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64th annual enology & viticulture issue



JUNE 2013

Topography and Temperature

Research in Columbia Basin connects them 30

DtC and Third-Party Providers 55 How Much Microbiology Is Enough? 58 When You Need a New COLA 62

Technical Review: Trinchero Family Winery 34 ASEV to Honor Jim Wolpert 46 Wine East: Photosynthesis in High Tunnels 75

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Peter Mitham seasoned business writer in Vancouver, B.C., and our Pacific Northwest correspondent, Peter Mitham looks at the effect the Columbia River Basins topography has on growing degree days in the cover story on page 30. He began covering the wine industry in 1997 and has contributed to Wines & Vines since 2000.

In This Issue

A Member of Wine Communications Group Inc.

Lisa Van de Water n this months PWV section (page 58), Lisa Van de Water raises the question: How much microbiology do wineries need? Known internationally for her knowledge about fermentation, wine microbiology and spoilage, Van de Water consults worldwide through Vinotec Napa, Vinotec Chile and VinLab in South Africa.

Steve Pessagno veteran winemaker with a healthy sense of humor, Steve Pessagno shares his most embarrassing moments in the winery, his vineyard managers shelf of shame and other lessons from a 30-year winemaking career (page 67). Before founding Pessagno Winery, he made wine for Jekel Winery and Lockwood Vineyards.

EDITORIAL Advertising Editor West: Jacques Brix Jim Gordon Vice President & Director of Sales Managing Editor (707) 473-0244 Kate Lavin Midwest: Hooper Jones Staff Writer (847) 486-1021 Andrew Adams Senior Correspondent East: Marsha Tabb Paul Franson (215) 794-3442 Contributing Editor Jane Firstenfeld East: Laura Lemos Northwest Correspondent (973) 822-9274 Peter Mitham Columnists International: Dave Bayard Winemaking: Tim Patterson, Clark Smith (973) 822-9275 Grapegrowing: Cliff Ohmart, Glenn T. McGourty Practical Winery & Vineyard Advertising Manager Editor: Don Neel Christina Ballinger Associate Publisher: Tina Vierra Circulation Wine East Circulation Manager Editors: Hudson Cattell, Linda Jones McKee; Emilee Schumer Writer: Richard Carey Contributing Writers database development & Laurie Daniel, Jean Jacobson, Andrew Reynolds, information technology Chris Stamp, Fritz Westover, Stephen Yafa Database Manager Lynne Skinner PUBLISHING Database & Web Development President & Publisher James Rust, Peter Scarborough Chet Klingensmith Research Assistant Allison Bowser Publishing Assistant Caroline Shakeshaft Design & Production Chairman Bridget Williams Hugh Tietjen Barbara Summer Publishing Consultant Ad Prepress Ken Koppel Deborah Roberti
Publishing Information Volume 94, Number 6 Wines & Vines, ISSN 043-583X, a member of Wine Communications Group, Sonoma, Calif., is published monthly. Periodicals postage paid at San Rafael and at additional mailing offices. Subscription Rates U.S., $38.00; Canada/Mexico, $48.00 All other countries, $85.00 (for airmail add $85.00)

64th annual enology & viticulture issue



JUNE 2013

Topography and Temperature

Research in Columbia Basin connects them 30

Technical Review: Trinchero Family Winery 34

DtC and Third-Party Providers 55 How Much Microbiology Is Enough? 58 When You Need a New COLA 62

ASEV to Honor Jim Wolpert 46 Wine East: Photosynthesis in High Tunnels 75

Junes Cover evin Pogue of Whitman College provided the image for this months cover. Read about Pogues data collection and how it relates to vineyard topography starting on page 30.

Reproduction in whole or part without permission is prohibited. Wines & Vines does not assume responsibility for unsolicited manuscripts or materials. Postmaster Contributors are responsible for the proper release of Send address changes to: proprietary and/or classified information. Wines & Wines & Vines, PO Box 1649 Vines is distributed through an audited circulation. Boulder, CO 80306-1649 Customer Service (866) 453-9704

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Topography and Temperature 30





Contributors 4 Editors Letter 8

Why Academia and Industry Must Meet. By Jim Gordon

Wine Industry Data Center 10

Data from the Columbia Valley links elevation with growing degree days in Washington state.

Winery Economic Outlook Positive on Three Fronts; Wine Consumers Trade Up at Retail; Flash Prices Over Time.

Seeing Red at Trinchero 34 Interview: Celia Welch 42


News Headlines 14

Sutter Home owners use site for high-end reds. Winemaker says good design makes better wine.

ASEV Honors Wolpert 46


Grapevine Nurseries Face Supply Challenge; New Thinking in the Brett Debate; Dry Farming Economics; Whats in a Winery Name? Censored Wine Words on Hold; What Distinguishes Paso Cab? Mike Grgich turns 90; Wineries Shift to Mobile Platforms; Wine Supply Is All About Control. Plus News Bytes and Briefs.

UC Davis viticulturist to receive Merit Award.

Product News 28

Latest Winery & Grower Offerings and Developments.

Signing Bottles Is Illegal 52 Third-Party Wine Sales 55

Business model perplexes liquor authorities.


Faces & Forums 29

Oklahoma State University Debuts Wine Forum.

And other absurdities in California regulation.

Inquiring Winemaker 67 Calendar 81 Advertisers Index 82

Lessons Learned the Hard Way. By Steve Pessagno


Microbiology for All 58

News from Eastern North America 72

See insert between pages 18-19

How much do winery workers need to know?

Do I Need a New COLA? 62 Wineries Control Mold 65

Technology from NASA hits the wine cellar.

Taps Ready to Open in Florida; Tourism Summit Held in New York; Maryland Welcomes Antietam Highlands.

An outline of when new approval is necessary.


Quality Made in a Tunnel 90

6 W in e s & V i ne s J U NE 2 01 3


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Academia and Industry Must Meet

Improving relevance of ASEV Conference is a healthy priority
he American Society for Enology and Viticulture has been promoting the wine industrys health by supporting research and education for 64 years. Thats why this is our 64th annual Enology and Viticulture Issue, which coincides with the annual conference of the ASEV (see page 46 for more details about this months conference in Monterey, Calif.). I thought it was a good time to ask the societys leadership about its current priorities and challenges. After interviewing the director and three board members, it seems the ASEV is engaged in a healthy campaign to improve its relevance and expand its reach. And that it all comes down to bringing academia and industry together for the benefit of bothsometimes in spite of each others inclinations. Based in Davis, Calif., the society has 2,200 members, 100 industry affiliate companies and three chapters: an Eastern U.S. chapter, a Northwest chapter and the ASEV Japan chapter. The organization publishes the American Journal of Enology and Viticulture (AJEV), comanages the mammoth Unified Wine & Grape Symposium each January with the California Association of Winegrape Growers and runs the smaller ASEV National Conference on its own each June. The society funds annual scholarships, which this year total $80,000.
Past challenges

shallow commitment to research funding. As a winemaker for Treasury Wine Estates in Napa, Calif., she said, In industry we dont focus on research as much as we want to because it takes too long. We want answers right now, and we dont have five years to wait, so sometimes we take temporary measures. To get deeper into the root cause it takes more time and money. One industry member who enthusiastically attests to the relevance of the National Conference is Lise Asimont, the ASEVs second vice president and director of grower relations for Francis Ford Coppola Presents winery in Geyserville, Calif. Every single time at the National Conference I learn about something and I say, Why are we not doing that? A session about climate change caused one of these epiphanies, after which Asimont went back to the winery and ordered inexpensive weather data loggers for her growers. ASEV executive director Lyndie Boulton reported that membership is ticking back up. She stressed that the national conference has evolved to include more fundamentals of winemaking and grapegrowing.
Todays priorities

The organization watched membership decline after the banking crisis of 2008, and then it dramatically altered the Annual Conference in 2009 by dropping the accompanying trade show, to the disappointment of some industry suppliers and the relief of some others. Andrew Walker of the University of California, Davis, is the ASEVs technical program director. Walker said the society is still grappling with how that smaller conference is moving forward. The scientists want more science, and the industry members want more applied information, he said. They are not mutually exclusive at all, and they shouldnt be. The National Conference is a great opportunity for the scientists to tell the industry what theyre doingand this is essential, because if they dont do it then they wont get the funding they need from the industry. ASEV president Leticia Chacon-Rodriguez underscored the importance of connecting researchers with potential industry sponsors, and she lamented the U.S. wine industrys relatively
8 W in es & V i ne s J U NE 2 0 1 3

It all comes down to bringing academia and industry together for the benefit of both sometimes in spite of each others inclinations.

Boulton said she hopes all members will explore the powerful research tools and article archives from the academic journal now available at as well as in print. A big item on the agenda includes changes in the bylaws to make the society more relevant to industry and to encourage early career members. The challenge of serving the now far-flung U.S. wine industry is also top of mind. The National Conference has traveled to the Northwest three times since 2008, and the 2014 conference is now scheduled for Austin, Texas. Walker said that the potential for change in the AJEV is coming along. As for the National Conference, its important for it to be a true national meeting that draws more members from outside California, he said, as well as attracting the entire research community and as many technical industry people as possible. Its the only place the industry is going to find answers to very key questions, Walker maintained. We will be at the National Conference June 24-28 because it is a great source of inspiration for Wines & Vines editorial content. Hope to see you there.


Wine Industry Metrics

Domestic Wine Sales
$500 $450 $ Millions $400 $350
2011 2013 2012

Complete metrics data available to subscribers:

Winery Economic Outlook Positive on Three Fronts

Up 4% from 2012

$300 $250






Source: IRI, Wines & Vines

Off-premise sales of domestic wines at major food and drug stores rose 4% since April 2012 and maintained a 52-week growth rate of 6%.

The economic outlook for U.S. wineries remained positive on three fronts based on the latest data. All three Wine Industry Metrics pointed up in April. Winery hiring activity set a record again, while directto-consumer shipments and off-premise sales both rose in value. The Winejobs. com Index in April rose 59% above last April, based largely on a big increase in hospitality job-hiring activity. Domestic wine sales at retail grew 4% in value but only 1% in volume. In contrast, DtC shipments rose only 1% in value but grew 7% in volume. Jim Gordon

Direct-to-Consumer (DtC) Shipments

$240 $200 $160 $120 $80 $40 $0

DtC Shipments by Volume


2012 2013


$ Millions


Up 1% from 2012
9-Liter Cases (Millions)









Source: Wines & Vines/ShipCompliant Model

Direct-to-consumer shipments by U.S. wineries in April tracked very closely to results from April 2012, rising just 1% in value but 7% in volume.


Winery Job Index

280 260 220

.5 Index



Up 59% from 2012

May 2010- May 2011- May 2012 April 2011 April 2012 April 2013

180 140 100 60 20


Source: Wines & Vines/ShipCompliant Model






Winery hiring activity continued at an all-time high in April, up 59% for the month and 28% for the year to date.
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Wines & Vines often reports on the value of DtC sales, but since volume grew faster in April than value, here is a view of shipment volume. The number of 9-liter case equivalents grew dramatically from 2011 through 2013, as seen in this graph, which measures results going back three years. Volume grew by 8% between April 2011 and April 2012 and by 9% between April 2012 and April 2013, reaching 3.25 million cases.


Wine Consumers Trade Up at Retail

Value of domestic wine grows 6% while volume is flat

etail sales of domestic table wine grew 6% through April 21 this year, generating $87 million more than during the same period in 2012. The numbers reflect a continuing, long-term expansion of the off-premise wine market as measured by market research firm IRI. The expansion reflects only a slight increase in volume0.6% so far this year meaning that consumers are not buying more bottles but rather adding more expensive bottles to their shopping carts. With the dollars being up, with the economy doing well, it shows that a lot of people are trading up, said Curtis Mann, IRI director of wine and spirits insights. Definitely, the industry is very healthy right now. New folks entering the wine

category are entering at the $8 to $11 level, and once they enter, they are not trading down as much as they did threefour years ago. Thats a pretty big step for American wine consumers to enter at that price level and stay there. The highest rates of growth by price segment continue to be the most expensive. Domestic wines from $11 to $14.99 per bottle grew more than 10% so far this year; those from $15 to $19.99 increased 5%, and wines priced at $20 or more ballooned by 19%. Sales of premium boxed wines also grew by 19%. These categories are not as big in sales as the $5-$7.99 segment, but they now account for bigger slices of the pie than two years ago, and their success is lifting

the overall business, Mann observed. He said its not the case that many brands have raised their prices but that wineries have introduced new brands at higher price points, and consumers have stepped up to them. Looking at the major brands and the long-term price situation, nobody has taken any significant price increases, Mann said, though a few have tried and then retreated. Its a concern for the wine industry. People wont pay more for the same brand theyve already been purchasing. They have more disposable income, and they are moving into $20-plus, but not buying more wine. Essentially they are driving the price mix up, but pricing is not increasing. Jim Gordon

Long-Term Growth of Off-Premise Sales


$ Millions



Source: IDL_Dir11

Jun 07

Dec 07

Jun 08

Dec 08

Jun 09

Dec 09

Jun 10

Dec 10

Jun 11

Dec 11

Jun 12

Dec 12

, Wines & Vines4:21 PM 11/18/10

Off-premise sales of domestic table wine at major U.S. food and drug stores. Page 1

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The Flash Report

Flash Reseller No. of Domestic April Offers Average Flash Price (750ml) Average Pageviews* Discount (000)

Complete flash data available to subscribers:

Special Offers Fuel Spike in Prices

Cinderella Wine Invino Last Bottle Wines Last Call Wines Lot18 The Wine Spies Wine Woot Wines Til Sold Out WineShopper

6 141 10 43 19 27 39 72 29

$21.27 $24.74 $26.05 $30.99 $31.43 $23.38 $18.90 $20.32 $20.67

39% 42% 50% 40% 22% 34% 48% 52% 36%

27 37 58 111 219 27 406 218 135

Source: WinesVinesDATA, *Source:, Apr. 2013

Flash prices have stayed relatively constant aside from dips around the start of the year and a sharp increase during the summer of 2012. The highest prices in the past 28 months came in June and July of 2012, when offers of older vintage Napa Valley wines by Invino raised the average retail price to nearly $60 and the average flash price to $37. Aside from this increase in the average prices, the flash discount stayed relatively constant at 40%. In April of this year, a special sale by Invino helped push the total number of offers to 440. Invinos 141 offers in April were almost double that of Wines Til Sold Out, which had the second highest number of offers at 72. Offers are down slightly from last year as Lot18 pulls away from flash sales to operate more as a wine club. Andrew Adams

Flash Prices Over Time

60$60 50$50 40$40
Average Discount Average Retail Price









Average Flash Price


Jan 11 Apr 11 Jul 11 Oct 11 Source: WinesVinesDATA,

Jan 12 Apr 12

Jul 12 Oct 12

Jan 13 Apr 13

Flash Discounts for a Sample of pinot noir offered in april

Discount Winery/Brand 23% Foris Vineyards Winery 24% Stoller Vineyards 28% Flowers Vineyard & Winery 43% Domaine Drouhin Oregon 43% Q8 54% Fulcrum Wines 58% Keller Estate 60% Torii Mor Winery
Source: WinesVinesDATA

Region/ State Varietal Vintage Winery Vineyard Retail Rogue River Valley OR Pinot Noir 2008 $35.00 Willamette Valley OR Pinot Noir 2010 $25.00 Sonoma Coast CA Pinot Noir 2010 $89.99 Willamette Valley OR Pinot Noir 2010 $79.98 Russian River Valley CA Pinot Noir 2011 $105.00 Monterey County CA Pinot Noir 2010 $54.00 Sonoma Coast CA Pinot Noir 2010 $40.00 Willamette Valley OR Pinot Noir 2007 $65.00

Flash Price $26.99 $18.88 $64.99 $45.98 $59.97 $24.99 $16.99 $26.00

Winery Size Flash Site In Cases 40,000 Good Juice Direct 10,000 Cinderella Wine 20,000 Last Call Wines 18,000 Last Call Wines 100,000 Lot18 1,000 Cinderella Wine 1,500 Wines Til Sold Out 13,000 Last Bottle Wines

leading Flash sites

Company Name URL Principals Affiliation Operation
Cinderella Wine Gary Vaynerchuk Wine Library Releases one wine at noon and one at 9 p.m. M-F. Buys only from distributors. Invino Tony and Danielle Westfall Good Company Wines Offers two to four new wines daily for 48-72 hours, or until the wine is sold out. Last Bottle Wines Cory Wagner Blicker Pierce Wagner Wine Offers one wine until sold out. Merchants (BP Wine) Last Call Wines Michael Rockower Canals Hamilton Wine Store, N.J. Offers four to six wines per day, available until sold out. Lot18 Philip James, Kevin Fortuna Advertising platform for wineries to sell directly to consumers. The Wine Spies Jason Seeber, Brandon Stauber Sells one wine each day, 365 days per year. Wine Woot David and George Studdert Amazon One deal daily M-F. Emphasizes interactivity. Winery controls price. Wines Til Sold Out Joe Arking Roger Wilco (liquor store) Sells one wine at a time from midnight EST until sold out. WineShopper Rich Bergsund, Mike Osborn One new event per day, with one to five products. Source: WinesVinesDATA,

12 W in e s & V i ne s J U NE 2 013

Grapevine Nurseries Face Supply Challenge
Viruses complicate business for suppliers of vines in California
ountville, Calif.Nurseries already had been dealing with leafroll virus, spread by the vine mealybug, when red blotch (formerly red blotchassociated virus) started sweeping through vineyards in Napa Valley. At a forum organized by the Napa Valley The presence of red blotch is causing Grapegrowers, a panel of representatives trouble for nurseries that supply grapevines. from leading nurseries discussed the diseases. Foundation Plant Services, the source of Dan Martinez of Martinez Orchards in certified vine stock for nurseries to grow, Winters, Calif., said that red blotch made has tested its stock and found very few the nursery change its testing processes. vines infected with red blotch, but it cant Red blotch isnt defined yet, so CDFA supply large quantities of vines tested by cant certify that vines are free of it now. the important 2010 protocol yet. And once Were not sure what testing is best. Weve nurseries get the sample vines, it takes a gotten different results on the same vine number of years before they have sufficient from different labs. plants and then dormant cuttings for sale. Unfortunately, clean material isnt The nurseries report that they have enough. Dan Martinez of Martinez Orcertified rootstocks now, and the virus chards said, You can start clean, but doesnt seem to be turning up in root- theres no guarantee after that. stock, but without certified scion wood, The vine mealybug is a game changer, they cant produce grafted vines said Sunridges Maniaci, for for sale. All the nurseries got many suspect it can spread red Learn more: rootstock from FPS at the same Search keywords blotch. Some vines that tested Grapevine supply. time last year, said Steve Maclean for leafroll II exhibited it niaci of Sunridge Nurseries. when planted. We havent seen Maniaci explained that the California any in rootstock blocks, but see some in Department of Food and Agriculture man- scion blocks, he said. ages the certification program supported Steve Huffman of Vintage Nurseries said by assessments on vines. If you want to his company planted a new block in northplant vines to grow more plants (an in- ern Kern County, and its surrounded by crease block), they must be inspected by the orchards without any vineyards for miles. CDFA, and the plants have to come from Weve seen red blotch from source vinethe FPS and be managed properly. One yards on the Central Coast surrounded by requirement is to plant in land that hasnt other vineyards. been used for vines for at least 10 years. Paul Franson
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Cal Poly FORMS Memorial Fund

Obispo, Calif., have donated $50,000 to esKeith Patterson

tudents and alumni of California Polytechnic State University in San Luis tablish a memorial fund in honor of the late Keith Patterson, who was a professor of viticulture from 1997 to 2013 and the faculty advisor for the campus

Vines to Wines club. The Patterson Memorial Fund will be used to provide long-term support for wine and viticulture at Cal Poly. For more information or to donate to the Patterson Memorial Fund, email Bacchus invests in Madrigal

capital from Bacchus Capital Management LLC. We are fortunate to have found each other and look forward to a long and successful partnership, said winery president Chris Madrigal. In addition to the investment, Bacchus brings in Ed Sbragia as consulting winemaker, and Steve Cousins will assume the role of chief operating officer. Oregon incentives for sprayers

adrigal Vineyards in Napa Valley received an infusion of equity growth

he Oregon office of the National Resources Conservation Service secured

$75,000 in grant funds to help growers upgrade to more efficient sprayer machines that collect and reuse spray drift. Growers could be eligible to receive a $5,000 payment to purchase a highefficiency sprayer
Learn more: Search keyword Oregon sprayer.

or a 50% retrofit grant thats typically about $500. Oregon State University researchers estimate improved sprayers could save growers more than $120 per acre during spray season.


