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This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2011 proceedings

Energy Efficient Resource Allocation in SC-FDMA Uplink with Synchronous HARQ Constraints

Dan J. Dechene, Student Member, IEEE and Abdallah Shami, Member, IEEE

Abstract —In this paper we propose framework for energy efficient (margin adaptive, MA) resource allocation in multiuser SC-FDMA with synchronous HARQ constraints. Resource al- location is formulated as a two-stage problem where resources are allocated in both time and frequency. To limit the impact of retransmissions on the time-frequency problem segmentation, we propose use of a block scheduling interval that ensures uplink users do not experience ARQ blocking. We formulate the optimal MA allocation problem under this framework and based on its structure, we propose a variable complexity sub-optimal approach to minimize the energy in resource allocation. Results are presented for the energy performance relative to complexity and datarate.

Index Terms —SC-FDMA, Energy Efficiency, Margin Adaptive, Resource Allocation

I. I NTRODUCTION

Energy efficiency is an on-going issue in modern wireless communication systems as radio resources account for a large portion of mobile device energy consumption. As the prolif- eration of smaller and faster devices increases, efficient use of limited battery resources becomes ever more paramount. The radio resource allocation problem formulation of minimizing transmission energy is known as the margin adaptive (MA) problem [1]. MA problems are well-studied for a general OFDM transmission systems [1], [2] however systems such as uplink in 3GPP-LTE, employ localized SC-FDMA at the phys- ical layer. Implementation of localized SC-FDMA suffers from restrictions such as contiguous frequency block allocation and limited flexibility in modulation and coding scheme (MCS) assignment ultimately limiting the applicability of traditional MA resource allocation framework to the SC-FDMA problem. In this work, we propose an uplink resource allocation scheme for localized SC-FDMA with a focus on energy efficiency. The resource allocation problem is complicated by restrictions imposed by synchronous hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) such as transmission at the same rate for retransmissions and by the fact that each UE can only transmit a single transport block (TB) during a given scheduling frame. Our proposed resource allocation method exploits periodicity of the HARQ process in selection of a scheduling epoch to efficiently schedule uplink traffic. The remainder of this paper is divided as follows. In Section II we overview the details of the employed uplink system model. In Section III and IV we formulate the energy- optimal and suboptimal uplink resource allocation problem with HARQ constraints respectively. In Section V simulation results are provided. Finally in Section VI, conclusions are drawn on this work.

D. J. Dechene and A. Shami are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada (e-mail: ddechene@ieee.org, ashami2@uwo.ca).

II. S YSTEM M ODEL

In this paper we focus on multi-user SC-FDMA used for uplink in LTE, [3]. There are K users (UEs) within a single cell, communicating with a single base station (eNB). Since we focus on resource allocation within a single cell, for the purpose of this paper, it is assumed that intercell interference is negligible. The cell spectrum is divided into subcarriers which are grouped into M resource blocks (RBs) consisting of 12 subcarriers. Without loss of generality we assume there is an Integer number (M ) of RBs. The minimum duration of time that can be allocated to a single UE is a scheduling block (SB). The n th SB falls in the time duration [nT f , ( n + 1)T f ) where T f is the subframe duration (equal to 1 ms) and is one RB in frequency. Resource allocation decisions are made at each scheduling epoch. We define the m th scheduling epoch as the time duration in [mT e , ( m +1)T e ] and each epoch consists of T e /T f subframes in time. In this paper, T e is chosen to be equal to 4 T f . The justification of this selection T e is discussed later. Figure 1 shows an example of the uplink frame layout with relevant time durations shown. Successful transmission are shown in gray, while failures are red. As shown retransmissions occur exactly 8 subframes following the initial transmission using the same number of resource blocks. Localized SC-FDMA transmissions are limited to contiguity in frequency and each UE can transmit one TB using a com- mon MCS mode per subframe 1 . Retransmissions employing HARQ must be transmitted over the same number of resource blocks using the same MCS after exactly 8 subframes have passed from original transmission (non-adaptive HARQ). In each subcarrier, there are N sym symbols in per subframe. We assume a constant amount of symbols N ctrl are reserved for control while the rest are for data transmission. We assume for simplicity that valid TB sizes are those defined by CQI values given in Table 7.2.3-1 of [4]. Consequently, the overall number of data bits that can be transmitted per subframe over a set N of RBs in frequency is given as

