed areas
• Poverty reduction programs
• Community Development Programs (livelihoods, settlement
infrastructure program)
• Development and strengthening on Early Warning System (including
strengthening multi sector and multi stakeholder coordination and
cooperation within early warning chain)
• Infrastructure development (incl. regulation and building standards)
• Strengthening BMG on Climate and Weather Services Capacity
• DRR Education and Training Program
• Raising Public Awareness

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, 3 December 08, High Level Round Table 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
COUNTRY PROFILE Indonesia

Ch
Lessons Learned

• Shifting the paradigm mandated in the DM law No 24/2007


enhances the participation form non-government multi -
stakeholders, mainly international community and NGOs in the DM
and DRR activities
• Indonesia experiences in recent disasters (Aceh & Jogya) have
catalyzed the following:
• Government acceleration of the finalization and implementation
of DM and DRR regulatory and institutional frameworks
• Enhancement of awareness of people of the importance of DRR
• Attract international communities in supporting government in
the promoting DRR
• Commitment and support from international communities and
donors provides significant advocacy policy frameworks and
generates the implementation of mainstreaming DRR into
sustainable development, such as Program SCDRR supported by
UNDP, GFDRR by the World Bank, AusAID, JICA etc.

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, 3 December 08, High Level Round Table 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
COUNTRY PROFILE Indonesia

Ch
Challenges and the Way Forward

• Develop the derivation from the DM Law in line with mainstreaming DRR into
sustainable development
• Integrate and synergize strategies adopted by each sectors into a holistic
approach of DRR in the development
• Strengthen capacity of government institutions and apparatus in DM and DRR
aspects
• Improve public awareness through campaign, simulation drill, etc.
• Introduce DRR Sensitivity Planning Approach as the bottom up development
planning and budgeting approach starting at village levels
• Formulate policy recommendation and strategy for the implementation of
CBDRM that is currently implemented fragmentary by NGOs at sub-district
and village levels
• Shift the international donors and community focus on DRR implementation
from ‘favorable areas’ (Aceh, Jogya) to other prone disaster areas
• Formulate sustainable tools to link from rehabilitation and reconstruction
stage to DRR and mitigation efforts, as well as integrate DRR and Climate
Change (NAP-DRR and NAPA)

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, 3 December 08, High Level Round Table 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY Korea: Beef Crisis

Ch
Overview
• Korea was third largest overseas market for US beef
• In 2003, import stopped after the discovery of BSE or “mad cow disease” and
resumed after trade talks in 2008
• There was still fear of the disease by Koreans and mass candlelight protests
• Protests
• Started with the fear of the unknown
• Amplified by the internet-based media
• Somewhat political and may have been anti-American instigated by leftwing
groups

Source: Ji Bum Chung, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and
Emergency Management”
CASE STUDY Korea: Beef Crisis

Ch
Social amplification of risk
• Relatively minor risk – as assessed by technical experts – elicited strong public concerns and
impacts on society as a whole

Source: Ji Bum Chung, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency
Management.”
CASE STUDY Korea: Beef Crisis

Ch
Amplification Process

Cyber activists
Social
post plans and
Virtual petitions networking
Stir people’s schedules about
online to sites, instant
anger or upcoming street
hundreds of messenger Mass protests
nationalistic protests on
thousands of (IM), SMS, are
sentiments online
people used to help
discussion
organize
forums

Agents amplifying risk


• News providers
• Internet discussion groups, internet forums
• Independent private broadcasters who only use
notebook computers and
webcams

Source: Ji Bum Chung, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency
Management.”
CASE STUDY Malaysia

Ch
Type of disasters covered in
Official definition of a disaster Criteria for disasters:
definition
• Incident that occurs in a sudden • Natural disaster such as floods and • 10 people or more killed, or
manner, complex in landslide • 100 people or more injured, or
nature, resulting in the loss of • Industrial & technological disasters • 10 000 people or more
lives, damages to property or the • Accidents of dangerous or evacuated, or
environment as well as affecting hazardous materials • Vast area affected and causing
the daily activities of local
• Collapse of high rise buildings & extensive environmental
community
special degradation or ecological
• Such incident requires the handling structures destruction, or
of
• Aviation accidents in public areas • Level II or Level III disaster
resources, equipment, frequency
• Railway accidents response
and extensive manpower from
• Major Fire Incidents activated
various agencies as well as
effective coordination and the • Collapse of hydroelectric dams or
possibility of demanding complex reservoirs
actions over a long period of time • Nuclear & radiological accidents
• Release of poisonous & toxic gases
in public places
• Air & environmental disasters such
as haze