New Thinking in the Brett Debate

UC Davis researchers create Brettanomyces aroma wheel
an Rafael, Calif.As much as its reviled, the yeast Brettanomyces has its supporters in those who think a little bit of barnyard or wet dog imparts a distinct identity to their wines. The clean, modern winemaking practices of the sort espoused by the University of California, Davis, have long placed Brett squarely in the menace category. But Dr. Linda Bisson, who studies the metabolic pathways of yeast at UC Davis, likens Brett to a color in an artists palette. Granted, it might be a color similar to a brash, fluorescent green that is best used sparingly, she told Wines & Vines. Bisson and UC Davis Viticulture & Enology Department staff member Lucy Joseph are working on a Brett aroma wheel to catalog the smells that can be associated with the yeast. The wheel is the result of a study the two performed on a collection of 83 Brett strains, 17 of which were identified as positive and five

Savory, veggie, fruity and floral are four spokes in the Brettanomyces Aroma Wheel.

as negative by a sensory panel. Strains that garnered a negative reaction were those that generated more aromas in the rotten and putrid category, as opposed to positive characteristics such as floral and spicy.

These findings and others were discussed at a forum at UC Davis earlier this year. Bisson said Bretts effect on a wine is influenced by the strain found in the vineyard or winery as well as cultural and regional differences in taste. What may be considered a flaw in a Napa Valley Cabernet could be described as integral to the essence of a Burgundian Pinot. Spoilage is in the eye of the beholder, she said. Chris Howell, winemaker and general manager of Cain Vineyard and Winery on Spring Mountain in Napa Valley was the only winemaker at the UC Davis forum who didnt agree with describing Brett as a spoilage yeast. Instead, Howell sees it as something that can help make wines that are compelling rather than just clean and unflawed. The magic of wine is that it can transcend the winemakerand these are the wines that we find most interesting, the wines we cant forget. Andrew Adams

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Dry Farming Economics

Grapegrowers discuss practices for quality and water conservation

Grapegrower and winemaker Tom Dillian of Amador County, Calif., planted his block of dry-farmed Zinfandel in 1972.

lymouth, Calif.Before irrigation systems became widely available, dry farming was standard practice for planting and managing wine grapes in California. Dry farming is still possible and successfully used by some growers, but it is site-specific and dependent on annual rainfall, climate, soil type and grape variety. Dry Farming Winegrapes, an educational forum organized by the Community Alliance with Family Farmers (CAFF), the Amador County Wine Grape Growers Association and the Lodi Winegrape Commission (LWC) was held April 16 in the Shenandoah Valley of Amador County in Californias Sierra Foothills. Since dry-farmed grapes tend to have lower yields, long-time Amador grower Dick Cooper of Cooper Vineyards advised growers to consider the economics. Generally, given the costs for production in this area, if youre not producing 4 tons per acre and getting at least $1,500 per ton, you arent going to make it, Cooper said. Tom Dillian is a fourth-generation Amador Cherokee_Nov05.qxt 9/19/05 10:52 AM grower. Page He 1 dry farms 20 acres of wine grapes on property his family has owned since 1917.

My location is great for dry farming. I have very deep, loamy soils with super moisture-holding capacityand with very few rocks, that makes this site very different from most of the Shenandoah Valley. Rather than dry farming, Dillian calls his practices moisture management. In years Learn more: with normal or less than normal rainfall, Search keywords Dry farming. everything is cultivated to allow moisture to penetrate deeper for the vine roots. Higher rainfall years provide excess moisture for the vines, and native cover crops are left to grow to take up moisture, then every other row is cultivated later in the spring. Tim Holdener, owner/winemaker for Macchia winery in Lodi, Calif., seeks out grapes from dry-farmed vineyards in Lodi and Amador. Holdener said there is a market for dry-farmed grapes, and growers should ask an above-average price. This is a marketing niche, he said. Jon Tourney

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Censored Wine Words on Hold

European negotiations stalled since 2009

A handful of common words are used often in winery names. Among them: Oak, Ridge, River, Valley, Canyon, Mountain, View, Family, Estate and Farm.

an Rafael, Calif.Wineries in the U.S. still dont know whether words on their labelsincluding their

nameswill eventually be accepted on wines they might export to Europe. Since a 2006 trade agreement between the United States and the European Union expired in 2009, a list of terms has been under negotiation. Since then, almost nothing has been resolved. From the original list of contested terms, only classic and cream have been approved for U.S. exports to the European Union, according to Gladys Horiuchi at the San Francisco, Calif.-based Wine Institute. The remaining list of common descriptors still in question includes: ruby, tawny, vintage, solera, noble and sur lie. Vintage, a name or number that appears on literally countless U.S. wine labels, is still in limbo. So are two terms that have identified dozens of U.S. wineries for decades: Chateau (65) and Clos (14). A Wine Institute statement dated Sept. 25, 2012, stated, Wines from outside of France using the term chateau have been sold in the European Union for decades. The U.S. is simply seeking to have its wineries granted the same rights as wineries in other countries. The issue is still up in the air, said Michael Kaiser at national trade organization WineAmerica. The EU definitely wants U.S. wineries to stop (using the terms), but nothing is signed yet. WineAmerica and Wine Institute both employ consultants who continue to seek resolution. Jane Firstenfeld

Whats in a Winery Name?

Experts: Settle on brand image before naming
an Rafael, Calif.You want to have a simple, memorable name that is not too difficult to pronounce or spell, said Dr. Liz Thach, wine business professor at Sonoma State University. If you have a lot of foreign customers, make sure your name doesnt have a different meaning in other languages. A lot of people use their last name, but if its too common, that can be dangerous Learn more: Search keywords unless you can differentiate yourself, said Thach, whose own name Winery name. is pronounced not thatch, but Toch (rhymes with Mayor Koch). Thach addressed winery naming after a discussion among Wines & Vines colleagues who had looked up an iconic California winery in WinesVinesDATA only to discover a plethora of wine brands using similar names. It turns out that the famous Ridge Vineyards of Cupertino, Calif., shares part of its identity with 199 wine brands in North America. Its unlikely that many consumers would confuse the classic Cabernet Sauvignon producer with 250,000-case Oak Ridge Winery in Lodi, Calif. Nor would buyers likely mistake Oak Ridges Royal Ridge Silk Oak brand with Silver Oak, producer of popular and pricey Cabernet Sauvignon in Napas Oakville AVA and in Sonomas Alexander Valley. Currently, 114 North American producers use Oak as part of their names. Ridges and oaks are dominant elements of many wine country landscapes. Naming a business is a serious businesspart sentiment, part art, part scienceand can have serious economic ramifications. Marketing maven Dixie Huey, proprietor of Trellis Growth Partners LLC, has helped to name and brand many wineries in the Pacific Northwest. Frequently, clients come to her with a name in mind. This is not the sequence she recommends. Theres more of a process to selecting a name. First, can it be trademarked? If you have a name, you need to get it trademarked, or go back to square one. In starting or rebranding a winery, Huey suggested, do not start with a name. First, make a business plan: Define your vision, who your customers will be and how you will be selling your wines. Understand your business model and do not do any design work until you have a trademarked name. It happens all the time, Huey said. People come up with a name and a design, and then the name cannot be trademarked. Thats an expensive and time-consuming mistake. You must decide what the business is going to be, otherwise, youre spinning your wheels. Let the process guide you. Go for the trademark, then for the packaging and identity. Jane Firstenfeld
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Learn more: Search keywords Censored words.


What Distinguishes Paso Cab?

Winemakers connect characteristics to the regions climate, soil and people

aso Robles, Calif.What makes Cabernet Sauvignon from Paso Robles different from Cabernet grown elsewhere in California? Is it the climate, the soil or the people? Six winemakers debated this topic and others April 27 as part of the inaugural CABs of Distinction event for media, trade and consumers in this upland section of San Luis Obispo County. Here Cabernet Sauvignon, traditional in Bordeaux, is the most widely planted cultivar, but Rhone Valley grape varieties often capture much of the publics attention. The winemakers each brought a wine to share with the group of 40 media and trade members assembled in a tent adjacent to an immaculate horse barn at Windfall Farms on the east side of the 614,000-acre Paso Robles American Viticultural Area. They described the style of wines made from Cabernet and other Bordeaux-bred grape varieties in the AVA as brighter in flavor,

Paso Robles winemakers make the case for Cabernet during an April 27 panel discussion.

naturally high in acidity and with tamer but rich tannins compared to wines from the states standard bearer for high quality Cabernet: Napa Valley. Then they detailed what factors they Learn more: believe create the Search keywords differences. Paso Robles Cab. Kevin Willenborg, winemaker for Vina Robles, said the defining characteristics of the Paso Robles terroir are the high diurnal temperature variance (as much as 50F) and very limited soil nutrients in the generally calcare-

ous, high-pH soil that controls the natural vigor of Cabernet vines. These factors help explain how a region with summer temperatures frequently hitting 100F can produce vibrant wines that dont need acidification, according to another speaker, Daniel Daou, who owns Daou Vineyards with his brother. We came here because we thought we could achieve ripeness every year, said Daou, who was a founder of the Paso Robles Cab Collective, which hosted the event. The soils here are very different compared to much of California. The clay gives you richness; the calcareous composition gives you natural acidity, Daou said. A low level of rainfall in Paso compared to Sonoma and Napa counties is an advantage, said Steve Peck, winemaker for J. Lohr Vineyards and Wines. Our opportunity here is that we dont have to dry moisture out of the soil, but we may need to drive it up. Jim Gordon

Mike Grgich Turns 90

Napa Valley legend reflects on career spent in winemaking

utherford, Calif.Celebrating his 90th birthday with a tasting and lunch for media members and friends, California winemaking legend Miljenko Mike Grgich reminded his guests about familiar facts from his life and added many interesting tidbits. Grgich is the immigrant winemaker from Croatia who has worked in Napa Valley for 55 years and co-owned Grgich Hills Cellar (now Grgich Hills Estate) since 1977. He was the winemaker responsible for the 1973 Chateau Montelena Chardonnay that, along with Stags Leap Wine Cellars Cabernet Sauvignon, forever made California a legitimate contender with France in winemaking. Grgich worked with some of Napa Valleys founding winemakers, including Andre Tchelistcheff, before joining Chateau Montelena as winemaker in 1972. Ironically Jim Barrett, who owned Chateau Montelena, died just a short time before Grgichs anniversary, and he and Grgich remained on strained terms. Without mentioning him by name, Grgich complained during his celebration about owners who act like theyre winemakers, saying its a phenomenon that continues today. Grgich solved that problem by creating his own winery with help from Austin Hills, who provided capital and vines but has stayed mainly in the background.

Hailey and Janet Trefethen (from left) present Mike Grgich with a larger than life birthday cake while Grgichs daughter Violet watches.

Once rising to 100,000 cases per year, the winerys production has dropped to a more comfortable level Learn more: of 60,000 to 70,000 for optimum qualSearch keywords ity. Over the years, the winery also bought Grgich turns 90. vineyards that now total 366 acres in Napa Valley, all certified organic. You need to control the vineyards to make great wine, claims Grgich. Today Mike Grgich lives in Palm Springs, Calif., leaving the winerys fortune primarily in the hands of his daughter, Violet Grgich, and nephew Ivo Jeramaz. He says his nose, the source of much of his good fortune, cant take the pollen and other allergens of Napa Valley anymore. Aside from a hearing aid and a cane, Grgich remains as impish as always. Paul Franson
Win es & Vi n es JU NE 20 13 19


Wineries Shift to Mobile Platforms

One e-commerce provider says more than 17% of its winery traffic is mobile

ellevue, Wash.Digital media consultant Rick Bakas of San Francisco, Calif.-based Bakas Media told wine industry members at marketing seminars in Oregon and British Columbia a year ago that indicators pointed to a breakthrough for mobile commerce in 2014.

Recently Bakas told Wines & Vines that wineries are still lagging in the development of a mobile presenceor what he prefers to call a digital strategy, one that takes a coordinated approach to desktop and mobile interfaces, social media and apps.

From what I see, approximately 75% of wineries using the social web still havent figured out the basics of social media and are doing it wrong, he said. Andrew Kamphuis, founder of Canadas Vin65 in Abbotsford, B.C., said mobile traffic through the sites of the 800-odd wineries for which his company manages e-commerce platforms has doubled in each of the past three years. Two years ago in December, about 5% of our traffic was on mobile, he said. This past Christmas it was at 17.5%. Thats a huge uptake in mobile traffic. Kamphuis expects the percentage of traffic coming from mobile could hit 30% by the end of this year. Wineries have responded accordingly, he said. Originally an inventory-management firm, OrderPort LLC of Bellevue, Wash., has developed a roster for its eponymous tasting room software since debuting it at the Washington Association of Wine Grape Growers convention in February 2012. A partnership with Vintners Logistics LLC and Vintners Direct LLC allows the fulfillment of orders from consumers to wholesalers, with integrated management and keeping of records. It does all their sales, said Stephen Ratzlaff, managing partner of OrderPort. A lot of wineries have different systems to manage each one of those. We do it all in one place, so at the end of (the) month its really easy to do all of your accounting, all of your compliance reports. Ben Williams of Wattle Creek Winery in Cloverdale, Calif., told Wines & Vines that the system has helped the winery boost its mailing list, helping it get the word out about its wines to more people. In addition, consumer data is shared securely across the winery, so that the existing relationship is honored if one of those consumers follows through and buys wine. This wasnt the case last year, when Wattle Creek was manually adding customer information to three separate databases. We were running a wine club database system, I was running a separate system for our mass emailer, and I was running yet another database system for our online sales, he said. Theyve been as close to a silver-bullet solution as I could ever hope to find. Peter Mitham

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apa, Calif.If the market in the of winemakers, winery owners and other past decade rewarded nimble wine industry clients. companies that found the best The growing demand for wine has kept deals for grapes and bulk wine by vineyard land prices high. Buying property, playing the spot market, successful winer- however, locks in the source of grape supply ies in coming years will be the ones who for a winery and denies it from a competicontrol their supply chain. tor. One option is just to bite the bullet and Thats the message from industry ana- pay the higher prices, Rannekleiv said. lysts with Rabobank, who see global wine Finding alternative partners for plantproduction continuing to decline and do- ing contracts is another option. Almond mestic consumption outstripping domestic growers have shown some interest in diverproduction, leading to intense supply pres- sifying with wine grapes as a hedge against sure in coming years. any drop in nut prices. Grapes are profitDespite the large 2012 crop, Rabobanks able and require less water than almonds. analysts see structural limitations to Investment firms continue to eye vineyards match the growing domestic and global because of the potential for steady and thirst for wine with the available grape growing returns. High land prices could supply. Wine companies that fail present a challenge to moving forto secure their sources of supply ward with either type of partnerLearn more: will face increasing challenges ship. They still need to make it Search keywords Rabobank supply. to grow their brands over the pencil out, he said. This is not a long term, concluded the report by Ste- catch-all solution by any sense. phen Rannekleiv, the executive director of Instead of playing the market, Rannekleiv the banks food and agribusiness research suggested wine companies seek long-term and advisory group. contracts with foreign bulk wine producers During a session at the Silverado Resort to control a segment of their supply. A dediin Napa Valley, Rannekleiv and Vernon cated partnership with a foreign winery can Crowder, a senior vice president and agri- lend a sense of place and history to a brand cultural economist based in Fresno, Calif., that can be difficult to replicate, he wrote. discussed sourcing strategies with a group Andrew Adams

22 W in e s & V i ne s J U NE 2 013


News Briefs
Muellers sell winery

Brambila launches new label

Wines & Vines welcomes news items from wineries, vineyards and industry suppliers located in the wine regions of North America. Send us your latest news by emailing Andrew Adams at Items may be edited for clarity and brevity.

Bob and Lori Mueller, who own Mueller Winery in Sonoma County, announced they had sold their winery on Starr Road near Windsor. The sale did not include the Mueller brand, wine inventory or grape contracts. The Muellers will be moving their tasting room to downtown Healdsburg and will crush grapes this year at a shared facility in Santa Rosa. Details:

purchase of Mayacamas Vineyards in the Mt. Veeder appellation of Napa Valley. Robert Travers had owned the winery since 1968. Banks said in a statement that he plans to renovate the winery and 52 acres of vineyards to restore Mayacamas to its original, celebrated state. Banks is a founder and managing partner of Terroir Capital in Santa Barbara. Details:
Don Sebastiani & Sons hires winemaking director

Gustavo Brambila relaunched his own wine brand as Gustavo Wine after parting ways with former partner Thrace Bromberger. Brambila started making wine on his own in Gustavo Brambila 1999 after working with Mike Grgich at Grgich Hills Cellars since 1977. Details:
Ammons named winemaker at Rudd Estate in Oakville

Rob McNeill is the new director of winemaking for Don Sebastiani & Sons wine company in Sonoma. McNeill previously worked for Mumm Napa and will oversee the companys winemaking facility in Banks, partners buy Mayacamas Vineyards Napa and the winemaking team of Greg Charles and Ali Banks, 5/17/06 with partners Jay AlainFouquet_Aug06 10:57 AM Kitchens Page 1 and Gloria Mercado-Martin. Deand Joey Schottenstein, announced their tails:

Frederick Ammons is the new winemaker at Rudd Estate winery in Oakville. Ammons is the former winemaker at The Napa Valley Reserve and holds an enology degree from the University of Bordeaux in France. Details:
Malbecs join Sodaro

Denis and May-Britt Malbec will oversee winemaking operations at Sodaro Estate Winery in Napa. The couple will continue the winemaking program initiated in 2001 by Dawnine and Bill Dyer.

Win es & Vi n es JU NE 20 13 23


The Malbecs both worked at Chateau Latour before becoming full-time winemaking and marketing consultants. Details:
Winemaker joins Ledson winery

Matt Standing joined the winemaking team at Ledson Winery & Vineyards in Sonoma. Standing, originally from England, earned an honors degree in viticulture and enology from Plumpton College in Sussex, England. Before joining Ledson, Standing Matt Standing worked harvests making sparkling wine at Wiston Estate Winery in West Sussex, England. Details:
Fort Ross-Seaview group forms

embark on a series of winery startups. In 1994, together with three partners, he formed Silverado Partners, which led the buyout of Beringer Vineyards from Nestle George A. with Texas Pacific Vare Jr. Group. He served as director of Beringer Wine Estates Holdings Inc. through its acquisition by Fosters Brewing Group in 2000.In 1996, he co-founded and built Luna Vineyards and later became a grower and proponent of the aromatic white grape Ribolla Gialla.
Borboa winemaker at Oak Ridge

traminer and a Syrah ros, all made with fruit from the organic estate vineyard. The winery, owned by Rick Thrussell, is located on a former fruit orchard overlooking Lake Okanagan. Details:

Sage Hill makes wine from its estate vineyard.