η ( k, N ) = 12(N sym N ctrl ) k · |N | (1)

where k is the spectral efficiency from [4], N is a set of RBs

1 For single layer (non-MIMO) transmissions. [4]

8 subframes Time (subframes, n) ARQ slot (m)=T e =4T F ARQ subframe = ARQw
8 subframes
Time
(subframes, n)
ARQ slot (m)=T e =4T F
ARQ subframe = ARQw = 8T F
LTE
subframe (n)=T F
Frequency
(RBs)

Fig. 1: Frame Layout

978-1-61284-231-8/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE

This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2011 proceedings

in frequency and |·| is the size of a set. For N sym = 14

(regular cyclic prefix, [4]) and assuming N ctrl = 3, the above

reduces to η ( k, N ) = 132k · |N | .

The SNR of the channel between each UE and the eNB and from RB to RB is independent. A block fading model is assumed, where the channel is static for the duration of the decision epoch and independent from epoch to epoch. Channel estimation is assumed to be error-free and available at the eNB. The block error rate (BLER) is the average failure rate of TBs. In general this will depend on γ i,ef f (the effective SNR of a transmission), T i (the TB size), and k i (the MCS em- ployed). There exists no analytical solution to obtain the error rate of a coded transmission. Practically, estimates of BLER are based on receiver training/calibration. For the remainder of this paper, the measure of Information Outage probability (IOP) derived in [5] is used as a measure for BLER. The IOP was shown to closely model BLER for moderate block lengths. Extensions are trivial when system BLER can be more accurately estimated and stored for a particular implementation (via proper training). From [5], we obtain

BLER ( γ, N i , T i ) Q

log(1 + γ log(2) T i

132 |N i |

2

γ

132 |N i |

1+ γ

(2)

where N i is set of RBs in use, Q( ·) is the well-known Q-

function and γ i,ef f is the effective SNR. 132|N i | and

corresponds to the number of modulated symbols and effective spectral efficiency per allocation respectively. The measured effective SNR of a transmission is related to the SNR of the subchannels allocated for that particular transmission. As in [6], the effective SNR of an SC-FDMA symbol cannot be approximated using EESM or MIESM (as in OFDM), but rather it can be computed as the average SNR over the set of subchannels or as

T

i

132 |N i |

γ i,ef f ( m, N i ) = 1

(0)

|N i |

k∈N i

γ i,k ( m )

|N i |

(3)

where γ i,k ( m ) is the instantaneous SNR in resource block k seen from UE i relative to a reference power level γ 0 and N i is the set of RBs in the computation. The superscript

( x ) is used to denote the x th retransmission number where

0 is the initial transmission. The additional |N i | in the above equation describes that power is equally allocated across the all assigned resource blocks. Further, we can model the effect of retransmissions as an increase in the measured SNR [7]. We employ this model with coefficients for SNR gains given in Ta- ble 2 of [7]. We note however that for a given implementation, these gain factors can be obtained through receiver calibration measurements. The effective SNR of retransmission z is then given as (in dB)

γ

(

z )

i,ef f, ( dB ) ( m, N i , k i ) =

(0)

γ i,ef f, ( dB ) ( m, N i )

+ μ (z, k i ) · R code + (z, k i ) (4)

where R code is the code rate × 1024 which is given in [4]

), μ (z, k i ) and (z, k i ) are given from [7]

for each retransmission and modulation scheme and where

( i.e., 78, 120,

(0)

γ i,ef f ( m, N i ) is the effective SNR for UE i given in (3).

The required power to obtain BLER tgt is then simply

P i = γ i,ef f ( N i , T i )

γ

(

z )

i,ef f ( m, N i )

(5)

where γ i,ef f ( N i , T i ) is the γ argument in (2) when (2) is set equal to BLER tgt for given arguments N i and T i .

III. O PTIMAL A LLOCATION F RAMEWORK

It is well-known [2] that OFDM MA problems are NP-

hard due to Integer constraints on the subcarrier allocation variables. The problem is further complicated in localized SC- FDMA due to restrictions on contiguity of allocated resources. Nevertheless, for the interest of the reader we formulate the MA resource allocation optimization problem. Based on the characteristics of this problem formulation, we propose an online suboptimal scheme that tries to minimize the average transmission power of each new transmission in Section IV.