Source: A. Fakhru’l-Razi, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance
and Emergency Management.”
CASE STUDY Malaysia

Ch
Chronology
• Uniform Building-By-Laws developed in 1984 and implemented in 1986
• Formation of HAZMAT team in 1994
• Occupational Safety and Health Act in 1994
• Special Malaysia Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team (SMART) in 1995
• Directive 20 of the National Security Council in 1997

Disaster Management and Relief Committee (DMRC)

Source: A. Fakhru’l-Razi, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance
and Emergency Management.”
CASE STUDY Malaysia

Ch

Source: A. Fakhru’l-Razi, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance
and Emergency Management.”
CASE STUDY Malaysia

Ch

Source: A. Fakhru’l-Razi, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance
and Emergency Management.”
CASE STUDY Malaysia NGOs involved:

Ch
-Malaysian Red Crescent
Society
Incident Command Structure -MERCY
-JIM, ABIM
-Global Peace Malaysia
-Global Sikh Malaysia
-AMAN Malaysia
-St. John Ambulance
-Force of Nature
-Haluan Malaysia

Source: A. Fakhru’l-Razi, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance
and Emergency Management.”
CASE STUDY Philippines: Albay Province

Ch
Major Disaster Events in Albay Province, 1990-2008

Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY Philippines: Albay Province

Ch
Development
defined as:
• Compliance with MDG
Climate- and improvement in
Human Development
Albay Provincial proofed, Disaster- Indicators
Goal revised to: proofed • Disaster risk reduction
Development and climate action are
components of the
central economic
strategy, not the
contingency plan

Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY Philippines: Albay Province

Ch
Key elements of Albay DRR Strategy
Risk Reduction Disaster
Disaster Response
• Risk Mapping Preparedness
• Info board Relief
• Geostrategic • Work with Recovery
• Preemptive Operations
Intervention Warning • Cluster
Agencies Evacuation • Demand-side
• CLUP Approach
• Damage and relief
• Climate change • Community-
based Warning Disaster
adaptation Assessment

Disaster Proofing
Development as an
intervention in in
Disaster Risk Reduction
and Climate Adaptation

Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY Philippines: Albay Province

Ch
Resources for Institutionalized DMO PDOC Facilities and Equipment Risk and resource mapping

• Permanent office created in 1994 • Facilities include: Two-storey • PHIVOLCS


with regular plantilla, operating Apsemo building in center of capital • Earthquake mapping
funds city, office spaces, information • Volcanic Hazard Mapping
• Sources of Funds room, conference room (50 -70
• REDAS training for LGUs
• Regular allocation from the annual person capacity), radio room, staff
quarters, warehouse, powerhouse • PAGASA
provincial budget (IRA)
and 3 units of power • Flood Mapping
• Access to calamity fund for the
generators, communication and • Mines and Geo-Sciences Bureau
operations of PDOC (5% of IRA)
documentation equipment, GPS, 2 • Landslide mapping
• Intermittent but steady flow of vehicles
technical and logistical assistance • Manila Observatory
• Source of funds • Mudflow (Lahar) mapping
from NG agencies, NGOs and
INGOs for capacity building and • Annual regular capital outlays • LGU
skills training • Some donated equipment (Italian • Population and Resource Mapping
Cooperation before and now Spain
• Comprehensive Land Use Plan
AECID)

Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY Philippines: Albay Province

Ch
Structural (hard) interventions

• Geostrategic Interventions
• Dike construction
• Levees
• Slope protection
• Roads and Bridges
• River control

Non-Structural (soft) interventions

• Comprehensive Land Use Plan


• Environmental protection including Coastal Resource
Management

Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY Philippines: Albay Province