Michael Borboa is the new head winemaker at Oak Ridge Winery in Lodi. Borboa is the former export winemaker for Bear Creek Winery, which is also located in Lodi. Details:
Napa winery opens in new location

Griffin winery marks 30 years

Growers in western Sonoma County have formed the Fort Ross-Seaview Wine growers Association to complement the AVA of the same name that was approved in 2011. The AVA comprises 555 acres of vines, most at higher elevations above the regions thick coastal fog. Daniel Schoenfeld, winemaker and owner of Wild Hog Vineyard in Cazadero, is the groups new chairman.
Fetzer hires grower-relations manager

Y Rousseau Wines in Napa Valley opened its new 2,000-square-foot winery and byappointment tasting room in Napa and released its first Tannat wine made with grapes from the Russian River AVA. Winemaker and owner Yannick Rousseau is a native of the Gascony region of southwest France and has been making wine in Napa since 1999. Details:
JC hires assistant winemaker

Barnard Griffin Winery in Richland, Wash., celebrated its 30th anniversary. Owners Rob Griffin and Deborah Barnard also announced that they have completed an expansion and renovation of the winery. This is the next step for us as a business: to grow and to incorporate the second generation, Griffin Rob Griffin said in a statement. Details:

Ben Byczynski is the new grower-relations manager for Fetzer Vineyards in Hopland. Sapporo joining Fetzer, Byczynski was the Before chief administrative officer and viticulturist at Trione Vineyards & Winery. Details:
Winemaker rejoins Franciscan

Rory Sheehe joined JC Cellars in Oakland as assistant winemaker. Sheehe is the former assistant winemaker at Calcareous Vineyard winery in Paso Robles. Details:


Penner-Ash hires sales and marketing manager

Marla Carroll returned to the winemaking Tokyo team at Franciscan Estate winery in St. HelNagoya ena. Carroll started at Franciscan in 2004 Osaka roshima and worked as an enologist and assistant winemaker before taking time off to be with her family. Details: pan
Luna founder dies

George A. Vare Jr., 76, died April 12 in Napa. Vare entered the California wine business in 1972, when he purchased Geyser Peak Winery as part of the mergers and acquisitions team for Schlitz Brewing Co. He served as president of Geyser Peak Winery before leaving in 1979 to
24 W in es & V i ne s J U NE 2 0 13

Penner-Ash Wine Cellars in Newberg, Ore., announced Jane Box is the winerys new direct sales and marketing manager. Box previously worked at Louis Vuitton and Moet Hennessy USA as well as running an online cooking website and personal chef consultancy in New York. Details:
Sage Hills makes inaugural release

Messina Hof honored at three contests

Sage Hills Vineyard in Summerland, B.C., released its inaugural Pinot Gris, Gewurz-

Messina Hof Winery & Resort of Bryan, Texas, recently won medals and honors at three international wine competitions in its home state. The winery received three gold medals at the Dallas Morning News International Wine Competition, was named a Top All-Around Winery at the Houston Livestock Show and Rodeos wine competition and earned medals and Best of Herd Texas Winery honors at the San Antonio Stock Show & Rodeo Wine Competition. Details:

JUNE NEWS Two EEs winery opens in Indiana

Eric Harris and Emily Hart opened TwoEEs Winery near Huntington, Ind., using their first initials for the winery name. The 6,000-square-foot winery features a tasting room and production cellar. Hart, who represented Indiana in this years Miss USA pageant, and Harris plan to produce 25 to 30 wines per year made from grapes shipped from California and other states. Details:

would be used as a demonstration vineyard to show that wine grapes are viable in the Reno area. He said the plan is to do some cold-tolerance research and hopefully convince some entrepreneurs that a vineyard could be a worthwhile project. Right now we have just planted Riesling, but we plan to plant other varieties in the future once we raise the funds, Cramer said.
New wineries join Hill Country association

St. James Winery launched Frontier Selection.

Three new wineries joined the Texas Hill Country Wineries group, bringing its total membership to 36. The new members are: Lewis Wines of Johnson City, Wedding Oak Winery of San Saba and Hye Meadow Winery in Hye.
Michigan wine tourism grows
Dennis Eckmeyer, Joe Bernardo, Jim Rummings and Grant Cramer (from left) plant a Sapporo vineyard near the University of Nevada, Reno.

tive and hybrid grape wines. The new brand consists of five rebranded varietal wines and two new blends, the Pioneer Red and Pioneer White. The wines are packaged with soy-based ink silk-screen labels and screw-cap closures for a carbonless footprint package, according to the winery. Details:

University of Nevada plants trial vineyard

Dr. Grant Cramer, a biochemistry and molecular biology professor with the University of Nevada, Reno, coordinated a volunteer effort to plant 1,900 vines on a 1-acre lot Tokyo on the UNR campus. Cramer said the vines
Nagoya Osaka Hiroshima

Researchers with the Michigan State University Extension estimate the states wineries draw more than 2 million people per year. Dr. Dan McCole and Dr. Don Holecek arrived at their figure using a statistical model they developed through the Northern Grapes Project.
St. James unveils Frontier Selection

Virginia winery makes deal with Chinese

St. James Winery in St. James, Mo., launched its Frontier Selection line of na-

The Tianjin Commodity Exchange in Tianjin, China, announced a five-year agreement to import wine from Chateau


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Morrisette in Floyd, Va. The first purchase and shipment by the Chinese group was 1,150 cases of 2009 Merlot. A five-year contract firmly positions Chateau Morrisette on the global stage as Virginias premier winery, and it serves as a testament to the quality wines produced here, said Chateau Morrisette general manager George Weldon. Details:
Brock, Acadia sign research pact

ratory manager and Michelle Bowen was promoted to the role of wine services director. Burmeister has worked in wine and beer laboratories since 1981. Bowen joined the company in 2004 as director of laboratory operations. Enartis Wine Services is a new division of the company with the goal of providing customer service and technical support to winery clients. Details:
Chase appoints head of beverage group

Brock University and Acadia University signed a collaborative agreement to bolster the Canadian wine industry. The agreement is intended to facilitate sharing research and joint projects in viticulture, enology, wine business and other areas between Brocks Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute (CCOVI) in Ontario and Acadias Atlantic Wine Institute in Wolfville, Nova Scotia.

John Stucker is the leader of Chase banks Beverage Industry Group, which focuses on serving mid-sized beverage manufacturers, distributors and retailers. Stucker will be based in Houston. He is the former director of the J.P. Morgan Debt Capital Markets group.
Rutherford Equipment in new location

eWinery Solutions buys Blue Dog

Napa, Calif.based eWinery Solutions announced it acquired digital marketing firm Blue Dog Solutions. Blue Dog founder Michael Meisner is also joining eWinery as manager of direct-to-consumer marketing services. Details,
AgCode and Meristem merge

Justin Warner joined Rutherford Equipment as an operations assistant. The company moved into a new location at 156 Camino Oruga, Suite E, in Napa, Calif., and announced it is the distributor for Airocide air purifiers, which help eliminate mold and other contaminants. Details:
Paragon Label wins environmental award

AgCode Inc. of Glenwood, Minn., acquired Sonoma, Calif.-based Meristem Technologies. The deal means AgCode will incorporate Meristems GIS mapping functions into its vineyard-management system. Mike Bobbit, the former president of Meristem, also joined AgCodes California Viticulture Team. Details:
Enartis Vinquiry adds staff

Petaluma, Calif.based Paragon Label won an award from the national trade group Flexographic Technical Association for the label companys sustainable and enJason Grossman vironmental practices. Our goal has been to influence our employees, customers, visitors and the community to get involved and committed to their own sustainable practices, said Jason Grossman, the companys founder and president.
AgroThermal hires field manager

Enartis Vinquiry of Windsor, Calif., announced Max Burmeister is its new labo-

Max Burmeister
26 W in e s & V i ne s J U NE 2 0 13

Michelle Bowen

Tim Matson is the new field manager for AgroThermal Systems. Matson, formerly with Vineworks Vineyard, will oversee grower relations and work closely with Tony Nguyen, the firms director of business development. AgroThermal also announced it has partnered with North Coast Vineyard Services to provide its thermal treatment system for vineyards. The company produces a tractor-pulled hot-air blower to combat pests and help improve yield and fruit quality. Details:

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Product News
Hand truck with powered lift

Send us your latest offerings and announcements by emailing Items may be edited for clarity and brevity.

hand. Powered by a battery held in a backpack worn by the operator, the tool spins a set of heavy-duty plastic teeth that quickly strip vine shoots from the lower trunk. Details:

Strahman spray nozzle in stainless

The new LNB-350 Liftn Buddy is a two-wheel hand truck with a powered lift platform designed to move large and heavy items. The unit can handle loads of up to 350 pounds and lift them 36 inches. A 12-volt battery with a built-in charger provides lifting power. The unit can be used to transfer loads to and from shelves, delivery trucks and conveyors. Details:

The Mini Mi-70 series of industrial spray nozzles by Strahman Valves Inc. is now available in stainless steel. The mini series is smaller and lighter but achieves a flow rate of 2.5-8 gallons per minute at 50-80 psi water pressure. Details:

Nomacorcs zero carbon closure

Software to track packaging

4Parts Designs PakTrak system is designed to help winemakers and operations managers keep tabs on materials for bottling and shipping wine orders. The system coordinates and tracks bottling materials such as glass, labels, closures and shippers as well as other items like wooden cases, inserts, tissue paper and printed marketing information. 4Parts says the system should help save time fulfilling wine release and club shipments and save money by avoiding rush orders and keeping bottling on schedule. Details:

Alternative wine closures manufacturer Nomacorc unveiled its Select Bio closure at the Intervitis Interfructa trade show held recently in Germany. Nomacorc says it designed the Select Bio, which it claims is the worlds first zero carbon footprint wine closure, specifically for sustainable and organic wineries or brands. The closure is 100% recyclable and made with renewable, plantbased polymers derived from sugar cane. Three models of the Bio will be available, each with a distinct oxygen transmission rate. Following client trials this year, Nomacorc reports the new Bio should be available in 2014. Details:

Russian oak barrels

New nitrogen doser

Vacuum Barrier Corp. added the new MiniDose to its Nitrodose line of liquid nitrogen dosers. The MiniDose is a low-cost unit designed for line speeds of up to 200 containers per minute. It has single-dose capability for lab testing. Other features include: precise dose delivery, speed compensation, no container/ no dose function, electronic dosing valve and a selfgenerating N2 purge. Details:

Artisan Barrels and Tanks now offers Russian oak barrels. The tight-grain, 30-month air-dried staves are sourced from the Caucasus Mountains and assembled into barrels at an Armenian cooperage managed by a French master cooper. The cold-climate, highelevation source results in very tightgrain wood, which imparts restrained spice and soft tannin that accentuate and focus fruit flavors, according to Artisan. Details:

Bio-Wash plant supplement

Fasteners for trellis wires

Repair vineyard trellis wires with the new Big Heel Fasteners that employ a screw and sturdy aluminum fastener to hold wires in place. This fastener makes repairing old vineyard trellises very easy, quick and long lasting, manufacturer Lowell Vonada says.A typical 18-volt power drill can screw in 150 fasteners in one charge. Details:

Green Safe Solutions LLC claims its new Bio-Wash solution not only enhances root growth and nourishment, it can also boost plants defenses against pests and diseases. The non-toxic spray is designed to improve the efficiency of photosynthesis, resulting in earlier and higher rates of germination, quicker flowering and increased crop yields. Details:

Tonnellerie Sylvain oak fermentors

Clean up vines with Infacos Powercoup

Infaco released its new battery-powered desuckering tool for the Powercoup, which is designed to spare workers from having to bend over repeatedly in the field to remove vine suckers by
28 W in e s & V i ne s J U NE 2 0 13

French cooper Tonnellerie Sylvain is now offering tapered oak vats for fermentation as well as round and oval casks for aging. The French oak tanks are available in 15- to 150-hectoliter capacity and are built to customer specifications. Stainless steel fitting options include cooling coils, doors, valves and lids. Details:

Faces& Forums
David Johndrow owns Californiabased Johndrow Vineyards. Michael and Jonathon Honig (from left), Tim Duncan and Tim Rosetano listen during the scholarship auction April 12.


Oklahoma State Debuts Wine Forum

tillwater, Okla.College students from the School of Hotel and Restaurant Administration at Oklahoma

State University successfully organized the schools first Wine Forum, which drew 1,000 attendees to 22 events held April 12-13. One seminar, A Taste of Oklahoma Terroir, featured winemakers from around the state. Tasting sessions highlighted differences between wines from various California regions and those from the Pacific Northwest, while Bubbles Americana celebrated domestic sparkling wines. 5/13/10 9:25 AM Page 1

Corey Bauer of Thirst Wine Merchants (left) meets Annie and Scott Shull of Raptor Ridge, a boutique Pinot winery in Newberg, Ore.

Ian and Meghan Clarke attend the gala dinner. Ian is an adjunct professor at Oklahoma State University, where he teaches wine classes.


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cover story

Topography and Temperature

Research in Columbia Valley links land and growing degree days
By Peter Mitham
on vines, specifically soil temperature, cluster temperature, vine chemistry and other attributes. That same summer, Pogue covered 1,400 miles deploying data loggers at approximately 55 vineyard sites across the Columbia Basin with the intention of gathering data related to vineyard temperatures. Pogue wanted to see if there were links between topography and the accumulation of growing degree days (GDD), an indicator growers use to predict the key stages of fruit development including bloom, vraison and crop maturity. The number of growing degrees for any particular day is the days average temperature in Fahrenheit minus 50. (For example, a day with an average temperature of 70F would log 20 GDD.) The data loggers, the Hobo model produced by Onset Computer Corp., cost approximately $125 apiece. The units record data, which Pogue then had to download (systems that transmit data wirelessly cost closer to $1,500 apiece). Pogue tested the data loggers for consistency prior to placing them in vineyards at a height of approximately 6 feet. All locations were in vineyards to secure relevant readings; locations were away from overhead sprinklers, asphalt and anything else that could distort the readings. The units stayed in place from August 2010 through the end of 2012, giving Pogue data about one of the coolest growing seasons on record2011, which racked up just 2,312 growing degree daysas well as 2012, which at 2,643 growing degree days was about par with the long-term average of 2,628 growing degree days.
What the research found

kevin pogue

A monitor installed at Spring Valley Vineyard records data about the Walla Walla Valley AVA.

 Topography influences growing degree day accumulation.  Research in the Columbia Basin pinpoints trends using data loggers in 55 vineyard locations.  Geologist Kevin Pogue found that the daily minimum temperature matters more than the daily high. L  ong growing seasons allow GDD accumulation even in relatively cool areas.

ivers and mountains define many of the worlds great wine regions, and the West Coast of North America is no different. The Columbia River winds its way south from British Columbia through Washington state; the Willamette River carves a home for Pinot Noir through Oregon, and the Russian River flows through Mendocino and Sonoma vineyards in California on its way to the Pacific Ocean. But understanding how those rivers and the topography of the valleys theyve shapedinfluence vineyards is a question with few obvious answers. While the moderating influence major watercourses play on temperature is well-known, as is the potential for valleys to draw in cold air, generating fog banks above the waters, Kevin Pogue of Whitman College in Walla Walla, Wash., has spent the past two years gathering data that could improve grow-

ers understanding of local topography leading to more knowledgeable site selection and better vineyard management.
What the research is

Pogue, a geologist, has a long-standing interest in the terroir of the Columbia Basin. He presented a paper to the VIII International Terroir Congress in Soave, Italy, in June 2010, focusing on the influence of the regions basalt-rich landscape

Pogue is just starting to work through the numbers, but the preliminary findings are providing a clearer picture of how growing degree days accumulate, and a better understanding of why vineyards respond differently to weather systems. People tend to look at daytime high temperatures (and say), Oh yeah, its

30 W in e s & V i ne s J U NE 2 0 13

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doesnt grow grapes, but if he did he would definitely install data loggers to help him understand whats happening in the vineyard. Were just seeing the beginning of that type of data collection, and I think in 10 years youll see thatll be standard as the cost of these data loggers goes down and peoples familiarity with what they can do goes up, he says. In addition to research Kevin Pogue of Whitman College in Walla Walla, Wash., has done in Washington state, Dinn has been following the use of data loggers in California, where growers are using them to assess water requirements (see Conserving Water with Vineyard Sensors at Its just a great way to characterize whats going on in the vineyard in a much, much more detailed way than weve ever had before, Dinn says. P.M.

hotter here, I was out there yesterday; it was 104F, this is a hot site, Pogue says. But when you add up just the heat units, thats also a function of how warm your low temperature is. What the numbers indicate (counterintuitively) is that higher elevations arent always cooler, especially in areas such as the Yakima and Walla Walla valleys. The Yakima follows a deep, narrow course as it flows east, past the northern base of the Horse Heaven Hills and around Red Mountain to enter the Columbia River at Richland, Wash. More dramatically, the Walla Walla River descends from the Blue Mountains and joins the Columbia north of the stunning Wallula Gap. While the valleys themselves

are broad, the exit points are effectively bottlenecks that limit air drainage. These are fairly broad basins that have fairly narrow exits, Pogue says. It forces cold air to pool in those valleys. Farmers in both valleys have known that for a long time. But the pooling of cold air also suppresses the accumulation of growing degree days because air temperatures have to warm upa hurdle that vineyards above the pool of cold air dont face. You get morning low temperatures that are pretty cold, Pogue says. It takes longer for those areas to warm up in the mornings, and (while) they might eventually reach a higher temperature than some of the higher elevations, it

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doesnt get rid of that morning cold effect. 5,000 The length of the 3,000 growing season in a 2,000 1,500 vineyard affected by 1,250 the pool of cold air and 1,000 in unaffected vineyards 750 can differ by as much 500 as a month. Les Collines vineyard in the Feet above sea level foothills of the Blue Mountains, for example, racked up 3,256 GDD in 2012 at an elevation of 1,358 feet; but Pepper Bridge, at 784 feet, had just 2,663 GDD. Both are in the Walla Walla AVA. Stone Similarly, the warmClifton Tree est growing areas North Ridge Pogue tracked have Columbia Yakima River no impediments to the drainage of cool air. Air cold creek Snake temperatures are conRiver Upland Klipsun sistently warmer during Richland the growing season, Walla force Yakima Walla thanks in part to the majeure Wallula River moderating effect of the Benches Les Alder Columbia River, which Pepper Collines Ridge bridge releases heat during the McNary cool nights. Dam Areas such as the Columbia south side of the Horse River Heaven Hills consequently racked up some of the longest growing seasons in the state. The longest was seen at Kevin Pogue of Whitman College created this topographic map using data he collected between 2010 and 2012. a block on the Wallula Benches, at a very low elevation where the ColumI was shocked, Pogue says. It highlighted by the frost damage in Nobia River forms Lake Wallula behind the had this incredible nine-month frostvember 2010, when some areas were hit McNary dam. It racked up 265 frost-free free period. with temperatures as low as 0F. Under days in 2012 between the end of February But on the back side of the valley, away normal circumstances, conditions were and December. from the river, its a different storyas right for a steady senescence and hardening off of the vines, but the sudden frost was too much, too soon. Vineyard Growing Degree Days Vs. Elevation It wasnt absolutely that cold, but it Vineyard 2012 GDD Elevation (feet) AVA was too early, Markus Keller, a professor of viticulture at Washington State Stone Tree 3,681 1,276 Wahluke Slope Universitys Irrigated Agriculture ReUpland 3,588 1,001 Snipes Mountain search and Extension Center in Prosser, Cold Creek 3,560 1,148 Columbia Valley told Wines & Vines the following spring. Clifton 3,541 597 Wahluke Slope The vines hadnt fully acclimated yet Force Majeure 3,471 1,096 Red Mountain when it happened. North Ridge 3,328 968 Wahluke Slope But the damage wasnt uniform across Alder Ridge 3,323 400 Horse Heaven Hills the state. Vineyards in the Yakima Valley Wallula Benches 3,309 367 Horse Heaven Hills were largely unscathed while many in the Les Collines 3,256 1,358 Walla Walla Valley Horse Heaven Hills were hit hard. Klipsun 3,137 689 Red Mountain Pogues research suggests that topogPepper Bridge 2,663 784 Walla Walla Valley raphy may have had something to do

Columbia Valley AVA

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with how vines respond to cold weather throughout the year. Vines that are accustomed to colder daily minimums namely, in vineyards that are beset by the cold air poolwont suffer as much as vineyards above the cold air pool or those where temperatures are moderated by the Columbia River. If you have a cool year, if you have a higher elevation site, youre going to feel it more than a lower elevation site, he says. The low sites that were affected by cold air pooling were pretty much the same.It more strongly affected the higher elevation sites.
Better site selection

A lot of vineyard sites are relatively new, and I think Kevins on the front end of the curve in terms of measuring these sites, Dinn says. Pogue, for his part, believes the data could also open new areas for vineyard development. Data loggers in the foothills of the Blue Mountains east of Walla Walla have garnered readings that suggest long, if cool, growing seasons. While the heat accumulations arent as large as at river-front vineyards, the number of frost-free days is encouraging. Theres

also no need to irrigate, making for more efficient vineyards. They start to look like Burgundy or the Mosel, he says. Theres potential if you move to higher elevations to limit your frost risk and have more balanced wines. The question, however, is whether Washington state growers want to grow cool-climate wines reminiscent of Burgundy or Mosel, or if they want to continue to hitch their wagons to the big reds that have made the states reputation for highend wines.