A. Time Domain, Time-Frequency Domain Packet Scheduler

Recent research, particularly for LTE systems, proposes

segmenting the packet scheduling problem into a time- domain packet scheduling (TDPS) and frequency-domain packet scheduling (FDPS) problem. Such methods [8] choose

a set of users at each scheduling interval to schedule (TDPS) and allocate them in frequency (FDPS) to maximize cell throughput (rate adaptive, RA).

In the energy limited regime, the goal is to minimize

transmission energy while meeting throughput requirements. In this regime, the optimal allocation for MA differs from that of an RA problem. As a result, RA methods are not directly applicable in solving the MA problem. Further, due to limitations imposed by synchronous HARQ, the above described approaches may experience ARQ blocking since the TDPS is limited in knowledge to a single subframe in time.

A simple method to eliminate ARQ blocking is to limit

the number of new transmissions a station can initiate in each ARQ window. In synchronous HARQ, retransmissions are limited to exactly ARQ w subframes following the initial transmission (where ARQ w = 8 in LTE uplink) and the maximum number of times a packet can be transmitted is 4 . Based on these observations, the maximum number of new transmissions that any station should initiate during any ARQ w subframes is ARQ w / 4=2 to eliminate any ARQ blocking. Based on this, we define an ARQ slot as the duration of time such that each UE can be allotted at most one new TB for transmission. Consequently, each ARQ slot m has a duration of 4 subframes or 1 / 2 of an ARQ w ( i.e., T e = 4T f ). We formulate the resource allocation problem by segment- ing it into a TDPS and Time-Frequency Domain packet scheduler (TFDPS). At the beginning of scheduling epoch (ARQ slot) m , the TDPS chooses which UEs can access the channel (and with how much data, T i ( m ) ) based on the buffers and priority of each UE over ARQ slot m . The TFDPS then allocates the UEs within the Time-Frequency grid of a ARQ slot based on channel conditions and on-going retransmission.

This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2011 proceedings

B. TDPS Formulation

During ARQ slot m , the TDPS analyzes the number of resources available for transmission. Based on this information combined with buffer and quality of service information, the TDPS chooses the set of UEs to transmit with TB size T i ( m ) . For the remainder of this paper, we assume all UEs

¯

transmit T i ( m ) = T i bits per frame. The detailed design of

an energy efficient TDPS will be presented elsewhere.

C. TFDPS Formulation

The TFDPS is formulated as follows. Given a set of

and a set of TB sizes for each UE

{T 1 ( m ) , T 2 ( m ) ,

ergy minimization problem can be formulated to solve for resource assignment (S i,j,n ( m ) and S i,j,n ( m ), i, j, n, m), power assignment (P i,n ( m ), i, n, m), and rate assignment ( k i,n ( m ) , i, n, m). Here S i,j,n ( m ) and S i,j,n ( m ) are binary indicators that denote whether a given RB j is allocated to a given UE i for both new transmissions and retransmissions respectively, P i,n ( m ) denotes the power allocated to UE i and k i,n ( m ) denotes the spectral efficiency of the MCS chosen for UE i all during subframe n of ARQ slot m . The energy-optimal objective function can be given as

K ( m )} for all m , the TFDPS en-

UEs { 1 , 2 ,

,K}

,T

min lim

t→∞

1

t

t

K

M

3

m

=0 i =1 j =1 n =0

α

i

( S i,j,n ( m ) + S i,j,n ( m ))P i,n ( m ) (6)

where α i is the relative importance parameter of power mini- mization for UE i and subframe n ∈ {0 , 1 , 2 , 3 } within ARQ slot m . 1) Rate Constraints: The amount of new information that must be transmitted during a frame is constrained as

M 3

j =1 n =0

S i,j,n ( m )k i,n ( m ) T i ( m ),

i, m

(7)