Ch
Guicadale Business Platform

• This geostrategic intervention is both flagship economic


project and main DRR strategy
• Redirection of centers of business and residential
activities
• Components:
• Relocation of 10,076 households in high risk areas; cost:
Philippines 3.4 billion from NHA, province, INGOs
• New international airport; cost-P3.4bn from DOTC
national government
• Road networks: cost-P878m - multi-year from 20%
economic development fund of the province and DPWH
allocations
• New government center: cost-P176m from REPOA of
PVB and province to acquire via long term loan

Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY Philippines: Albay Province

Ch
Comprehensive Land Use Plan

• Training of 18 municipalities in preparation of CLUPs and integration at provincial


level
• Integration of climate and disaster risks
• Source of Funds: P16m from UNDF MDGCF

Soil Analysis

• BSWM-led soil testing of 15 LGUs with 3 already done (Polangui, Ligaoand Tiwi)
• Source of Funds: P5m from DA MOOE to Provincial Government

CLUP

• No or selective investment in High Risk Zone


• Maximum Protection in the low to moderate risk zone
• Safe zone as the site for new development investments (GUICADALE Platform in
Albay)

Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY Philippines: Albay Province

Ch
GIS

• Upon completion, CLUP and Soil Analysis to be


integrated into a comprehensive GIS
• Source of Funds: DENR/NAMRIA, INGOs

REDAS Training & GIS Software

• Rapid Earthquake Damage Assessment System


(REDAS) software in partnership with PHILVOCS-
DOST conducted last Sep. 2008
• Source of Funds: PhIVOLS for facilities, training
materials and trainers
• LGU counterpart for travelling and accommodation

Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY Philippines: Albay Province

Ch
Systems for Preparedness

Health and Sanitation


• DOH

Relief and Rehabilitation


• PSWDO, PNRC, NGOs

Transportation and Engineering


• LTO, DPWH, PEO

Risk Mapping and Emergency Research

Resources
Security
• PNP and AFP
Inventory of population-at-risk
Inventory of safe evacuation centers
Identification of safe evacuation route
Warning system
• PAGASA, PHIVOLCS, MGB, OCD Livelihood analysis
Skills inventory
Source of Funds: Regular provincial
budget
Technical assistance to LGUs, Local
Institutions and NGOs

Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY Philippines: Albay Province

Ch
Community Based Early Warning System

Early Warning System

• Establish Rainfall Monitoring Stations at the community Level

Communication Protocol

• Established through trainings, seminars and table-top-exercises


• Install community emergency warning board

Evacuation Procedures

• Develops selection criteria on safe evacuation centers


• Develops community evacuation plan with identified safe
routes, triage system, pick-up safe areas and community
assigned safe temporary holding areas

Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY Philippines: Albay Province

Ch
Response Systems
Info board Critical Evacuation Centers Relief
•Training/Workshop of 720 barangays •Preemptive Evacuation •Supply side (food items, non-food
•SMART INFOBOARD (SMS Broadcast •Camp management system items)
Facility) •Demand side (cash relief)
•Free SMART Sims totaling 15,750
officials for the Disaster & Climate Risk
Reduction Monitoring system

Price Monitoring and Control of


Search Rescue and Retrieval Security
basic and prime commodities

Water, Health, Sanitation and Management of Disaster


Nutrition Operation Center

Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY Philippines: Albay Province

Ch
Damage Assessment System

Damage and disaster • PAS for agriculture with DA


assessment is coordinated by
Apsemo that leads a • PSWDO for housing with DSWD
interdepartmental team that
coordinates with national • PHO for casualties with
counterparts • PEO for infrastructure

The damage assessment


process starts with disaster risk • Priorities prescribed
assessment, preparedness
activities and the pre-disaster • Scheduling prescribed
warning phase and the
emergency phase and even • Forms prescribed
extends into the rehabilitation
and recovery of the community
• Protocols in information established

Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY Philippines: Albay Province