A better understanding of how air is moving through the Columbia Basin could ultimately lead to better site selection. The right site is a key element in reducing environmental risks, but understanding how topography relates to specific differences in air temperature will give growers greater data to work with when choosing sites by putting hard data behind growers experience. What would be the coolest thing in the world to do would be to come up with this equation for the Columbia Basin, Pogue says. You could have a little parameter for each of the different variables, and you could plug some numbers into this equation and it would spit out what your computed growing degree days would be in an average year. That would be the Holy Grail. Measurements of GDD are a basic method for determining the suitability of sites. Theyre extremely crude in terms of whats happening, says Co Dinn, director of winemaking at Hogue Cellars in Prosser. But Pogues efforts to combine the readings with other information point a way forward. While systems such as Washington State Universitys AgWeatherNet are helpful in providing more detail, Dinn is excited by the fine grain of information Pogues monitors are gathering. We have that information (from AgWeatherNet), which is great, but as far as every 15 minute-type data point gathering in individual vineyard blocks, thats being made possible by the advent of these new, relatively inexpensive data loggers, he says. Its more information, and thats information that was very hard to gather. Dinn believes that temperature patterns and GDD provided by the data loggers will give growers the kind of information they need to manage sites better.

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Sutter Home owners use new facility for high-end red wines
By Paul Franson

Seeing Red at Trinchero

Plumbing is hidden in the uncluttered Trinchero

 Trinchero Family Estates built and outfitted a new winery at the former Folie Deux site to perfect its highend red wines.

Napa Valley tank room.

The winery complex once served as the rinchero Napa Valley is the Folie Deux winery. Trinchero bought prestige brand of the Trinchero that winery and its brandsincluding Family Estates portfolio, and Mnage Trois, the wine they developed its new winery reflects that po The article details the design, equipinto one of the biggest brands in America. sitionas well as the financial ment and production flow chosen by They relocated its production and tasting resources contributed by its family member Bob Torres and wineroom to build the Trinchero winery. more popular wines, like the famous Sutmaker Mario Monticelli. The facility produces only red wines; ter Home white Zinfandel. the brands whites (Sauvignon Blanc, The challenge for Trinchero was to  Triple-sorting and double-chilling Semillon and Vin Santo) are made at make world-class Bordeaux-style red abilitiesand a wide assortment of another Trinchero facility. wines that display another dimension to tanksare among the showplace the company whose vast success was built winerys assets. making and selling inexpensive wines. The modest-sized winery built on a knoll north of St. Helena, Calif., includes the best of everything needed to make superb wines, and theres a good reason for that: Its layout and design were optimized by family scion and architect Bob Torres, senior vice president of operations of Trinchero Family Estates, then tweaked by winemaker Mario Monticelli. Monticelli comes from a winemaking family. His father is famed Gallo winemaker Marcello; his wife Anna is the winemaker for Pia Vineyards, and brother Massimo is winemaker at Burly Vineyards, B Wise and the brothers brand, Monticelli Brothers. Mario Monticelli formerly worked with Philippe Melka, one of Napa Valleys best-known consulting winemakers. For the Trinchero Napa Valley wines, Monticelli sources Though new, the winery is reminiscent of the antiquated stone buildings grapes from seven premium estate vineyards totaling 200 acres of Napa Valleys past. in diverse locations throughout Napa Valley.
34 W in es & V i ne s J U NE 2 0 13

Trinchero buys Folie Deux

winemaking Out with the jacks and stems

Monticellis crew fills two large garbage bins with jacks, stems and defective fruit to compost each day during harvest. Imagine how it would affect the wine if we used that, he says. The careful sorting eliminates overripe flavors, vegetal flavors from leaves, bitter tannins from stems and musty, moldy tastes. He collects the saigne juice, which is used elsewhere. He uses a Kiesel 7100 Heilbron progressive-cavity pump to transfer the must to tanks. The destemmer is a floor above the tanks, but not just above them. Monticelli adds 50 ppm of SO2 to the must for red wines and inoculates with yeast. (For whites, he only inoculates half the juice.)
The bin washer was fabricated internally at a Trinchero shop to ensure that newly picked grapes arent contaminated by bacteria and mold.

On the 22-acre site, the family built its signature winery, tearing down and replacing the old facility, renovating the old house on the property into a tasting room and building a firstclass hospitality center with an elegant event space, professional kitchen and even a bocce court. The family also recently restored and expanded existing caves, which theyll use for both aging wine and entertaining. Torres knowledge of both architecture and wine production is reflected throughout the winery, starting with a refrigerated room to hold grapes and chill them as they come in. It drops their temperature to 45F, says Monticelli. Then everything can be calm. Theres no need to rush. The grapes arent sitting in heat. Trinchero uses 35-pound bins for picking and transport to the winery, rather than standard half-ton bins, to prevent grapes on the bottom being crushed prematurely by the weight of the grapes above. This was one of Monticellis requests. A bin washer fabricated in-house at Trinchero reduces labor and water usage while assuring clean bins so grapes arent contaminated. While many wineries sort grapes, Monticelli sorts them three times, using workers for cluster sorting, a P&L shaker table after destemming, then manual sorting. This eliminates raisins, moldy berries and stems that could compromise the quality of the grapes. As long as youre doing it, you may as well do it right, he says.

Mario Monticelli (left) serves as winemaker, while vice president of operations Bob Torres (right) trained as an architect.

Monticelli sorts grapes three times: as clusters, with a shaker table and then manually. His Delta E2 crusher-destemmer was manufactured by Bucher Vaslin and its sorting table and conveyor by P&L Specialties.
Win es & Vi n es JU NE 20 13 35

w NA in Ve IG mAaTkI iOn Ng

The wide assortment and quantity of tanks gives him flexibility. I never have to make decisions based on tank space, he says. For example, he can cold soak for four days since the grapes are already cool when they hit the tanks.
Pump-over routines by sensory analysis

The winerys impressive The winery tank room, which has a uses an autovaulted ceiling inspired by mated punchdown tool cusGrand Central Station in tom fabricated New York City, where the by Burgstahler Trinchero family left for Machine Works. California in 1947, includes many subtle enhancements. It contains 20 2,000-gallon tanks and 10 4,000-gallon tanks; all of the fermentation tanks are from Santa Rosa Stainless and made of stainless steel. Monticelli also has four open-top 1,000- and 1,300-gallon tanks with a pneumatic punch-down device fabricated by Burgstahler Machine Works in St. Helena and two 230and two 700-gallon tanks to give him flexibility. The open-top tanks have another advantage: They slightly reduce alcohol levels, perhaps half a percent, he says. He uses them with Merlot grapes and Vista Merlone vineyard fruit, which tends to reach higher sugar levels.

Monticelli tastes the wine each night and decides on the processing for the next day. It depends on what I smell, he says. If fermentation hasnt started, he may just use a short spray to keep the cap moist. He can also call for a rack and return to get the wine off its seeds, or a lengthy irrigation. However, just to make sure the temperature is optimum, each large tank has two cooling jackets for cold glycol at the top and one heating jacket for hot glycol at the bottom. The two cooling jackets provide better circulation and temperature control, while the hot jacket at the bottom is positioned there for providing better mixing of the must since warm juice rises. This allows Monticelli to maintain a temperature of 70F during extended maceration, which can take five to 20 days. He doesnt need to inoculate for malolactic fermentation. The small tanks can be cooled and heated, too. All the glycol piping (even to the smaller tanks) is hard-plumbed copper. A temperature-control computer using Allen Bradley hardware and software developed in-house allows Monticelli and his crew to monitor and control temperatures at a central locationor even at home on his laptop or tablet, if needed. It also issues alarms if anything goes wrong.

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Monticelli ferments fruit with slightly higher sugar levels in these open-top tanks to reduce the resulting alcohol a bit.

We Select our wood from the forest and process at our own mills in the USA and France

All piping is out of sight under the catwalks next to the tanks or hidden between the tanks in a tunnel-like area that gives full access but conceals clutter. On that subject, hot and cold water, compressed air and argon are piped throughout the winery and available without long hose runs. The argon can be used to blanket the wine and exclude oxygen.
Open-top oak for small lots

The winery also has two open-top 1.25-ton oak fermentation tanks from Le Grand and two open-top, 1-ton oak tanks from Radoux. Each is fitted with rails at the bottom so it can be lifted by a forklift and dumped into a hopper to feed the press. Monticelli says the tanks should be good for at least four vintages. He uses them primarily to give flexibility. Being four years old, they no longer provide oak flavoring and little tannin. I only have an acre of Petite Verdot, for example, and I can use the small oak fermentors and punch down. This gives excellent quality. Monticelli waits until the wine is dry, then macerates for added time, choosing the time to press by taste after letting samples settle. The automated Bucher Vaslin JLB basket press Trinchero uses two-barrel is very gentle, allowing the racks from Holt Industries that winemaker to extract slowly. interlock and make them resisHe keeps the wine in separate tant to earthquakes. fractions, using part of the

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Three Cooperages to Serve You:


vineyard acreage year bonded DtC SALES

Trinchero Napa Valley

3070 N. St. Helena Hwy., St. Helena, Calif. 94574 (707) 963-1160

Winery Average Bottle Price



Winery Case Production

Owners Trinchero family Winemaker Mario Monticelli VP of Vineyard operations Hal Huffsmith Winery AVA St. Helena

12,000 Trinchero Napa Valley 55,000 Napa County Average 80,000 California Average 44,000 U.S. Average
0 40,000 80,000

Trinchero Napa Valley $14 Napa County Average $8 California Average $9 U.S. Average
$0 $25 $50 Source: WinesVinesDATA

the challenge
To produce world-class, Bordeaux-style wines from the Trinchero familys Napa Valley vineyards.

Building the Winery

Architect/engineering Bob Torres, principal and senior vice president of operations Interior design Erin Martin Design, Construction Facility Development Corp., Winery refrigeration Indoor Environment Services, Metal fabrication Santa Rosa Stainless Steel,

 Twenty 2,000-gallon stainless steel tanks  Ten 4,000-gallon stainless steel tanks F  our open-top 1,300-gallon stainless steel with pneumatic punch down  Two 330-gallon rectangular tanks T  wo 700-gallon rectangular tanks, Santa Rosa Stainless Steel, T  wo 1.25-ton open-top oak tanks from Le Grand USA,

Making the Wine

Conveyor P&L Specialties, Sorting table P&L Specialties, Destemmer-crusher Delta E2, Bucher Vaslin North America, Yeasts Lallemand and Anchor, Lallemand, Punch-down device Burgstahler Machine Works, (707) 967-0553 Press Bucher JLB, Bucher Vaslin North America, Barrel washing Tom Beard Co., Winemaking Allen Bradley hardware for temperature control, software Rockwell Automation, Lab services In-house and ETS Laboratories,

T  wo 1-ton open-top oak tanks from Tonnellerie Radou USA,

T  aransaud, Mel Knox Barrel Broker, Tonnellerie Radoux USA, Le Grand USA, Tonnellerie Saury, Tonnellerie , Treuil, Trust International Corp., Tonnellerie Bel Air, Leroi, Demptos Napa Cooperage, Vicard, Bouchard Cooperages, Seguin Moreau Napa Cooperage, Tonnellerie Quintessence, Nadalie USA,

Packaging the Wine

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38 W in es & V i ne s J U NE 2 013


press wine if he likes the taste. The press is so gentle that sometimes the press wine is even better than the free run! he says. Monticelli buys French oak barrels from 15 coopers, with about four primary suppliers and trials with others. Two barrels are placed in earthquakeproof racks made by Holt Industries. The system takes a lot of space but keeps the barrels clean, and workers dont have to be so careful stacking the barrels, particularly with barrels of different capacities and shapes. The racks are powder coated for longevity. Workers can tell at a glance which barrels are in use; they have painted the centers pink with wine. Unused barrels remain white. A Tom Beard barrel washer is specially adapted to use on the earthquake-proof individual barrel racks.

ticelli keeps it at 55F, which he considers optimum for aging in barrels. It, too, has a vaulted ceiling with a nice touch: a chandelier with real candles that can be lowered by a motor for lighting during events. The chai holds two vintages totaling 1,000 barrels, but it has room for 1,400 barrels. The winery produces about 12,000 cases per year but has a capacity for 17,000. The company also has refurbished an existing small cave, which can hold 400 barrels. A second entrance had to be added for access, and Trinchero outfitted a small prep kitchen there so the cave can be used for events. In addition to the larger Like the tank room, the ceiling of the barrel chai suggests Grand buildings on the site, separate Central Station. The room is built into a hill, so while it is not a small utility structures house cellar, two sides are buried. mechanical and electrical systems as well as the water treatment system. The winery uses well water and, of course, doesnt use chlorine Chandelier lowers for lighting in the winery because of the risk of TCA. It has a large storage The winery is built into the side of a hill, and walls GWKent_WE_Sept08.qxp 7/28/08 2:56 PM two Page 1 of the tank for fire protection. barrel chai are underground, which helps cool the room. Mon-

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The Wine Advocate gave 93 points to the 2008 Clouds Nest Vineyard Cabernet Sauvignon Mt. Veeder, and Wine Spectator awarded 92 points to the 2008 Meritage Napa Valley, as two recent examples. The wines are priced appropriately for their high quality. But Monticelli points out that the companys lower priced wines like Sutter Home white Zinfandel and Moscato have their attractions for him. When I sniff a glass of pink Moscato, I smell new French oak barrels, he jokes. The success of the familys other wines has let Trinchero pursue its goal of making top-quality wines as well, and by most accounts it is succeeding.

All water used in the winery drains View video in the into an underground Wines & Vines sump, then is ltered Digital Edition. Mario Monticell to remove solids discusses picking deciand dispersed into sions and grape processseptic drain elds ing at the facility in this (also known as leach video by winery staff. elds) around the winery grounds. The mechanical room includes the compressor for air as well as the cylinders for argon. The room also contains the boilers and refrigeration from Indoor Environment Services for heating or cooling tanks with glycol as well as electrical systems.
200 acres of estate vineyards

Monticelli chooses grapes from 200 acres of estate vineyards in Napa Valley, from north of Calistoga to south of Napa, and in the mountains as well as the valley oor. The 11 acres around the winery are called Marios Vineyard, not for todays winemaker but for Mario Trinchero, who moved his family to Napa Valley and bought the derelict Sutter Home Winery in 1947. The wines produced include Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Cabernet Franc, Meritage, Sauvignon Blanc and Semillon (winery only). The Sauvignon Blanc is $24, and the red wines are $40-$100. The current releases are mostly 2009. If 90-plus point reviews from respected consumer publications are any indication, the winery may have met its challenge.

Marios Vineyard, one of seven diverse properties that supply the winery, surrounds the knoll on which the winery sits.



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Winemaker Interview Celia Welch

Noted winemaker says good winery design makes for better wine
By Laurie Daniel

elia Welchs parents werent in the wine business, but she grew up around wine nevertheless. She was raised in Medford, Ore., where her father was a home winemaker who tended a half-acre vineyard, so Welch was able to learn the basics of winemaking and viticulture at an early age. When she decided to make a career of it, she attended the University of California, Davis, graduating in 1982 with a degree in fermentation science. After working a series of short-term jobs (mostly in Californias Napa Valley) and serving as lab director for Silverado Vineyards, Welch was hired in 1991 by Garen and Shari Staglin as winemaker for Staglin Family Vineyards. Welch also started a small consulting business the same year. A Cabernet Sauvignon specialist, her current clients include Scarecrow, Kelly Fleming, Barbour, Keever and Hollywood & Vine. She also has her own brand, Corra. Welch was named winemaker of the year by Food & Wine magazine in 2008 and was nominated for a James Beard Award the following year. She is a professional member of the American Society for Enology and Viticulture and a past co-chair of the Napa Valley Wine Technical Group. Wines & Vines: Youve helped two clients, Kelly Fleming and Staglin Family, design wineries in caves. What are the benefits and drawbacks of building caves? Celia Welch: I think that, from a land-use standpoint, caves are a very good option. They usually offer great storage conditions with a minimal impact on the surrounding land. Theyre not perfect, in that they are slightly more difficult to keep clean than a well-constructed building, more difficult to move barrels around in and somewhat more difficult in terms of lighting. (When was the last time you felt a cave was overly bright?) Air circulation is a concern, and if not considered carefully you can end up with pockets of mildew on your barrels or temperature gradients throughout the cave. At least in Napa they tend to be just a bit warmer than ideal, so you need to consider a chiller of some sort. But again, because they are so well insulated, its relatively easy to keep the temperatures constant. Carbon dioxide evacuation can be a concern if the cave is being used for primary fermentation. Consider storing fermenting wines near the cave entrance and making sure circulation is adequate in that area. But all in all, they make a lot of sense. They dont work for flat parcels, but if a hillside is available, it might mean better wine storage and minimal disruption of vineyard operations. I like using caves as much as possible, so that more of our prime agricultural land is used for vineyards.
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In addition to producing her own label, Corra, Celia Welch makes wine for Scarecrow, Kelly Fleming, Barbour, Keever and other wineries.