2) HARQ Constraints: The ARQ constraints ensure that resource allocation cannot occur in a subframe where a re- transmission exists. This means S i,j,n ( m )=0, n ∈ S i ( m 2), i, m, where S i ( m2) is the set of subframes during ARQ slot m 2 whose transmissions were unsuccessful and have not reached the maximum number of retransmissions. Further, the number of RBs allocated to a user during a retransmission must equal the original amount of RBs assigned, i.e.,

M

j

=1

S i,j,n ( m ) =

M

j

=1

( S i,j,n ( m 2) + S i,j,n ( m 2)),

(8)

3) New Transmission Limitation: In order to ensure ARQ blocking does not occur, each station is limited to a new transmission in a ARQ slot. This constraint is given as

n ∈ S i ( m 2),

i, m

n∈S

C

i

(

m2)

I

I ⎛

M

j

=1

S

i,j,n ( m )

1 ,

i, m

(9)

C

where I (x )=0 when x = 0 and 1 otherwise and S ( m 2) is the complementary set of S i ( m 2). 4) Allocation and Contiguity Constraints: Additionally, lo- calized SC-FDMA is limited to RB allocations in contiguity, this constraint can be given jointly as

i

K

i =1

( S i,j,n ( m ) + S i,j,n ( m )) 1 ,

S i,j,n ( m ) ∈ {0 , 1 }, j, n, m (10)

ensuring only a single user can occupy an RB during an instant of time and from [9] as

S i,j,n ( m ) ,

S i,j,n ( m ) S i,j +1 ,n ( m ) + S i,x,n ( m ) 1 ,

x = j + 2,

,M,

C

i

i, j, n ∈ S

(

m 2), m (11)

S i,j,n ( m )

S i,j +1 ,n ( m ) +

S i,x,n ( m ) 1 ,

(12)

5) Power Level Constraints: The applied power level con- straints are expressed as

x = j + 2,

,M, i, j, n ∈ S i ( m 2), m

P i,n ( m ) = γ i,ef f ( N i,n , T i ( m ))

γ

(0)

i,ef f ( m, N i,n )

C

i

, i, n ∈ S

(

m2), m (13)

¯

P i,n ( m ) = γ i,ef f (

( z i,n )

γ i,ef f

N i,n , T i ( m ))

( m,

¯

N i,n )

, i, n ∈ S i ( m 2), m

(14)

where z i,n ( m ) is the retransmission number in subframe n for UE i during ARQ slot m and N i,n = {j|S i,j,n ( m )=1} and

N i,n = {j| S i,j,n ( m )=1} Combining (6)-(14), forms the optimal TFDPS allocation for inputs T i ( m ) , m . In general, it is not computationally feasible to solve this problem for all time m . This is due to the time dependance on m ( i.e., scheduling for slot m depends on the outcome of all previous slots m ).

¯

IV. S UB -O PTIMAL R ESOURCE A LLOCATION S CHEME

As previously noted, it is not feasible to allocate resources described in Section III for all time m in advance. Traditional approaches in the literature [10] have done so by exhaus- tively breaking the system into channel states and solving the optimization problem as a function of these states. However unlike the above methods, the SC-FDMA channel has a large number of subchannels (RBs) resulting in a state space that grows exponentially with the number of RBs. This combined with the Integer allocation constraints above, makes solving the problem in this fashion infeasible. A greedy, less complex approach is to solve the problem online at each ARQ slot m . The resulting problem is still rather complex, particularly when considering the contiguity constraints. Recent work by Wong et al. [11] exploited these contiguity constraints as a method of reducing the overall

problem search space to solve the SC-FDMA RA allocation

problem. This was accomplished by exploiting the property that the number of exhaustive frequency contiguous allocations

This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2011 proceedings

is significantly less than the exhaustive allocations for a gen- eral OFDMA RA allocation problem. From the reduced search space, allocations were solved for each UE to maximize the

cell uplink sum-rate. While the exhaustive set of allocations reduces the search space, it is still quite large, particularly for a moderate number of RBs in frequency and UEs. In the case of an MA problem (where we look to minimize energy used for transmission while meeting a target rate rather than maximizing cell throughput), it is not necessary to allocate all RBs as in RA problems (as with the approach in [11]), but to simply allocate those necessary to minimize transmission power while meeting rate constraints. Further, Wong’s method suffers from needing to exhaustively consider all possible allocations while in practice, only a small number of allocations need to be considered in the problem. In our proposed method, we adapt the approach in [11] for the MA problem and solve the problem for each ARQ slot m . The proposed sub-optimal algorithm provides for a varying degree of complexity. By including a limited number of the most energy efficient allocations for a UE determined based on channel measurements, the optimization framework can consider a reduced search space. We denote this as the Best-