Ch
Lessons Learned on DRR & Development
Disaster Recovery and Disaster proofing of
Development development
• Humanitarian resources are • Disaster risk reduction must be
the same resources for a basic input to the Regional
development Master Plan
• Rehabilitation should be • CLUP or zoning policy is key
pursued in the context of a DRR instrument
development strategy • ECC/EIA is second line of
• Building back better defence
• Building back elsewhere • Engineering intervention
should be last recourse.
• Disaster preparedness =
development preparedness
• Without disaster, DRR =
economic expansion

Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY Solomon Islands: Gizo Tsunami

Ch
Disaster Overview Costs (in SBD)
Shelter 34,100,000
Date 2 April 2007
Transport & 289,604,507
Magnitude 8.1 Richter; wave of up to 10 infrastructure
meters Education 104,229,388
Impact 52 dead
Thousands displaced
Health 144,141,176
2777 destroyed structures
infrastructure &
1614 damaged structures
medical services
SBD $52 million - cost of response
Agriculture 6,215,000
Secondary Landslides
impact
Fisheries & 8,569,460
Marine resources

Future risk 4,835,000


reduction

Total 591,694,530

Source: Loti Yates, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY Solomon Islands: Gizo Tsunami

Ch
The Response

• The National Disaster Council (NDC) activated the


New Entry Officer Course (NEOC) immediately
and set the Central Control Group (CCG) to work
• Police Resources deployed immediately
• Donor support was immediately made available
to support the Government respond
• Local communities immediately took charge of
the situation
• Red Cross and NGOs immediately got deploy their
resources

Source: Loti Yates, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY Solomon Islands: Gizo Tsunami

Ch
Lessons Learned

• The NEOC was able to be activated immediately with the government taking the
lead
• Local communities were able to mobilise their own resources prior to support
coming in
• Donor support was very good
• The resources held by NGOs were quickly deployed to impacted communities
• Costs associated with mobilizing transportation for relief and assessments
purposes.
• Government agencies not sure of their roles and responsibilities thus limited
effectiveness of the NEOC in coordinating government resources
• Lack of capacity and arrangements at the provincial level. Members of the
Provincial Disaster Committee were victims themselves
• It was largely left to the NDMO with limited resources to coordinate Govt.
response, interact with donors, UNDAC, NGO’s and deploy staff to the affected
provinces for assessment and relief activities
• The need to have donors understanding receiving countries needs and how they
operate –cultural sensitivity
• Non-standardization of assessment methodologies and forms

Source: Loti Yates, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY Solomon Islands: Gizo Tsunami

Ch
Going forward

• There is a realization in government that things did not go


well and a determination amongst key officials and agencies
that that should not happen again
• There is acceptance that the institutional frameworks need
to be strengthened with explicit arrangements and
accountabilities across agencies and levels of government
addressing risk reduction as well as disaster management
• The institutional frameworks have been reviewed and the
ND Act and National Plan are being rewritten
• Implementation of the new arrangements will require a
significant commitment over a number of years to create
capacity at the national, provincial and community level
• Engagement with government sectors, donors, NGO’s and
the private sector will be necessary to achieve the outcome

Source: Loti Yates, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
CASE STUDY Solomon Islands: Gizo Tsunami

Ch
The New Solomon Islands Institutional Framework for DRM
(including Climate Change Adaptation)
sets its basis on the following principals:

DRM is everyone’s Good governance is


It is the role of the business and a whole building on existing
Solomon Island DRM is supporting of country approach processes across all
Government to communities to with: levels –
provide for DRM understand and • All agencies, communities national, provincial
through manage hazards and and individual taking and communities with:
local, provincial, sector disasters safeguarding ownership
• Transparency, accountabilit
• Everyone knowing their
and national planning lives, property and roles and responsibilities
y, efficiency and best
and to support livelihood practise
and accountabilities
• Strong relationship and
community self help clear arrangements within
and across all sectors

Source: Loti Yates, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”
COUNTRY PROFILE Sri Lanka

Ch
Hazards

• Floods
• Landslides
• Droughts
• Coastal Erosion
• Cyclonic Storms
• Tsunami (2004)

Shift to DRR

• Prior to Tsunami of 2004, disaster management in Sri Lanka was more


reactive than pro-active
• Realized the urgent need for comprehensive disaster risk management in
Sri Lanka