At Kelly Fleming Winery in Calistoga, Calif., the cave provides wonderful storage for Cabernet barrels, and we have added both humidity and refrigeration so the temperature is great for Sauvignon Blanc barrel fermentation as well. Kellys cave was created by blasting some very solid rock, so she was able to keep the cave walls unlined, and the solid rock surface is beautiful. It is a highlight of the visitors tour experience, in addition to being a great place to store barrels. W&V: For aboveground wineries, are there building materials that you prefer? Welch: In my opinion, the building material is less important than the overall design of the facility. Ive seen corrugated metal buildings that look great and, with enough insulation, function well also. I tend to be leery about wood used near fermentation or barrel-storage areas, but if it is sealed well and tested periodically for TCA, I know it can work. Kelly Fleming has a


wood ceiling above her fermentation tanks that is lovely. Staglin Familys underground fermentation cellar is well insulated and spacious enough to keep clean easily, which is a key component to maintaining a high level of wine quality over the long term. At the other end of the spectrum, Ive worked in plenty of older wine facilities with uneven floors that cannot be readily cleaned, have poor lighting (how do you clean up mold and dirt if you cant see it in the first place?) and poor air circulation, so that barrels near the floor are 5F cooler than those at the top of the stack. Wineries that cannot be readily cleaned tend to start smelling like musty basements. Quality control becomes damage control: trying to correct mistakes and contain microbial contamination. Why not prevent all those headaches? Designing a winery with good insulation, good cooling, good lighting and good drainage will lead to better overall sanitation. This makes for better wines. W&V: How do you help a client reconcile his or her wish list with the financial budget? Welch: Ive witnessed firsthand in every project that it can be difficult during the design process to separate out the nuts and bolts from the bells and whistles. I was involved with a design project years ago where berry-sorting equipment was ruled out as being too pricey, but the full commercial kitchen stayed in the plan, then ended up being used about once every five years. Every member of the winery team will have a different perspective about what matters, and the owner and architect will need a very clear vision of how to balance production, marketing, sales and administrative functions into one facility that works well for all.

Before it was a site for making wine, the Davies family facility was a car dealership (pictured in 1967 and today in the image at top right).

Converted car dealership

the new winery for its J. Davies and Davies Vineyards brands in a former car dealership in St. Helena, Calif. It may seem an odd transition, Welch says, but actually the lot fits a medium-sized winery quite well. The footprint of the building has remained the same, and we didnt have to change the roofline, she says. The front wall of the building, which faces Main Street, used to be all glass, and that has been changed to a solid wall. Plans for the winery incorporate a number of green touches. Were looking to make the winery building very eco-friendly, Welch says. The design team is considering rainwater collection, solar power, on-site wastewater pre-treatment and energy efficiency as the winery design progresses. CEO Hugh Davies adds that the company is seeking LEED certification for the building. L.D.

ost of winemaker Celia Welchs clients start from scratch when building a winery, but the Davies family of Schramsberg Vineyards in Napa Valley, Calif., is developing

Too much spent on retail sales areas, fancy kitchens, etc., may help marketing efforts, but without great wines to sell, whats the point?
So, as a winemaker, I always have to advocate for spending money on the production space and equipment. I think that well-made wines need to be the foundation of a successful wine business. Too much spent on retail sales areas, fancy kitchens, etc., may help marketing efforts, but without great wines to sell, whats the point? How do you reconcile all of that? Figure out what matters most right now and hold onto those wish list items for a few years down the roadincorporating them into a Phase Two expansion planand design the winery with expansion in mind! Every project Ive been involved with has had discussions about how to design Phase One so that a Phase Two expansion would be a possibility. This means watching rooflines so they can be extended if need be, and not placing major electrical panels, power lines, gas mains, etc., at the end of the building where expansion might occur. Consider how the winery access road might be able to handle more traffic and slightly larger trucks. How would you go about handling more wastewater, a larger bottling line, more case goods, more visitors? Where would you put more fermentation tanks if wine sales are strong? We always hope that, 10 years after construction, the winery is successful enough to warrant expansion. The time to think about how that will occur is before the groundbreaking of Phase One.

The winemaking facility in St. Helena, Calif., is home to high-tech crush equipment for wine grapes.
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W&V: Youre not a big proponent of gravity-flow wineries. Why not? Is the gravity-flow aspect less important for you as a Cabernet Sauvignon specialist? Welch: I have worked with both gravityflow and non-gravity-flow situations, and my gut feeling is that, if you lined up 10 great bottles of wine, you might be hardpressed to identify which were made with gravity and which were not. I use gravity at Keever Vineyards in Yountville, Calif.

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Ive worked in situations where power outages were frequent and long, and gravity flow is wonderful in those situations.
I make my own wine, Corra, there as well because it fits well into the flow of the receiving system. We found a way to use gravity without adding expense by using a mezzanine, and during the non-harvest months it makes for a wonderful visitor route. They get to stand on our mezzanine and look over the fermentation area so that they can see, hear and smell everything that is happening without the danger of tripping over hoses, slipping on a wet floor or meeting a working forklift. This works well for us. I also use nitrogen displacement to move wine gently from barrels, and yes, we pump the wine to the bottling line. I have bottled using gravity, but it is very slow, which I do not think helps wine quality. A slower bottling rate means wine sits in a partial tank longer. But I agree with your premise that for Cabernet production this is less of an issue than it might be for, say, Pinot Noir. Also, Ive worked in situations where power outages were frequent and long, and gravity flow is wonderful in those situations. Gravity can be helpful in a number of ways, but I dont think its a make-orbreak criteria for winery design. If it fits into your plans, thats wonderful. If it adds expense and the budget is tight, I think there might be other items that take higher priority.
A resident of the Santa Cruz Mountains, Laurie Daniel has been a journalist for more than 25 years. She has been writing about wine for publications for nearly 15 years and has been a Wines & Vines contributor since 2006.

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ASEV to Honor Jim Wolpert

Well-liked UC Davis viticulturist to receive Merit Award
By Andrew Adams
n a remote corner of Mendocino County, Calif., Glenn McGourty and Jim Wolpert found themselves sitting at a picnic table outside an old farmhouse. The two University of California viticulturists were scouting historic vineyards and looking for clean vine cuttings for a heritage vineyard that Wolpert wanted to plant. McGourty recalls the two were lunch guests of the property owner, an old Italian-American farmer whose family had planted the vines a generation ago. On a search to discover cuttings to preserve Californias most unique wine grape selections, the two were not served a rare vintage from the farmers property, but instead glasses of the farmers favorite wine, an inexpensive industrial plonk, over ice. We were sitting around this table with this wine and Jim says to the farmer, Oh this is really, really quite refreshing on a day like today, McGourty recalls with a laugh. It was more a vacation sometimes when we were out there in the field, rather than work. Friends and colleagues say that Wolpert, 63, who recently retired from the University of California, Davis, has a unique skill for connecting and communicating with nearly anyone. This trait served him well both as a researcher and while he was chair of the Department of Viticulture and Enology facilitating multimillion-dollar donations from the likes of Robert Mondavi.

Jim Wolpert jumpstarted the fundraising campaign for the new Robert Mondavi Institute at the University of California, Davis.

Wolpert also had to call on his communication skills when he led the task force to study the phylloxera outbreaks in Californias North Coast during the 1980s that ultimately led to UC Davis rescinding ASEV Merit Award its recommendation of AxR1 rootstock Rootstock research was a cornerstone of because of a new phylloxera biotype. Wolperts career. He helped organize the Wolpert connected well with growers at Rootstock Symposium that will kick off a personal level, as McGourty observed in this years annual meeting of the AmeriMendocino County, traveling across the can Society for Enology and Viticulture. state of California checking on rootstock Wolpert, fellow UC Davis researcher trials and seeking out vines for the ZinAndrew Walker and Nick Dokoozlian, fandel Heritage Vineyard at the Oakville a research viticulturist with E. & J. research center in Napa Valley. One of Gallo Winery in Modesto, Calif., brought the things that really struckMichaelDusiWarehouse_Dir07 me was his 10/25/06 11:49 Italy, AM Page 1 together experts from Australia,

skill in communication with the growers and the people we came into contact with, said Mike Anderson, who managed Wolperts research lab for 15 years. Anderson and Wolpert drove to nearly every corner of Californias wine grape growing regions to conduct rootstock trials. While traveling with Wolpert, Anderson said he gained more respect for him as an academic and, Spending so many hours and days driving with him was a treasure. Hes a really good friend. Wolpert grew up in Indiana and received a bachelors degree from Purdue University in 1973. He earned his masters and doctorate degrees from Michigan State University. He came to UC Davis in 1983 to do research on pistachio trees as a postdoctoral scholar in the Pomology Department. Two years later, he joined the Department of Viticulture and Enology as a viticulture extension specialist focused on evaluating rootstocks and clones.


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Michigan and Washington state to discuss how rootstocks affect vine performance, breeding and how rootstock can resist pest and disease pressure. This years ASEV National Conference takes place June 24-28 in Monterey, Calif., at the Portola Hotel and Monterey Conference Center. In addition to

A  fter 30 years with the University of California, Davis (including a decade as the viticulture and enology department chair), Jim Wolpert has retired. W  olpert was part of a UC Davis task force that reexamined the AxR1 rootstock and ultimately had to rescind the universitys recommendation of it. W  olpert established the Zinfandel Heritage Vineyard and began a project studying the performance of grapes from hot regions of Europe in Californias Central Valley.

the rootstock symposium, described by ASEV as a tribute to Wolpert, the Davis researcher will also receive the groups annual Merit Award. Wolpert is expected to discuss the role of the university extension service in the modern wine grape industry during his acceptance speech at 9 a.m. on June 27. A reception in Wolperts honor is planned for later that day. He has basically done so much of what we do as SOP in the world of viticulture and the wine industry. I dont think a lot of people realize that, said Lise Asimont, an ASEV vice president and the director of grower relations for Francis Ford Coppola Winery in Geyserville, Calif. Wolpert has been undergoing ongoing medical treatment but is expected to attend the conference in June. In 2012, Wolpert received the outstanding achievement award from the ASEV-Eastern Section. Stan Howell, a professor emeritus of viticulture and enology at Michigan State University, said the places Wolpert has been invited to speak underscore the breadth and impact of his research. Wolpert has lectured at major industry events in every significant grape-producing state in the United States as well as at conferences in Canada, Germany, Italy, Mexico, New Zealand and Spain.

Wolpert studied under Howell as a masters and doctoral candidate researching cold hardiness in Concord grapes. Howell said Wolpert contributed a great deal to the department and the states industry with his work. He had the tact to listen to different opinions but politely counter with research or facts that backed up his side of the debate. No one would ever be upset when he called them, Howell said. As his professor, I was thankful he made me avoid being embarrassed. Howell said that deft ability to handle conflicting viewpoints and personalities helped Wolpert during his 10-year tenure as chair of the UC Davis Viticulture and Enology Department. You cant work with someone like Jim for a long time without him having a personal and professional impact, he said. During his time in Michigan, Wolpert helped improve the quality of Niagara juice grapes, studied frost damage protection and helped begin research into what at the time were new varieties such as Vignoles and Vidal Blanc.
Rootstock research

In California, Wolpert helped lead the team of UC Davis researchers who in the


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Rootstocks and tannins are topics for symposia

n addition to the Rootstock Symposium, this years annual meeting of the American Society for Enology and Viticulture

Speakers from the private sector include Ridge Vineyards winemaker Eric Baugher; Michael Cleary, director of wine chemistry with E. & J. Gallo; Tom Collins, research and development with Treasury Wine Estates; and Russell Smithyman, director of vineyards at St. Michelle Wine Estates. On June 28, a panel of experts including Deborah Golino, director of Foundation Plant Services at UC Davis, will discuss the emerging threat of red blotch disease, which curtails a vines ability to accumulate sugar. The condition has been found in vineyards throughout the United States and is now known to be associated with a specific virus, but researchers are still stumped as to how the disease spreads. Jim Wolpert and Mike Anderson were the first to identify the disease at the Oakville station in Napa Valley in 2008.
Researchers are unclear about how the red blotch virus spreads among grape vines.

will include a Tannin Symposium organized by Jim Harbertson of Washington State University and Jim Kennedy of California State University, Fresno. The symposium will take place from 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. on June 28. After an overview of tannin chemistry, the symposium will feature a panel discussion of winemakers and growers who will discuss practical steps for managing tannins in the vineyard and the winery. Scheduled speakers include Keren Bindon of the Australian Wine Research Institute, Veronique Cheynier of the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique in France, Uli Fischer of the Center for Wine Research in Germany and Andrew Waterhouse with the University of California, R&D_Jan08 11/12/07 Davis. 3:54 PM
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A new flash talks session will also take place June 26. Students with noteworthy research posters will each have four minutes to discuss their work. For a full conference schedule and more information on session topics, visit A.A.

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mid-1980s were tasked with determining why some vineyards in the North Coast area were suffering outbreaks of phylloxera even though they had been planted with AxR1 rootstock. AxR1 previously had resisted phylloxera damage in California, though it was known to be potentially susceptible. Wolpert, Walker and other scientists from UC Davis determined the outbreaks were due to a new type of phylloxera called Biotype B. Ultimately, Wolpert had to make the difficult announcement that Davis could no longer recommend that growers plant AxR1 rootstock. That change triggered the last major replanting of Californias vineyards. Two decades later, growers are again replanting those acres, and often with rootstocks studied by Wolpert. Anderson said he and Wolpert compiled 10 years of data on the performance of rootstocks and how rootstock selections could affect production and ripening of different scion varieties. By drawing on that information, Anderson said growers in California can make much more informed choices when picking the best rootstock for their scion variety and site. Thats a huge legacy, thats a huge pile of data, he said.

One project Wolpert worked on in the early 2000s was a clonal selection trial for sparkling wine he performed with the winemaking staff at Gloria Ferrer Caves & Vineyards in Sonoma, Calif. Jim was great to work with during our Pinot Noir clonal studies, said Bob Iantosca, the executive winemaker. Wolpert worked with Sonoma County extension advisor Rhonda Smith to develop a trial block at the winery to find the clones best suited for the estate. Iantosca said the trial yielded successful, tangible results that led to another trial a few years later with clones imported from Champagne, France. With the understanding gained from this research, there are better sparkling wines being producedand still wines. This work would not have happened without help and direction provided by Jim. Wolpert also worked with extension viticulturist Amand Kasimatis to establish the Zinfandel Heritage Vineyard at the Oakville research station. Wolpert, Kasimatis and other extension viticulturists scoured Californias oldest vineyards looking for disease-free Zinfandel cuttings. The team ultimately found 90 selections from vineyards planted before World War

II. Wolpert and his team grafted the vines onto St. George rootstock and used head training to mimic the methods used by pioneering farmers of the 19th century. By using a uniform methodology, Wolpert was able to analyze the vines on specific parameters such as cluster weight, berry size and cluster tightness to identify genetic traits and isolate pure clones. In 2009, UC Davis Foundation Plant Services released 19 selections to nurseries that came from the heritage vineyard. Zinfandel Advocates & Producers, ZAP, has donated more than $400,000 to support the vineyard, and each year a member winemaker makes wine with fruit harvested from the heritage vineyard. Chris Leamy, winemaker at Terra dOro winery in the Sierra Nevada foothills, made wine from the 2012 crop. Bob Biale is the co-owner of Robert Biale Vineyards in Napa, Calif., and the current president of the ZAP board of directors. He said Wolpert demonstrated the importance of capturing clonal material and the industry will always be grateful for that. He said Wolperts work with the heritage vineyard helped the industry by offering wineries a wider selection of Zinfandel clones, from high-yield work-

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horses to those that fit a boutique winery. He has broadened this whole palette. Now were going to have so many deeper flavors and different flavors. Wolpert is also known for his work at the Kearney Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Californias Central Valley, where he studied alternative varieties from warm-weather regions. In work now being overseen by associate viticulture specialist Matthew Fidelibus, 55 grape varieties from warm regions in Europe are being evaluated for use in the hot Central Valley. Wolpert and McGourty organized a symposium on alternative varieties for last years ASEV conference in Portland, Ore.
Bridging the private public gap

When Wolpert became department chair at Davis in 1996, the school had a ramshackle teaching winery with secondrate equipment. Because conditions were so poor, the schools faculty didnt want to waste quality grapes by making wine with them. Students instead used junk grapes, as Wolpert called them in a news article from the time, to make wine that ultimately went down the drain. The wine

quality was suspect, and the school had no bond under which to sell the wine, something rival California State University, Fresno, had and still has. Using his skill as a communicator and industry connections, Wolpert put a personable face on the UC Davis program and helped convince donors to contribute to the schools capital campaign. Today, the campus is home to a cutting-edge and bonded learning winery that has better equipment than many commercial operations in California. A major chunk of the funding came from Robert Mondavi, who donated $25 million toward the wine program. Robert Mondavi is the greatest thing since sliced bread, Wolpert told the Wine Spectator at the time. Not only is he generous but hes a nice guy. Despite his success as department chair, Wolpert announced he would be leaving the role in 2003 to return to research, saying, I thought I smelled smoke when I realized it was the burning of bridges to my research projects. He was soon back in the job at the request of the university, however, to pitch a few more innings and help finish the fundraising efforts before leaving in 2006.

Mark Greenspan, the founder of Advanced Viticulture Inc., serves on the ASEV board of directors. He said Wolpert helped motivate him to pursue a career in wine. Greenspan grew to know Wolpert more while working in the same lab as Anderson. The two stayed in contact professionally after Greenspan left UC Davis and Wolpert became department chair. Greenspan said he was impressed by how Wolpert was able to connect the university with the industry. In a way, growers are a pretty tough bunch to please. Theyre very skeptical of the effectiveness of the university, he said. Greenspan thought Wolpert was most successful in demonstrating to the industry that UC Davis was making the investment to improve its facilities through securing significant donations. McGourty said Wolpert proved to be an excellent representative for Californias wine industry. He also said Wolpert earned the respect of his colleagues in Europe for his knowledge and engaging personality. He truly was a great ambassador for us when hed go to international meetings or host international guests, he said. People were always glad to see him.

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2013 ASEV National Conference Daily Schedule

Monday, June 24 36 p.m. 46 p.m. Tuesday, June 25 7 a.m.5 p.m. 8:30 a.m.5:30 p.m. Registration Rootstock Symposium A tribute to Jim Wolpert, 2013 ASEV Merit Award Recipient Registration Presidents Welcome Enology: Flavor/Analysis Viticulture: Rootstocks Enology: Micro/Molecular Biology Viticulture: Pests/Diseases S ustainable Water Management in the Vineyard Bottling Line Sanitation Food Safety Modernization Act Enology: Sensory Impacts Viticulture: Environmental Impacts Enology: Flavor: Impact of Yeast & Bacteria Viticulture: General Session 10 a.m.4 p.m. 10:20 a.m.11:40 a.m. 10:20 a.m.12:10 p.m. Noon1 p.m. 1:30 p.m.2:50 p.m. 1:303 p.m. Registration ASEV Board of Directors Meeting Thursday, June 27 7:30 a.m.6 p.m. 910 a.m. Registration The Changing Role of Extension in the Modern Winegrape Industry, Dr. Jim Wolpert, University of California, Davis I ndustry Seminar Supplier Displays (specific to industry seminar topics) Enology: Wine Stability & Oxidation Viticulture: Cultural Practices Enology: Wine Stability & Oxidation Session Annual Business Meeting Enology: Tannins Session (Part I) V ineyard Safety and Compliance G etting Your Lab Ready for Harvest A lcohol Consumption Management for Winery and Vineyard Employees Viticulture: Water Relations Enology: Tannins Session (Part II) Viticulture: Red Blotch Registration Tannin Symposium

Wednesday, June 26 7 a.m.6:30 p.m. 88:10 a.m. 8:10 a.m.10:10 a.m. 10:30 a.m.12:10 p.m. 1:30 p.m.3 p.m.