N method. The search space increases as N increases, and

in the limiting case when N is large, this method obtains the optimal allocation at each ARQ slot m . The algorithm operates as follows. At the beginning of each ARQ slot

m determine the subset of RBs available for transmission

as described in Section IV-A. For each UE, find the N most energy efficient allocations (power, rate and subcarriers) subject to the restrictions and details described in Section IV-B and formulate the reduced search-space optimization problem. Finally, allocate the chosen subcarriers to each UE at a given power level and using a given MCS.

A. Residual Resource Allocation

Due to the synchronous HARQ mechanism, any transmis- sion that was erroneous, and has not exceeded the maximum number of transmissions is rescheduled exactly 8 subframes following its original transmission. These transmissions are scheduled using the same set of RBs 2 and using the same MCS. To accommodate these restrictions, we denote the resource restriction for each UE the vector given as S i ( m ) T =

[S T 1 , S T 2 , S T 3 , S T 4 ] where S i,n has elements given as

i,

i,

i,

i,

S i,n : j =

⎧ ⎨ if block {n, j} is reserved for ReTx if UE i ReTx during n

1

,

1

,

otherwise j = 1,

0

,

,M

(15)

The resource restriction vector ensures that UEs are not able to initiate a new transmission during subframes where they have a retransmission, and cannot be allocated any resources that are reserved for retransmission by any UE.

B. Best- N Allocation Computation

The Best-N allocations represent the N allocations (set of RBs, MCS mode, and power allocated) that are the most energy efficient for the UE use for transmission. We denote

2 Retransmissions are restricted to the same RBs in frequency.

the tuple B i,n ≡ {k i , P i , N i } as the n th most energy efficient allocation for a UE i. These allocations minimize the required applied power to satisfy a target error rate BLER tgt . To obtain these allocation, for each UE i, we perform the following 1) For known T i ( m ) , obtain the number of RBs M ( k i ) needed for each MCS mode k i given from [4] and using (1) 2) For each unique quantity of resource blocks M ( k i ) , choose the minimum effective coding rate that can transmit T i ( m ) bits of data during that block 3) For each such MCS scheme, determine the power level needed to maintain BLER tgt for all possible allocations of M ( k i ) contiguous resource blocks using (2). As the Q-function is monotonic in its arguments, this can easy be found through efficient search techniques. 4) Store the Best- N allocations, including MCS, power level required and resource block set in B i,n ranked by required power allocation level. Once efficient allocations have been computed, the optimiza- tion problem is a general set-packing problem and can be formulated using binary programming as

(16)

min

c T x

x

s.t.

Ax 1 M , A eq x = 1 K ,

x j ∈ {0 , 1 }, j x

where c is a real-valued vector, x is the vector of allocation selections, A eq is the equality constraint matrix of K rows and A is the inequality constraint matrix. Each non-zero entry of the solution vector x corresponds to selecting the corresponding column allocation in A. Consequently, the matrices A and A eq are given as

A = [A 1 , ··· , A K ] (17) A eq = ⎣ ⎡

1

0

T C 1

.

.

.

T C 1

···

.

···

.

.

0

1

T

C

.

T

C

K

K

(18)

A K each contain a set

of potential RB allocations for each UE based on the efficient allocations found previously and C i is the number of columns in A i . The inequality ensures that at most 1 UE occupies any RB in frequency during any subframe while the equality is used to ensure exactly 1 allocation is chosen for each UE.

where the columns of matrices A 1 ,

,

The submatrix A i is obtained as follows. Let N ( i, n) be

the set of RB allocations for the n th allocation of i (stored in

B i,n ). A

i is then comprised of small submatrices for each of

the n allocations and for each subframe of the ARQ slot or as

A

i =

A i, 1

.

.

.

0 M

···

.

··· A i, 1

0 M

.

.

.

······

······

······

A i,n

.

.

.