Disaster Management Act No. 13 of 2005

• Provides for a legislative framework for DRM and addresses disaster


management holistically, leading to a policy shift from response based to
proactive approach towards DRR
• The act provides for the establishment of National Council for Disaster
Management (NCDM), a high level policy making body chaired by H.E. the
President
• Disaster Management Centre (DMC) as the operational arm of the
National Council

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive
Framework on disaster Management”
COUNTRY PROFILE Sri Lanka

Ch
Towards a Safer Sri Lanka: Road Map for National Disaster Management Coordination
Disaster Risk Management Committee
• Policy, Institutional Mandates and • Representatives from Govt.
Development agencies, Donors, UN
• Hazard, Vulnerability and Risk Assessment agencies, INGOs, NGOs, Media, Professional
• Multi Hazard Early Warning and Academic institutions, Private sector, and
• Preparedness and Response Planning CBOs under the leadership of
Secretary, Ministry of Disaster Management
• Mitigation and Integration of DRR into
Development • Joint work planning to minimize duplication of
efforts
• Community-based Disaster Risk Management
• Regular monthly meetings
• Public Awareness, Education and Training
• Four Core groups
• Preparedness Planning
• Disaster Mitigation
• Training & Awareness
• Education

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive
Framework on disaster Management”
COUNTRY PROFILE Sri Lanka

Ch

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive
Framework on disaster Management”
COUNTRY PROFILE Sri Lanka

Ch
Priority Areas
Develop and implement risk reduction Establish Regional and National Response
strategies Mechanisms including EWS
• Development of standards for hazard • A 24 x 7 Emergency Operation Centre
and vulnerability assessments (risk has been established at the Disaster
profile of Sri Lanka for different hazards) Management Centre
are presently in progress by technical • An Emergency Response Committee at
institutions. This process is being national level has been established
coordinated by the Disaster • Identification of national organizations
Management Centre esponsible for early warning in the case
• National and Sub-national level Disaster of more frequent disasters already
Management Plans of Sri Lanka which identified
are under preparation – right balance • Standard Operating Procedures (SOP)
across preparedness, response and are being developed
recovery
• Focal institutions responsible for EW
• Disaster Mitigation programs (both hard have developed linkages with regional
and soft) - with GOSL and donor funding and global centers
• National early warning systems have
been strengthened

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive
Framework on disaster Management”
COUNTRY PROFILE Sri Lanka

Ch
Priority Areas
Develop and implement Disaster
Management
Strengthening of Early Warning Systems
training, education, research and
awareness programs
• Tsunami Hazard • Mainstreaming disaster risk reduction in
• three tide gauges at Colombo, Kirinda education curriculum already in
and Trincomalee progress in collaboration with GTZ & NIE
• Only one seismograms (at Pallekele) • Post graduate programs have been
• Two more planned for A’pura and initiated in local universities
Hakmana in 2009 (Geofon) • Several programs are planned to
• Meteorological Hazards encourage research in DRR (e.g.
Symposium on DRR, Research Grants
• doppler weather radar will be added
etc.)
to the observation system in 2009
• A lot of awareness material on different
• a network of automatic weather
hazards has been developed. More in
stations (38)
progress
• a network of automatic rain gauge
stations
• improvement of GTS line speed (512k)

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive
Framework on disaster Management”
COUNTRY PROFILE Vietnam

Ch
Overview

Location Southeast Asia

Total area 333,000 km2


3200km coastline
Population 86.5 million (2008)
226/km2
Urban: 27 percent
Rural: 73 percent
Hazards Flood
Typhoons
Fire
Landslides
Drought

Annual impact 700-800 dead or missing


from hazards 1000s injured
Over US$300 million (1-1.5
percent of GDP)

Source: Đào Xuân Học, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.”
COUNTRY PROFILE Vietnam

Ch
Structure of National Response

Source: Đào Xuân Học, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.”
COUNTRY PROFILE Vietnam

Ch
Organization for Flood and Storm Response

Source: Đào Xuân Học, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement &
Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.””
Developed by Rakhi Bhavnani
bhavnani@un.org

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