1:303:30 p.m. 3:10 p.m.4:30 p.m. 3:50 p.m.4:50 p.m. Friday, June 28 7 a.m.4:30 p.m. 8 a.m.4:30 p.m.

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Why Vintners Cant Sign Bottles

And other absurd restrictions in California alcohol regulation
By Paul Franson

xperts at the Best Practices in Winery Operations conference this spring in Napa, Calif., discussed topics such as social media, evaluating vineyard property and contract winemaking. But the most lively sessions at the two-day event sponsored by the Seminar Group were an update about Californias onerous tied-house laws and holding events in Napa County, which has the most restrictive regulations for winery events in the United States.

Dont tell me what youre doing

Matthew D. Botting, general counsel of the California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control, presented a summary of updated tied-house rules about contests and sweepstakes as well as a seemingly trivial bill that uncovers a dirty little secret: Its illegal for winemakers or vintners to sign wine labels at their wineries or restaurants. A new law allows them to sign labels at retailers under strict restrictions, however. Clearly appreciating the absurdity of some of the trivial restrictions, Botting held up the phonebook-size summary of alcohol laws in California and pointed out a concept foreign in most American life: When it comes to alcoholic beverages, you start with nothing. You can only do what your permit specifically allows you. All else is forbidden. Replying to a few questions from the audience, Botting exclaimed, Dont tell me what youre doing! He admitted that the ABC is unlikely to make a priority of busting label signers, but they do take the tied-house laws seriously. These laws were set up after Prohibition to prevent beer, wine and spirits manufacturers from owning bars and restaurants and unfairly monopolizing the business. The laws established the three-tier systems and carefully control relations between the tiers. For example: Wineries cant give anything of significant value to retailers or restaurants and bars. Signing a label is considered of value, which is why a specific rule had to be added to permit it. The consumer has to buy the bottle first, not as a condition

A new California law allows winemakers to sign wine labels at retailers under strict restrictions, but not at their wineries or restaurants.

of the signing, and the consumer can have the winemaker sign something else such as a piece of paper.
Rules for sponsoring contests

Contests and sweepstakes are a bigger issue. Until last year, wineries couldnt hold contests that gave consumers prizes, leading to the absurdity of Californians being the only Americans who couldnt win prizes in Sutter Home Winerys Build a Better Burger contest. New provisions let wineries conduct their own consumer contests and sweepstakes as well as sponsor consumer sweepstakes for other companies. (Previously they could sponsor contests by providing prizes.) There are lots of restrictions, including: No one under 21 can enter.  You cant require the purchase of alcohol for entry or extra chances to win.


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Entry cant involve consumption of alcohol.  Packaging, caps, labels, etc., cannot be used as entry forms though a neck hanger can.  You must offer an alternative entry form that does not require a visit to a licensed premise.  The entry forms must clearly state that no purchase of alcohol is required.  You may conduct the contest at a winery but not at duplicate licenses such as remote tasting rooms.  You cant give alcohol as a prize. Dont give away free alcohol, Botting warns. Also, suppliers can sponsor contests by making monetary payments to bona fide amateur or professional organizations established for the encouragement and promotion of the activities involved. Botting emphasizes that penalties can be severe: Typically, for first-offense violations of trade practice statutes, the license can be suspended for 15 days or warrant a $750-$10,000 fine (or up to value of the thing given to a retailer). For violation of the sweepstakes statute, the penalty also may include prohibiting sweepstakes for California residents for up to one year.
An update about events

unincorporated land was agriculture (and watershed), and the 1990 Winery Definition Ordinance, which stated that producing wine must be the principal business of a winery. It outlawed social events including weddings, business meetings unless they spent 75% of their time on wine education (and the winery didnt make money on anything but wine) and required appointments for tours and tastings. It did allow restricted marketing events including those for the trade and wine clubs. Each new winery was also allowed a certain number of events and visitors.

If a nonprofit approaches you, ask to see their permit before you donate.
Lori Ajax, California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control
Markups for food not allowed

Two other speakers discussed events. Mimi Gatens, the marketing manager at Trefethen Family Vineyards, covered events at wineries in Napa County. She outlined the two defining events for wineries in Napa County: the establishment of the agricultural preserve in 1968, which stated that the best use of most of the countys

During the downturn of 2010, some local wineries and hospitality businesses lobbied for loosening the rules. The primary change was allowing food and wine pairing, however the only charge for the food could be cost recovery. Wineries that offer food pairingseven precut cheese must have commercial kitchens, which are inspected by the county health department. Staff must also undergo foodsafety training.

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Following Gatens Napa-centric talk, Lori Ajax, the deputy division chief of the California ABC, talked about events held off winery property, including nonprofit events and those at restaurants (theyre not allowed at off-premise locations). Ajax first noted that the ABC has about 70 different licenses held by 85,000 organizations, most of them retailers. The list includes about 4,700 Type-02 winery licenses (In this article, wineries refer to wine producers with Type-02 licenses, not type 17/20 virtual wineries.) The ABC just posted an interactive map of all permanent licenses. One area of confusion surrounds nonprofit events including wine festivals, which have no special privileges, but Ajax noted, We dont like events offering all you can drink.
License for events

The event must truly be driven by the nonprofit group, not the winery or promoters.The group needs a special event one-day license to offer alcoholic beverages. If a nonprofit approaches you, ask to see their permit before you donate. Wineries can donate or sell wine to nonprofit organizations, tend bar, provide tastes, help in other ways and advertise the event. They cant benefit permanent retail licenses, however. If an event is held at a licensed premise like a restaurant, the restaurant must surrender its license for that part of its property, and the nonprofit must get a one-day license.
Types of licenses

You cant sell wine directly to consumers at a nonprofit event, but organizers can get a Type-81 wine sales event permit and set up a separate area. Wineries cant solicit orders, however, and any transaction must be completed at a winery, so no use of mobile credit card-processing is allowed. Some events are held under caterers licenses (Type 58), but in this case, a winery cant donate wine since its a retailer. Clearly, regulations about alcohol are challenging. In general, Botting warned, Tied-house provisions are often complex, and these new provisions are no exception. Before undertaking any promotion or event, you should review the requirements of the law and seek independent legal counsel. You can find advisories on these issues at

54 W in es & V i ne s J U NE 2 013

Access Practical Winery & Vineyard article archive online:


58 How much microbiology do winery personnel need? By Lisa Van de Water, Vinotec 62 Guidance for assessing whether a new label approval is necessary By Ann Reynolds 65 Wineries achieve control of mold growth By Tina Vierra
wine marketing


Using third-party providers to GROW wine sales

BY John Trinidad, Dickenson, Peatman
& Fogarty, Napa, Calif.

here are a number of online marketing tools to help wineries tap into the rapid growth of directto-consumer sales. Third-party marketers, also referred to as third-party providers (TPPs), for example, offer wineries the opportunity to reach an engaged group of online wine consumers and increase sales. This unique and relatively new business model has perplexed state liquor authorities. Some have questioned whether TPPs are unfairly exercising privileges normally reserved for alcoholic beverage license holders who are legally authorized to sell to consumers. Wineries, importers and other suppliers wishing to work with TPPs should be aware that rules and regulations governing these types of businesses are still being formed. Although the California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control (ABC) issued an advisory in 2011 to help wineries interested in working with TPPs comply with Californias alcoholic beverage laws, many other states have offered limited or no guidance.

In New York, one of the largest direct-to-consumer wine markets in the United States, the New York State Liquor Authority (NYSLA) recently concluded that certain TPP transactions facilitated by in-state wholesalers and retailers violated state law. The NYSLA made clear that it would continue to review TPP activities and would eventually issue its own guidelines. This article provides a short overview of how the alcoholic beverage agencies in California and New York are tackling the issues raised by TPPs.

TPPs provide marketing and technology services that connect consumers and licensed suppliers and facilitate the sale of wine. TPPs allow consumers to submit an order through their websites, but instead of processing, fulfilling and shipping the wine to the consumer, the TPP forwards those orders to licensees, has the licensee accept or reject orders and fulfill any accepted orders before it collects a fee based on sales facilitated through the TPPs website. The end result is that the TPP model obviates the need to keep inventory or actually sell the wine.

In September 2008, announced that it had partnered with a fulfillment company to offer consumers the opportunity to buy wine online. With the largest online retailer jumping into wine sales, and after receiving a number of other inquiries regarding TPPs, the California ABC decided to take a closer look at online alcoholic beverage sales. In June 2009, the ABC issued an industry advisory noting its concern that TPPs were engaging in activities for which a license is required and warning that any TPP-facilitated transaction that violated ABC regulations would subject the participating licensee to disciplinary action.1 The ABC also made clear that it considered any company soliciting orders of alcoholic beverages for or on behalf of licensees (to be) engaged in the sale of alcoholic beverages, thereby requiring it to hold a license issued by the department. That fall, Amazon abandoned its plans to offer wine on its website. Two years later, after receiving multiple requests for clarification and following a series of meetings with stakeholders, the ABC issued another advisory, this time stating that TPPs may continue to conduct business without a license, and also setting guidelines that needed to be followed by licensees working with TPPs.2 Specifically, the guidelines describe what types of sales-related activities TPPs can engage in, how the flow of funds from a TPP-assisted transaction should be structured and how TPPs can be compensated for facilitating a transaction. First, although a TPP can receive orders from customers and transmit
pr actica l win ery & vin eya rd JU NE 20 13 55

wine marketing
those orders to licensees and process payments from credit or debit cards, the relationship must be structured so that the licenseenot the TPPcontrols the actual sales transaction. Accordingly, the licensee must control what wine is to be offered, select the sales price and be free to accept or reject orders. Furthermore, the licensee, not the TPP, must be in charge of shipping and fulfillment of accepted orders. Second, the flow of funds resulting from a TPP-facilitated sale must be structured so that any payments received by TPPs from purchasers are deposited into an escrow account, or similar instrument controlled by the licensee. If the licensee accepts the order, the licensee can either payor direct the account holder to paythe TPP for services rendered. Third, licensees can compensate TPPs for their services, but compensation must be reasonable and should not result in actual or de facto control by the TPP over the licensee. Today, these guidelines serve as the primary playbook that any licensed winery should follow in working with TPPs. Although the advisory allowed TPPfacilitated transactions to go forward, the ABC reiterated its concern that certain activities by (TPPs) may violate California law, particularly in the areas for online salesincluding the recent California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control (ABC) advisory.4 Later in 2012, ShipCompliant submitted a petition to the NYSLA describing the MarketPlace platform and requesting a declaratory ruling that MarketPlace complied with the states alcoholic beverage laws. In response to ShipCompliants petition, the NYSLA called a special full board meeting to consider the extent to which an unlicensed entity can participate in, and receive compensation from, the sale of alcoholic beverages.4 By describing the meeting in this way, the NYSLA suggested that it would not limit the meeting to an examination of ShipCompliants software but would also take the opportunity to review the relationship between TPPs, suppliers and wholesalers. Indeed, prior to receiving ShipCompliants petition, the NYSLA had launched its own inquiry and investigation of TPP-facilitated transactions in New York. The meeting occurred Jan. 17, 2013, and lasted approximately 3.5 hours. The overwhelming majority of the NYSLA questions had nothing to do with ShipCompliants Producer Direct program, whereby wineries holding New York direct-shipping permits ship and participated in the 3T sales arrangement violated the law by allowing an unlicensed TPP to use their alcohol beverage license privileges. The NYSLA expressed concern that the TPPan unlicensed entitywas exerting a high degree of control over the business operations of the participating licensees in the 3T sales relationship, and that licensees were playing a passive role. The NYSLA reached this conclusion based in part on the following findings: The TPPnot the licenseesselected the wine to be sold and the prices. Both the wholesaler and reseller received a flat fee per bottle sold. All wine sold through this arrangement was sold directly from the warehouse, not through the retailers licensed store premises. In addition, the NYSLA had reservations about the escrow-type account that was part of the retailers agreement with ShipCompliant, stating that the arrangement call(ed) into question what, if any, control the participating retailer exercised over funds paid for the alcoholic beverages. Despite the lengthy hearing in January and the detailed ruling by the NYSLA, there are still no comprehensive guidelines for licensees wishing to work with TPPs to improve sales to New York consumers. The NYSLA has stated that it would conduct public meetings and gather additional information to explore third party marketing further, but no timeline has been set for those hearings. In the meantime, however, the NYSLA warned licensees that they should avoid TPP arrangements where: (a) licensees are playing a passive role in the transaction and/or incur no business risk in the arrangement; (b) an unlicensed party performs retail functions such as control over product selection, pricing, fund distribution and licensees profit margin and (c) an unlicensed party derives a substantial portion of the sale or sales made.

Third-party providers allow consumers to submit an order through their websites, but instead of processing, fulfilling and shipping the wine to the consumer, the TPP forwards those orders to licensees, has the licensee accept or reject orders and fulfill any accepted orders before it collects a fee based on sales facilitated through the TPPs website.
of sales by a person without a license and the exercise of impermissible control of a licensee by a person without the privilege of a license. While there is no indication that the ABC will revisit these guidelines anytime soon, wineries should closely adhere to these guidelines in engaging TPPs. In January 2012, shortly after the Cali fornia ABC announced its TPP guidelines, software company ShipCompliant 3 introduced a new product called MarketPlace to facilitate TPP-winery communications and transactions. According to the company, MarketPlace gives online wine marketers and wineries a transactional environment to meet the states regulatory requirements
56 p r acti c al w i ne ry & v i ne yard J U NE 20 13

New York

fulfill orders sent to New York residents. Instead, the boards questions primarily focused on TPP-facilitated sales that passed through New Yorks three-tier system and which involved ShipCompliant, a TPP, and an instate licensed wholesaler and retailer (referred to as 3T sales). On April 9, 2013, the NYSLA issued a declaratory ruling 5 denying ShipCompliants petition and concluding that certain 3T sales through the MarketPlace Platform violated ABCL 111, which states: A license issued to any personshall not be transferable to any other person. It shall be available only to the person therein specified, and only for the premises licensed and no other. In other words, the licensed wholesaler and retailer that

Almost four years have passed since the California ABC issued its initial industry advisory about TPPs. A lot has changed since then, and TPPs and licensees have been able to work out relationships that appear to comply with Californias 2011 advisory. Amazon, which previously had abandoned its foray into facilitating wine sales, has now launched a wine division. But states such as New York have yet to weigh in on where they stand on TPPfacilitated transactions, and they may not

wine marketing
be willing to simply adopt Californias guidelines. In other words, there is still some uncertainty in the alcoholic beverage regulatory world as to how TPPs will be treated. In engaging a TPP to help market their brand, wineries need to keep in mind that they are ultimately responsible for actions of the TPP. Should a state liquor authority find that a TPPs actions violated alcoholic beverage law, the licensee could face disciplinary action. Wineries need to keep a close eye on the evolution of TPP rules and regulations in the months and years to come to avoid running afoul of state alcohol beverage laws. PWV John Trinidad is a Napa, Calif.-based wine law attorney at Dickenson, Peatman & Fogarty, where he works with the alcohol beverage business, and intellectual property departments. Prior to joining Dickenson, Trinidad served as a litigator in Washington, D.C., and San Francisco, Calif., and worked harvest for wineries in Burgundy and Healdsburg, Calif. He is a graduate of Harvard College in Cambridge, Mass., and the New York University School of Law. Neither John Trinidad nor Dickenson, Peatman & Fogarty represent ShipCompliant or any other company mentioned in this article.
1. California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control, Industry Advisory (June 2009) available at trade/Advisory-Third%20Party.pdf. 2. California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control, Industry Advisory (October 2011) available at abc. Providers.pdf. 3. ShipCompliant press release, ShipCompliant Launches New MarketPlace Platform for Wineries and Online Wine Marketers: New Compliance Tool Helps Wineries and Online Marketers to Reach More Customers, (Jan. 18, 2012), available at prweb9119635.htm. 4. NYSLA, Special Full Board Meeting Regarding Internet Advertising and Sales, available at abc-state-ny.granicus. com/DocumentViewer.php?file=abc-stateny_6d768deecde7a172de3f2a0db2a9d 4eb.pdf&view=1&showpdf=1. 5. New York State Liquor Authority, Declaratory Ruling: Application of Six88 Solutions, Inc. dba ShipCompliant for a determination on legality of Internet advertising platform (Declaratory Ruling 2013-01006A), available at system/files/2013-01006A_-_Internet_ Advertising_Platform.pdf.

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Figure 1Some vineyard sprays for powdery mildew contain Bacillus subtilis; the spores can persist in cellared wine for many months.

How much microbiology do winery personnel need?

BY Lisa Van de Water, Vinotec Napa

very winery has the goal to produce a consistent, stable product that satisfies its customers. Microbial stability is an important part of achieving this goal. The question addressed below is: How much should winery workers know about microbial stability at bottling? Because of its alcohol content and low pH, wine is an inhospitable medium for most microbes. Of the thousands of microbes in the world, only a few grow in table wine (11%+ alcohol, as opposed to low-alcohol wine products at pH 3.1 and above. Perhaps 50 species or so are wine-tolerant, and no confirmed human pathogens have been found to date growing in wine. Many more species found on grapes and in wine cellars are often incidental contaminants, particularly in newly bottled wine, but will not grow in wine.

Wine-tolerant microbes Fermentation yeasts: Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its evil twin Zygosaccharomyces bailii, which is insensitive to sorbate or normal levels of SO2 . Spoilage yeast: Brettanomyces/Dekkera bruxellensis, found in red and some white wines all over the world, grows mostly in barrel-aged wines and in infected wines bottled without very tight filtration. There are very significant strain differences in their toler58 p r acti c al w i ne ry & v i ne yard J U NE 20 13

ances (alcohol, SO 2 ) and metabolism (what substrates can be used, and what compounds are produced). [Conterno, L., C.M.L. Joseph, T. Arvik, T. HenickKling, T., and L. Bisson. 2006 Genetic and Physiological Characterization of Brettanomyces bruxellensis Strains isolated from Wines. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 57: 2, 139147.] Aerobic yeasts: certain surface-film yeasts (mostly Pichia and Candida, but not all species of those genera); these create wrinkly surface growths on wines cellared with headspace. Lactic acid bacteria: Oenococcus oeni, Pediococcus parvulus and damnosus, some species of Lactobacillus (around a dozen have been identified in wine but there may be more). Most of these bacteria can perform malolactic fermentation (MLF) in wine, though some Pediococci cannot (though they may grow in dry wine that is finished with MLF). Lactic acid bacteria require higher wine pH than yeasts (3.23.3 pH, often higher). Aerobic bacteria: Acetobacter spp. are aerobic bacteria that form a slippery film on the surface of cellared wine exposed to air. They have been found growing in bottles, but only when the closure was compromised or when bottles with natural corks were stored upright, allowing diffusion of air through the cork. [Bartowsky, E.J., P.A. Henschke. Acetic acid bacteria spoilage of bottled red winea review. Int. J. Food Microbiol. June 30, 2008; 125(1): 6070. doi: 10.1016/j. ijfoodmicro.2007.10.016. Epub Dec. 23, 2007.]