0 M

···

.

···

.

.

0 M

.

A i,n

(19)

where 0 M is an M length column vector and A i,n is a M length column vector given as

a i,n : j

=

,

0 ,

1

j ∈ N ( i, n) otherwise

,

j = 1, 2 ,

,M

(20)

Finally, A i is obtained by removing any columns from A that share any non-zero row elements with the column vector S i ( m ) (to account for pre-allocated retransmissions).

i

Average Power per UE (dB)

Complexity Increase (%)

Average Power (dB)

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11 1000 10 500 9 Average Power, K=2 Average Power, K=6 Average Power, K=10 Complexity
11
1000
10
500
9
Average Power, K=2
Average Power, K=6
Average Power, K=10
Complexity Time, K=2
Complexity Time, K=6
Complexity Time, K=10
2
2
2.5
2.5
3
3
3.5
3.5
4
4
4.5
4.5
5
5
5.5
5.5
6 0
6

Best−N Parameter (N)

Fig. 2: Complexity Comparison

c K T ] is simply the cost

of choosing the corresponding allocation. The problem objec-

tive vector for each c i is c

where P i ( N ( j )) is the power level required for the n th transmission scheme, α i is the priority of UE i and N (j ) denotes the n th allocation corresponding to column j in A i . The above problem can be solved using binary programming techniques such as branch and bound at each ARQ slot m . The proposed optimization framework allows for solving the resource allocation problem efficiently at each scheduling epoch. While the proposed approach dramatically reduces the problem complexity, in rare cases the solution may be infeasible during a given scheduling epoch as we do not exhaustively allow selection of every possible allocation. To minimize the probability of this occurrence the designer may take a number of steps including limiting the maximum number of resource blocks that can be allocated to a single user as a function of available, enforcing overlap restrictions on the Best- N selection scheme or incrementing N and re- solving the problem when a solution is found infeasible.

The objective function c T = [c T ,

1

i

,

: j = α i P i ( N (j )), j = 1, 2 ,

,C

i

V. R ESULTS

To evaluate the performance of our proposed method, we implement the above framework and enforce the overlap restriction described above. The number of UEs and RBs is configured to 10 and 24 respectively with T f = 1ms, T e = 4ms, the Best- N depth set to 3 and all UEs have a priority ( α i ) equal to 1 . The reference SNR is set to γ 0 = 10dB and BLER tgt = 10%. Each subchannel is assumed to follow the Rayleigh SNR distribution p ( γ ) = 1 0 exp γ 0 where γ 0 is the mean SNR for a reference power level. Results are averaged over 40000 subframes. Due to length restrictions, limited results are shown for complexity and datarate. To observe the complexity tradeoff, Figure 2 shows the average power applied per UE versus the number of Best-

N allocations. We see that beyond 3 , there is little reduction

in average power, while a large complexity increase (measured via relative computation time) to the base case (2 UEs,

N = 2). Further, by increasing the number of UEs, there is an

increase in average power as result of each UE is less likely to be scheduled using its locally optimal allocation. While we note the effect of complexity and number of UEs on average power, the dependance on per UE TB size has a much larger

γ

γ

10 8 6 4 2 0 −2 −4 Average Power, K=2 −6 Average Power, K=6
10
8
6
4
2
0
−2
−4
Average Power, K=2
−6
Average Power, K=6
Average Power, K=10
−8
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000

TB Size (bits)

Fig. 3: Datarate Performance

effect on the average power performance (shown in Figure 3). This confirms that proper design of the TDPS (i.e., minimizing

T i ( m ) ) is vital in minimizing average transmission power.

VI. C ONCLUSION

In this work we have proposed framework for energy efficient resource allocation in the SC-FDMA multi-user up- link. Firstly, we proposed an alternative method of selecting an appropriate scheduling epoch based on the impact of synchronous HARQ. By utilizing the proposed method, we can reduce the number of allocation procedures in time and ensure users can always initiate a new transmission during any frame ( i.e do not experience ARQ blocking). Secondly,

, we proposed a sub-optimal energy efficient resource allocation method with a tunable complexity parameter to trade-off efficiency and complexity. In our future work, we will present the design of the energy efficient TDPS as well as look at more efficient allocation methods.

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