Not all of these microbes can grow in any given wine. Saccharomyces and Zygosaccharomyces, for example, cannot affect dry wines. A very low-pH wine (below around pH 3.23.3) usually will not allow the growth of lactic acid bacteria, though occasionally Oenococcus oeni grow in wines below 3.2 pH. Wine microbiologists should know which microbes are likely to pose a threat to each wine at each stage in its development and which do not. They also should, however, watch for a previously undescribed microbe, or for microbes that hardly ever grow in wine but could possibly be a problem. For instance, while Bacillus spp. almost never grow in wine (although the spores can survive in wine for months to years), a few events of clouding or H2S in wine from Bacillus (Lucy Joseph, U.C. Davis; personal experience) have occurred in the past 35 years or so. Thus, when wine microbiologists evaluate cultures or other lab results from wine, especially bottled wines (in any retail package), they can tell (or can

Figure 2Candida cantarelli colonies resemble Brettanomyces colonies, but C. cantarelli cells (top) are round, not apiculate like Brettanomyces (bottom).

run further tests to determine) which microbes are likely to spoil that particular wine and which microbes are not. The presence of wine-tolerant microbes may result in holding back a bottling run, product recall, or even rebottling, but a well-trained wine microbiologist can advise a winemaker so wines are not held back unnecessarily. Depending on quantity and type, the presence of any microbes can indicate poor sanitation of the bottling line. However, the batch of wine usually can still be released if the microbes are intolerant to wine. While the ideal is the absence of any microbes at all in any bottles, the reality is that a culture of a newly bottled wine will often grow one or more colonies of incidental microbes intolerant to wine. Each winery must develop a standard to determine how many colonies per bottle of wine-intolerant microbes, or levels measured by an ATP tester on the bottling line, will trigger a review of bottling line sanitation procedures. In a wine bottled without sterile filtration (many reds and some whites), it is very important for the lab to distinguish microbes that can affect that wine negatively from those that cannot. For example, Candida cantarelli, a yeast very common in cellars and sometimes found in wine samples (though unable to grow in wine), closely resembles Brettanomyces in culture; both produce smooth, white, rounded colonies, but their cell morphology (Figure 2) and growth patterns are completely different. In another example, some vineyard sprays for powdery mildew contain Bacillus subtilis; the spores can persist in cellared wine for many months. It is not a threat to wine, but it grows alarminglooking, vertical, wrinkled colonies in culture (Figure 1). Winery microbiologists need to recognize these colonies so the wine is not unneccesarily reprocessed.
How much microbiology should winery workers know?

ate sanitation overall. Even staff who do not work in the lab know the danger signals in the cellar and during bottling. Protocol BOnly supervisors and/or microbiology staff (or commercial labs that are used) are aware of which microbes grow in wine and which do not. This protocol permits lab and supervisory personnel to evaluate winery procedures based on the microbes present, while not holding back wines containing microbes that are not a threat to the wine. More than occasional microbes in bottled wines, however, indicate that an overhaul of bottling line sanitation is needed. Cellar and bottling workers perform sanitation procedures intended to eliminate all microbes at bottling, and throughout production to reduce potential populations. Protocol CNo one in the winery is aware of which microbes grow in each type of wine and which do not (or if they are aware, that is not taken into account in designing lab or cellar procedures or releasing wine). With this protocol, there are distinctly different outcomes depending on what is produced. In food-processing plants, any bug in most products is a bad bug, especially because there are so many foodborne illnesses. Food producers must eliminate human pathogens and try to eliminate microbes except those required for that product (such as Lactobacillus in yogurt or molds in certain cheeses), or those that cannot be eliminated because of the nature of the product (fresh meat, fruit and vegetables, for example). While food recalls show that lapses do occur, well-run plants keep pathogens out of the food, and the food does not spoil within its expected shelf life. In winemaking, however, this protocol can lead to difficulties, from overload of the labs capacity to rebottling wines that do not contain wine-tolerant microbes. Pathogens (as far as we know now) are unable to survive, so public health is not an issue.
Case histories for Protocol A

A2 Brettanomyces management A medium-size winery had a serious problem with Brettanomyces, including one in-bottle spoilage resulting in the recall of a wine. The winemaker, an enology graduate, explained to all wineproduction personnel what the problem was, how it grew and how it was transferred from wine to wine. The incidence of infection dropped considerably, although it was years before they could manage Brettanomyces successfully. B1Dirty bottling line but all microbes intolerant to wine A custom-bottling company routinely sent post-bottling samples to a commercial lab. The wines always grew a large number of colonies of many species (Figure 3). The lab determined that none could grow in the bottled wine, so the wines could be released. A consultant from the commercial lab was called in to investigate all parts of the bottling line extensively, making many suggestions about sanitation. The bottles now have only an occasional wine-intolerant microbe, and no wine microbes (yet).
Case histories for Protocol B

Figure 3Petri dishes of non-wine microbes in bottled wine that triggered a bottling line sanitation audit.

Whatever protocol is chosen, all wineries should follow a written HACCP plan tailored to their own situation. Suggestions by Dr. Bruce Zoecklein for a winery HACCP plan can be found at Protocol AAll wine-production people are aware of which microbes grow in wine, which do not and what danger signals to look for. This protocol allows winery workers to focus attention on microbes and situations that could harm the wine at various stages, while also maintaining appropri-

A1Selective vigilance A small winery whose staff each did several jobs, including sharing lab, cellar and other duties, requested seminars on wine microbes, where and how they grow, which protocols are needed to limit growth and what danger signals to look out for. It was very helpful for them to learn to watch closely for microbes that could cause wine problems and not to focus on microbes (such as on workers muddy boots when it rained, or when someone sneezed) that would not infect the wine itself.

B2Too many cultures A very large wine-bottling plant did around 250 cultures per day. Whenever a microbe grew in a culture, they held the wine back while they attempted to identify the microbe. Because there were so many colonies to examine, one colony of Zygosaccharomyces was missed, which caused a problem. The backlog of reserved wines was unmanageable. The wines were low-pH, no MLF, with sorbate added, and no fermentation or barreling occurred in the plant; the enemy was Zygosaccharomyces (insensitive to sorbate
pr actica l win ery & vin eya rd JU NE 20 13 59

and normal SO2 levels). Once their lab procedures were realigned to focus on Zygosaccharomyces (and other wine-tolerant microbes, though those were seldom if ever found), the impossible workload was reduced dramatically, and nearly all wines could be released on time. B3Large wineries need a trained wine microbiologist A large winery had recurring difficulties with Zygosaccharomyces, and some packaged wine exploded after release. After attending seminars on wine microbes, and in-house consultation, the winery microbiologist learned to recognize which colonies should be checked by PCR to determine if they were Zygosaccharomyces. A find-thebug swabbing procedure was done on the most problematic bottling line (Figure 4), and sanitation protocols were changed to eliminate as many instances of bottling line contamination as possible. Zygosaccharomyces still infects some of the packaged wines, but the microbiologist can determine which wines need to be held or rebottled.
Case Histories for Protocol C

Figure 4 Swabbing bottling line to locate microbes.

C1Unnecessary rebottling A medium-size winery, located far

from any enology lab, sent bottled wine samples to a local food lab that reported results as numbers of colonies of yeast, bacteria or mold, with no further identification. If any microbes were found, the winemaker would then rebottle the wine, sometimes more than once. When the winery learned to do their own culturing and to distinguish wine-tolerant microbes from wine-intolerant ones, the unnecessary rebottlings stopped. Another choice would have been to use an enology lab instead of a food lab, despite the transit time. The current

winemaker has not had to rebottle any wines in the past 20 years. C2No one knows what lab results mean A winery sent samples routinely for a Scorpions panel. Pediococcus was always detected in one stuck Chardonnay. No one at the winery knew what that meant, so they filed the results without asking if Pediococcus could become a problem. It was only when the wine acidity increased (from sugar metabolism) and became cloudy (they do not sterile-filter) that they investigated what Pediococcus could mean to their wine. C3Red herrings The microbiology director for a winery group cultured a bottled wine that had become active in the bottle. There were several large, colorful colonies with a faint, colorless background haze and three tiny white colonies (Figure 5). They were worried about the large, ugly colonies, but the real problem was the haze (Oenococcus oeni) and the three little white colonies (Pediococcus). The big colonies were red herrings.

Figure 5 Large non-wine colonies with three small white Pediococcus colonies (one circled) and a background haze of Oenococcus oeni.

My recommendations are: Protocol A for very small wineries where one person may perform many tasks and Protocol B when different departments do different jobs. Protocol C is not recommended for wineries. Training of all personnel is recommended, including sales people, to watch for danger signals in cellared and bottled wines. Even bottle variation noticed by tasting room staff can be important, as it can be the first sign of microbial growth. Each winery must determine which protocol to choose, but the choice should be made deliberately, with reference to the winerys size, cellar layout and equipment, personnel structure and types of wine. PWV
60 p EVQ_ENARTISFERM racti c al w i ne ry & v i n e yardtr.indd J U NE PRIMITIVO_W&V 1 20 13
11/04/13 17:10

Which protocol is best?

After graduating from George Washington University in Washington DC, Lisa Van de Water did graduate studies at GWU, National Institutes of Health and University of California, Davis. She was an experimental enologist at Robert Mondavi Winery in 1974, then founded The Wine Lab, an independent lab in the Napa Valley, in 1975 (she left in 2003). In 1992 she co-founded Pacific Rim Oenology Services in New Zealand. She began consulting on fermentation and wine microbe identification and management with Vinotec Chile in Santiago in 2000, and in 2004 with VinLab in Stellenbosch, South Africa. Van de Water gives technical seminars and presentations on wine microbiology in several countries. Visit for further microbiology articles by Van de Water in the PWV archives.

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Guidance for assessing whether a new label approval is necessary

fairly cumbersome and time-consuming process. The TTB has made great strides to address both of these issues for the wine producer and TTB procedures. In mid-2003, TTB released its electronic filing system, COLAs online. This system meant no more paper forms and no more snail mail. The percentage of label approvals they receive via this electronic system is 90% of the total applications. In 2012, the TTB received more than 180,000 label approval submissions.
TTB expands list of allowable revisions to approved labels

ine labels are an ever-popular topic in the world of compliance. In my most recent column (see Decoding wine label language in the Winter 2013 issue of Practical Winery & Vineyard Journal) I focused on the various items that appear on labels from a Trade & Tax Bureau (TTB) regulatory standpoint. I would like to follow up and cover another common label-related activity that wineries, wine cellars and wine importers encounter in compliance: the process of applying for federal label approval. These approvals are behind that very

common acronym used to refer to them in the industry: COLA (certificate of label approval). The label approval or COLA is a required step that comes at either the beginning or the end of a wines life. The beginning timing applies in the case of wines that are imported into the U.S., while the end timing applies for wines that are bottled in U.S. facilities. Prior to 2002, all label approvals were submitted via snail mail, which involved completing the TTB paper form in duplicate on legal size paper and sending it in to the TTB offices in Washington, D.C., and waiting several weeks (at least) to receive a response. All in all it was a

Page three of the original label approval paper form contained a list of changes that could be made to wine labels with previously approved COLAs on file. In July 2012 the TTB announced that it had updated this list of allowable changes. This meant if the changes you made to your label fell within their updated list there would be no need to submit for a new label approval. This expanded list of allowable changes would be a time saver for wineries and TTB specialists tasked with reviewing and approving labels. A few new allowable revisions announced in the July 2012 update

Why is Ridge Vineyards adding ingredients to its back labels?

tarting with the 2011 vintage, Ridge other water-based treating materials, Vineyards is listing ingredients may not total more than 1% of the volon its wine labels. The practice is not ume of the treated wine, juice, or both required by the TTB but a choice made wine and juice, from which such wine by the winery. While ingredient labelis produced. ing is not required for wine, wineries Both of the above pieces of informado need to be aware of day-to-day TTB tionthe amount of product added and recordkeeping requirements related to gallons of water used to dilute (if used) various wine additions. should be recorded in some form of work The current list of materials authoorder document and kept as part of the rized for treatment of juice and wine also required winemaking records. contains the specific amounts allowed A full summary of the list and limitato be added. These include both maxitions to their use can be accessed here: mum pounds per gallon and, for some wines, the maximum residual Ann Reynolds amounts they leave behind, Ingredients: HandRidge explains such as 2 grams per liter. We call our approach to Many of these materials harvested, sustainably must be diluted with water grown grapes, naturally winemaking pre-industrial, says Paul Draper, before they are added to juice occurring indigenous head winemaker for the past or wine. The TTB allows for yeasts and malolactic 44 years at Ridge Vineyards this per the following regula- bacteria, 1.4% water in Californias Santa Cruz tion: Where water is added addition, minimum Mountains. For fine wine, to facilitate the solution or effective SO2.PD many modern additives and dispersal of a material, the Example of 2011 Paso processing machines limit volume of water added, Robles Zinfandel true quality and do not whether the material is used ingredients label. allow the distinctive charsingly or in combination with

acter of a fine vineyard to determine wine character. Given that this processing equipment and these additives are not needed in making fine wine, Ridge has opted to voluntarily include an ingredient list on its wine labels beginning with the 2011 vintage. Besides sustainably grown grapes and their natural yeasts and malolactic bacteria, we list everything added. These are limited to the few non-invasive additions in use for the past 200 years. We hope to encourage others making fine wine to entrust their customers with their list of ingredients.
Making sense of it all

Although an ingredient list is not required by the TTB, if a winery chooses to add a list of ingredients to its back label, it must list every ingredient. All Ridge wines make use of the following: Hand-harvesting of grapes, which allows an initial selection for clean fruit; Sustainable farming practices that protect the environment, workers and community;

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surprised many of us who have dealt directly with TTB compliance over the years. They were surprising because they are all areas that the TTB had previously indicated were distinctive differences in a wines details, hence their requirement for a new label approval.
Three examples of new allowable changes to label approvals

Alcohol content: Prior to the TTBs allowable revision updates, if you had an existing label approval for a wine with an alcohol level in the table wine tax class (alcohol content between 7% and 14%), and in the next year the wine for that bot-

tling had an alcohol level of 14.7%, which is a separate tax class, you were required to change the alcohol content on your label and submit another label approval to cover that wine. Now the TTB has made this an allowable change. Keep in mind that the class and type must remain the same as what was listed on the previously approved label. The class and type is a required wine label item, and varietal names are the most common example of these. Change in the optional produced by or made by statement: These phrases are optional terms that can be used in the required name and address statement on your wine label. It typically appears on the back label. If you use either of the terms produced or made, they have the same TTB-defined definition. At least 75% of the wine must have completed fermentation at the site where the wine is bottled. The TTB updated its allowable revisions for this item, now allowing wineries to change produced or made to one of the other optional statements (such as vinted, cellared or blended). This only applies to changing your labels from produced or made to the other

optional statements. In other words, if you decide to change a previously approved label from cellared and bottled by to produced and bottled by, then you need to submit for a new label approval.

Produced and bottled by ABC Winery Somewhere, Calif.

Cellared and bottled by ABC Winery Somewhere, Calif.

ABC Winery
2012 Ros Wine

ABC Winery
2013 Ros Wine

Left: Example of previously approved label. Right: New label with allowable optional statement change.

13.5% Alc. by Vol.

14.5% Alc. by Vol.

Left: Example of previously approved label. Right: New label with allowable alcohol content change in a different tax class.

Changes in use of vintage date: Prior to this update in allowable revisions, the TTB did not require wineries to submit a new label approval if the only thing different was the vintage. Now, with this update, the TTB is also allowing addition or deletion of a vintage on a label as well as simply updating it from the previous year. If a previously approved label either did or did not list a vintage, and

Indigenous yeasts brought to bird- and wind-damaged mature berries by bees and wasps; Naturally occurring malolactic bacteria on the grapes in the vineyard (most fruits contain malic acid, and where that is present so is malolactic bacteria). The bacteria comes in with the grapes and is found in the fermentors immediately after crush; Oak from barrel aging; Minimum effective addition of SO2 needed to consistently show the distinctive character of a fine vineyard in the wine.
Other additions used when required

Water: When temperatures during a Zinfandel harvest rise significantly, this variety can over-ripen quickly before there is opportunity to pick all the blocks. If that occurs, we make a small addition of water to those fermentors to rehydrate grapes that lost water to the vine in protecting it from excessive heat. Egg whites: The most gentle of all fining agents, fresh egg whites have been used for at least 200 years to clarify fine wine and/or moderate tannins. For example, virtually every Bordeaux from

the First Growths to the regions lesser wines have been fined with five or six fresh egg whites per barrel in most years for at least 100 years. For Ridge Vineyards, clarity is never an issue, but egg white fining can moderate the texture of the tannins in the few parcels of Cabernet or Merlot that, in a particular vintage, might show excess tannin. The egg whites precipitate and the wine is racked off and filtered, leaving no trace of the egg white behind. Calcium carbonate: If natural acidity is excessively high in a few parcels of the Monte Bello or Geyservillle vineyards, a small addition is made during active fermentation to achieve balance by precipitating a limited amount of acidity. Tartaric acid: Acidity in Zinfandel (Geyserville being an exception) is, on occasion, not as high as would be ideal but still better than Syrah. To achieve balance in those parcels, small amounts of tartaric acid, the natural acid in wine, are added. Draper feels strongly that ingredient labeling should not be a legal requirement for wine. The more than 60 additives approved for use in wine in the United States and in the worlds major wine-producing countries are all safe for

consumption. There are no health risks to the consumer, says Draper. However, unlike virtually any other food product, the fact that each wine in each vintage is handled differently using different additives given the makeup of grapes that years weather has provided, makes it impractical to apply ingredient labeling to wine. Just requiring calories per serving, let alone ingredients, would be an untenable practical and financial burden for small and medium size producers. The federal authorities, however, do permit a wine producer to voluntarily provide, on the label, the ingredients involved if all additives are included. Listing the naturally present ingredients and few non-invasive additives necessary to making fine wine would be something fine wine producers might consider. It would set their wines apart, for example from natural wines that do not use the minimum effective SO2 necessary to consistently show the natural character of a fine vineyard in a wine and from wines that do not attempt to show a sense of place. This could provide a definition of what is fine wine. Ridge Vineyards
pr actica l win ery & vin eya rd JU NE 20 13 63

the producer decided to do the opposite on the label for the next years bottling, then a new label approval would not be required. bottling a wine that your winery bottles each year, here is a series of steps to follow to determine whether or not a new label approval needs to be submitted. Step one: Locate your new label image files (full set of front and back) and the most recent COLA for that wine. Step two: View each set of labels side by side to determine the changes between the COLA already on file and your new label files. Make a list of each of the changes. Follow this step for each label individually, comparing the previous front label to the current front version and do the same for the back label. Step three: Compare each item on your list of changes to the TTBs updated list of allowable revisions to determine whether or not you will need to submit a new label approval.
Impacts related to state-to-state shipping

ABC Winery
Red Wine

ABC Winery
2012 Red Wine

13.5% Alc. by Vol.

13.5% Alc. by Vol.

Left: Example of previously approved label. Right: New label with allowable vintage change.

Steps to follow to assess whether or not a new COLA is necessary

In the event that you are coming up on

The TTB is not the only government agency that requires label approvals as part of its regulatory activities. At the state level, many wineries that ship to consumers or distributors in other states are also required to submit some form of label registration, and part of that label registration requires a copy of the federal label approval for that wine. I wondered whether any of the state agencies would have a conflict with these newest updates from the TTB in relation to their own state requirements. To verify whether or not this was the case I contacted Sarah Werner, manager of research at ShipCompliant in Boulder, Colo. Werner notes that wineries that have determined their label changes fall within the range of the TTBs most recently updated list should not need to get further COLA approval in order to register their new labels with the states. The majority of states that previously required new or revised registrations for new vintages, wine class changes, alcohol by volume changes, etc., continue to require those registrations. We are not aware of any states at this time that have indicated they require wineries to apply for additional federal label approvals that would otherwise not have been required by the TTB. One final item worth mentioning on this topic is that as far as qualifying for the use of each of these label items, that comes under the closest scrutiny in the event of an on-site TTB audit. If you list an alcohol content of 13.5%, produced and bottled by and a vintage of 2012 on your wine label, you would be required to show documentation in your winemaking records that clearly indicates the wine meets the minimum percentage requirements or other regulated qualifications for using those regulated items. To see a complete summary of the TTBs list of allowable revisions, visit shtml. PWV Ann Reynolds is a wine compliance educator, author and speaker with 20 years of experience in the wine industry. She offers classes in many areas of wine compliance at Napa Valley College, Sonoma State University and UC Davis Extension. Her business provides wineries with on-site trainings and system development. She can be contacted at ann@

and tobacco permittees. bcg provides consulting support on matters involving beer, wine, spirits, fuel ethanol, tobacco, TTB Tax Audits, and on other TTB compliance matters. bcg also provides general legal services to help you navigate complex legal and regulatory compliance matters. We are here to help you do whats right! For more information, visit or

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Wineries achieve control of mold growth

(electron volts) from a photon in the UV light cause the TiO2 to create an electron holethrowing off an electron that splits a water molecule. When missing an electron in its outer shell, the hydroxyl radical is very unstablebut the fact that it is surface-bound means the reactor can control it and all reactions occur on the surface of the TiO2. Nothing happens in a gaseous phase. There is no gas other than the byproducts of the TiO2 reaction, which are carbon dioxide and water vapor. Inorganic portions of the molecules are blown off. Destruction of a mold spore (or bacteria or odor compound) uses a process called mineralization. The OH radical is like a Pac-Man. On contact with the mold spore, it takes a bite out of it, then another bite until the entire organics of the mold spore are mineralized. It holds the intermediary hydrocarbons at the surface of the TiO2, where another hydroxyl radical is going to form and further attack the spore. There is absorption on the surface of the TiO2, and the oxidation process continues until the spore is totally destroyed. This particular form of titanium dioxide is hydrophilic, so it is going to pull water to its surface. This means that any relative humidity in the air is going to be pulled naturally to its surface, which also makes the catalysts self-cleaning. This hydrophilic nanoparticle is a complete nanoparticle membrane that becomes a system. It totally coats a ratchet ring that is about 15mm long by 4mm in diameter and hollow to provide more surface area coat. The outsides, ends and centers are coated. The largest photocatalytic reactor has more than 5 square meters of surface

Airocide bioconversion technology converts molds, microorganisms, pathogens, VOCs and biological gasses into harmless water vapor.

BY Tina Vierra

ontrol of airborne bacteria and odors on the International Space Station was achieved by use of a photocatalytic reactor invented by the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA). The technology is now in public use, with many units in food-processing plants and hospitals across the United States, including more than 70 wineries in seven states (California, Michigan, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Virginia and Washington). John Hayman, director of science and technology at Akida Holdings (Kennesaw, Ga.) explains, The unit is a photo catalytic reactor, not a filter. Unlike a filter, it can oxidize organic material and VOC gases to carbon dioxide and water vapor. When in use for the wine industry, it kills airborne mold and bacteria and removes odors. The photocatalytic process requires a specific kind of ultraviolet (UV) light and a specific form of titanium dioxide (a naturally occurring oxide of titanium with a wide application range, from paint to sunscreen and food coloring). There are several forms of titanium dioxide. A particular crystalline form of anatase phase (TiO2) is used in these units. Ultraviolet light wavelength is measured in nanometers (nm), with visible light at 400 nm. TiO2 is activated by UV from 385 nm to 180 nm. The problem with 180 nm is that it also creates ozone. The UV nm light in the photocatalytic reactor is limited to 254 nm to prevent this problem.
Mechanics of the reactor Is it a mold filter?

area catalyst. The rings are randomly packed in the reaction chamber, much like a box of macaroni purchased from a grocery store, so that the air does not have a straight path through the reactor. In terms of relative humidity (RH), we are dealing in parts per million (ppm) and sometimes parts per trillion (ppt). With the amount of water vapor involved, there is no condensate.
Ultraviolet lamps

There are 46 8-watt ultraviolet lamps in the largest photocatalytic reactor, mostly producing heat. This is the equivalent of less than three 100-watt light bulbs very low BTU levels, but enough to increase the heat through the reactor bed. Because we limit the speed going through the unit, explains Hayman, we actually reduce the RH as we go though the reactor bed. As heat increases, RH decreases, and the photocatalytic reaction increases. The ultraviolet lamps are separated by quartz sleeves, with coated glass rings packed between them. The quartz is used so that when a user changes the lamps (annually is recommended), they never come in contact with the reactor bed. The rings are packed in between the lamps at just the right distance to give maximum kill zone, or maximum mineralization zone. Changing off-the-shelf lamps in the latest photocatalytic reactor system requires about five minutes per machine. The photocatalytic reactors are now in their fourth generation of commercial use and development, with several upgrades made in each generation for better performance in each industry.
Wineries prevent mold growth

A hydroxyl radical (the strongest oxidant known) is generated and held to the surface rather than becoming a gas. 3.2 eV

An Airocide GCS 100 bioconversion unit, mounted on the wall, eliminates high volume bio-particulate in the most extreme situations.

At Bergstrom Wines (Newberg, Ore.) three photocatalytic reactors were installed and triangulated in a 2,800-square-foot barrel cellar (400 barrel capacity) in 2008. The owner was first attracted to the technolpr actica l win ery & vin eya rd JU NE 20 13 65

ogy because of its ability to kill microorganisms, to help prevent TCA issues and reduce mold growth. The cellar has concrete floors and dry wall and is not humidified, but there was still moisture in the room, so they saw mold growth around the bung holes and on the floor when water puddled. Mold growth is controlled, reports Travis Bonilla, Bergstroms assistant winemaker. Two years passed before the winery first changed the bulbs, and some mold growth was observed. Once ultraviolet lamps were changed (it took staff about 30 minutes), the mold disappeared. Chateau Montelena (Calistoga, Calif.) has nine photocatalytic reactors: four in the fermentation cellar, one in each of two bottled wine libraries, two in a case goods warehouse and one mobile unit to move around in the caves where wine is in barrels. The first installation was in 2005. The filter and ultraviolet lamps in each unit are changed once per year. The reactors help with controlling odors and preventing mold growth, says Cameron Parry, Chateau Montelena winemaker. We are very pleased with them. We had a problem with musty cellar odors, and the units removed those odors. Corliss Estates (Walla Walla, Wash.) purchased a first-generation unit in 2007 to help control mold in one of their smaller storage rooms. Once the unit was installed, reports winemaker Andrew Trio, we no longer had a problem. We made an addition to the winery in 2012, including a new 120,000-cubic-foot production area, 62,500-cubic-foot barrel storage room and a 100,000-cubic-foot case goods storage room. A good portion of the winery sits underneath ground level and we benefit from the cool temperature and high humidity that this naturally creates. Once we began working in the new space, we noticed a sharp increase to our usual cellar humidity due to the high moisture content of the freshly poured concrete. Upon recommendation from the supplier and doing our own research, we installed several new generation GCS50 units: two in production space, two for one barrel room, three for one case goods storage room and three more units to be mounted at other locations throughout the cellar. The rooms now smell much fresher, and we have not found any signs of mold since. We are feeling confident and very happy with our purchase. Debonne Vineyards (Madison, Ohio) installed four photocatalytic reactors in the 70,000-gallon, 15,000-square-foot winery in 2005, following manufacturer recommendations for unit sizes based on the cubic feet of each room. There are two units in the barrel room, one in the fermentation cellar and one in the bottling room that operates 24/7. Before installation, winemaker Ed Trebets said there was a lot of moisture in the cellar and mold on the walls and ceilingplus surface yeast on the wine. After scrubbing all surfaces, painting with mildewcide and installing reactor units, Trebets reports that he has had no problems in seven years. There has been no moldy smell, and the amount of surface yeast has declined. Wines made from hybrid grapes are more susceptible to surface yeast, Trebets says. Debonne wine production is approximately 48% hybrid and 52% vinifera. Trebets says that one pass through the reactor kills all organisms in the air moving through the unit. The filter and ultraviolet lamps in the units are changed annually. Two photocatalytic reactors were installed at Distefano Winery (Woodinville, Wash.) in a 1,568-square-foot barrel cellar (400 barrel capacity) in 2011. The cellar has tilt-up concrete walls and flat floors with drains added, but puddles of water are a problem. Distefano owner/winemaker Mark Newton uses fans to evaporate the water and also to humidify the cellar. Concerned about mildew and TCA, Newton saw mold on the walls before the units were installed. The mold was cleaned off the walls, and there has been no mold growth since installation of the two units. Newton reports the units that hang on the wall use 110-volts and are quiet when running. They keep down the odors too, so that there is just a nice wine smell now in the room, Newton says. He adds that he has a background in engineering and took one unit apart, finding it to be well made. Shafer Vineyards (Napa, Calif.) first installed a photocatalytic reactor in 2005. Today there are a total of 12 units in caves, the bottling area, lab, wine library and fermentation cellar. After the first four units were installed in the caves, we tested the atmosphere for mold growth and concluded the units were doing their job, reports Elias Fernandez, winemaker. Fernandez reports no mold growth in the caves, and the units control odor as well. We retrofitted the covers of the older units to make annual changing of the ultraviolet lamps and filter easier. We have one photocatalytic reactor in a 160-square-foot room where we propagate yeast and ML cultures, says Patrick Bernard, enologist at Williams-Selyem Winery (Healdsburg, Calif.). It is there for insurance to prevent contamination. The filter and ultraviolet lamps are changed every year before harvest. The lamps are easy to change. We installed the unit on the ceiling, and we bring it down to change the ultraviolet lamps. We are satisfied that the unit is doing what it is supposed to do. PWV Photocatalytic reactors for winery use are made and sold by Airocide of Jacksonville, Fla. For more information, visit airocide. com/wine.

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Inquiring Winemaker

s t e vN e Ap Ve Is Gs Aa Tg IO nN o

Lessons Learned the Hard Way

f you exclude my one-year internship stint, 2012 marked my 30th harvest as a winemaker. I dont have to tell my winemaking colleagues that this is the one profession that makes your non-winemaking friends envious. You are never bored, you make decisions on the spot every day, you drink  Steve Pessagno puts pride aside and shares some mistakes great wines and eat well, youre always learning something, hes learned from during his 30 years of making wine. and you meet the most interesting peoplemany of whom become good friends.  The incidents demonstrate how to avoid accidental varietal When I was asked by Wines & Vines to write something techmixes, burst pipes, and other minor disasters. nical to fill in for Tim Patterson during his book-writing sabbatical, I realized that after all these years nobody wants to hear  Pessagno also reflects on the life-enhancing benefits of winemy technical/stylistic pontifications about wine, but maybe theyd making and advises putting teens to work on the bottling line. read about some of the experiences Ive had alongMichaelDusi_Dir10 the way. Ive 11/18/09 12:40 PM Page 1 had more laughs and head-scratching moments in this career


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wi n e m a k i n g

(which has made my life very rich) than I could have gotten in my first career (Im a recovering engineer). So, instead of boring you to tears with something you probably already know, Im going to go out on a limb recalling some of these experiences and episodes and possibly give some advice. Here are a few pearls for the younger winemaking crowd and some I remember when that happened to me anecdotes for winemakers of my generation. So here it goesin no particular order or preference.
Most embarrassing moment

To avoid having a tank with a partially collapsed top, have your staff vent all tanks prior to setting up pumps and trickle inert gas through the top manhole.

Lets get the most embarrassing/jobthreatening thing out of the way first. Every seasoned winemaker owns a partially collapsed tank top. Whether it was your fault (as was the case for me) or the fault of your cellar staff, it was done on your watch. The very first thing your staff should do prior to setting up pumps and hoses is to vent all tanks. Adopt the practice of trickling inert gas through the top manhole and this problem is solved. Having your staff double-check each other is also advised. By the way, you can restore most tank tops to pretty fair condition with a few tricks, but call in your tank supplier for the best advice.

Winemakers share and collaborate on their proprietary information, techniques, solutions, successes and failures. Winery owners share lawsuits. Its the way it has always been. I thank my winemaking friends for their candor.

Mix stuck fermentations

Remember to periodically (and I might say thrice daily) mix your stuck fermentation tanks while they are being warmed. If you dont, I can guarantee that when you do try to mix the tank, the dissolved CO2 in



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68 W in e s & V i ne s J U NE 2 013


the partially fermented juice will erupt and eject the contents up through the top manhole toward the winery ceiling. The mess on the ground does look like you lost a lot of wine, but it is usually not that bad. Trust me.
Beware of spontaneous fermentation

Well-intentioned customers who want to experience the romance of the wine business quickly lose their enthusiasm when they find out how hard the work really is.
You will return to hear yelling from someone whose behind is pushed up against the bottom tank valve as they reach with their foot for the valve that is just out of reach. Wine will be fanning over their head and going down the drain. Moral of the story: Take the wing nut off of the tank side of all of your valves and replace them with hex nuts; if someone takes this one off, its time to look for another cellar worker.
Pump over from same tank

Dont overfill your closed-top fermentors with freshly crushed red must that was picked at 4 p.m. on a hot day. You might think it wont ferment on native yeast overnight, but youd be wrong. In the morning the tank will have started to ferment, pushing skins to the top of the manhole, resulting in the tank bottom looking like Humpty Dumpty. This happened to me one time, and all of the anchor bolts were pulled out of the concrete pad! I know that if we had pushed hard enough on the tanks side we could have toppled it over. Rule of thumb: Plan on no less than 275 gallons per ton to allow for expansion during fermentation; 300 gallons per ton allows you to sleep better between truckloads.
Avoid solo transfers

Similarly, if your fermenting Cabernet Sauvignon tank overflows while doing routine pump overs, you can bet your Merlot tank is down to mostly skins. At least it was the same color that time.
Copper haze

Ever heard of a copper-induced protein haze? I hadnt. It took three wine labs and two universities to solve this mystery. Know your copper levels before you go to the bottling line.
Launch grapes over tall buildings

Dont let anyone work alone in the cellar during lunch break doing wine transfers.

Make sure your red wine pump over staff checks connections at both the top and the bottom to be sure that they are on the same tank. Filtered and bottle-ready Chardonnay is unrecognizable after Zinfandel juice is added to it. Whats worse: The Zinfandel was from a different vintage and a different owner than the Chardonnay. That was a tough week.

When an 8-inch must line connected to a positive-displacement pump starts to plug (and is visibly swelling), it will eventually blow if someone doesnt stop the pump. Train your crush staff to keep an eye (and ear) out for processing sights and sounds that are abnormal. I can tell you that when the hose ruptures it will

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wi n e m a k i n g

launch grapes over the top of a 32-foottall building.

Bottling line gremlins

that necessity is the mother of invention, and you dont need a Class A license to move a truck on your property.
98 points

If you want your kids to go to college, put them on the bottling line for their summer job. My four sons all worked at the winery, and they all have college degrees. Ive offered this service to some of my friends, and their kids either have college degrees or are in college. Having your own bottling line is a necessary evil, which is a very kind and restrained four-letter word to describe it. I am very thankful that some people love this challenge. I am convinced that there are bottling line gremlins: How else can you explain that the spinner would throw bottles onto the ground after it had nicely spun on 21,000 capsules that day?
Move those trucks

Getting a 98-point rating on your reserve wine is like getting a date with the prom queen. Sometimes you just get lucky.
When a stuck valve opens

Grape truck drivers always come in too tight or too far from your dump hopper. The ones that are too far away can be sent around for another approach. The ones that come in too tight will hook your receiving hopper. Ive found that your hoist can be an effective tool in sliding them sideways back into their lane. Remember

In the day when we had dejuicing tanks, the one with the stuck valve was used as a temporary lees-storage tank when the regular lees tank was full. That air-actuated valve will find its way open at 3 a.m. and effectively cover your presses, pumps and catwalks with a nice coating of grey muck. Dont trust air-actuated valves overhead. Did I mention that it took 16 hours to remove the 6 inches of lees from the crush pad? Grape harvester operators and field crews got nearly an entire day off when this happened. My staff, on the other hand, worked straight through.
The crush diet

Traveling frequently in support of wine sales makes it very difficult to maintain your waistline. The physical work during crush has been my only saving grace.

Winemaker Steve Pessagno advocates putting teenagers to work on the bottling line.

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W I NEMAK I NG Believe the freeze

When the weatherman says there will be a hard freeze into the teens over the weekend, believe him. If you dont believe him, wait until it warms up and you will see some of the grandest waterfallssome from the barrel room and some from the mezzanine. When it happens the first time, shame on God. When it happens the second time, shame on you.
Stock lysozyme

hung his head down and said: Thats my shelf of shame. Even the most diligent hopper operator cant overcome all of them, but make sure they know where the kill switch is. It will likely save some of your expensive equipment and a great deal of time.
Underground discoveries

harvest, crush, barreling, bottlingyou name it!

Challenges and rewards

Always have a reasonable supply of lysozyme on hand during fermentation. If you see that your wine is getting stuck, get the lysozyme into the tank ASAP. Lactic acid bacteria can generate enormous amounts of acetic acid on a daily basis, so much so that you may have serious problems completing alcoholic fermentation. Lysozyme is not a cheap date, but it will save you a great deal of money and angst in the long run.
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It is truly amazing how much underground plumbing and electrical conduit you can find with a backhoe, especially when I was the stick operator. Before you do any below-grade excavation, have your place checked for everything that might be within your construction area. USA North does this service for free, and their number is (800) 227-2600. It really is a no-brainer.
Volunteers are expensive

I had just set up my new office and placed on a shelf items that had made it into the destemmer/crusher: rakes, sprinklers, rocks (big ones), bolts, hose clamps, shears. My vineyard manager walked in,

I have found that volunteer labor is way too expensive in the long run. Well-intentioned customers who want to experience the romance of the wine business quickly lose their enthusiasm when they find out how hard the work really is. To appease customers who want to experience winemaking first-hand, offer a winemaking seminar. Topics could include

Owning your own winery is a difficult business. Dont presume you can do all jobs well; surround yourself with smart people to work in their fields of expertise (it makes you look smart, too). That old adage that it takes millions to make a million in the wine business is very true. When it gets really tough, its nice to know you can have a glass of wine at the end of the day. Imagine if you made microchips! Thirty years have gone by quickly, and the wine business is still as rewarding, romantic, intellectually challenging and new as it was in my first year. What other job on the planet affords you good friends, great times and places to go, access to some of the worlds finest wines and food? Its also a great venue to raise your children. When I retirewait Ill never retire, this is way too much fun! Steve Pessagno is the proprietor of Pessagno Winery in Californias Monterey County, and former winemaker for Jekel Vineyards and Lockwood Vineyards.

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Win es & V i n es JU NE 20 13 71


Taps Ready to Open in Florida

allahassee, Fla.Nightclubs in Miami may soon have ros on draft. The Florida Senate unanimously approved a bill that updates state law to allow wine to be served from reusable containers no larger than 5.16 gallons. The law previously limited wine containers to 1 gallon. The law already was approved by the states House and just Learn more: needs the signature of Search keywords Florida kegs. Gov. Rick Scott. Waterloo_Nov10.qxp 8/26/10 11:36 AM

Proponents argue the format keeps wine fresher and makes bar and restaurant service easier. Draft wine is also considered greener because it reduces the number of bottles, closures and capsules going into the trash. I am very pleased that all 160 members of the legislature recognize that these canisters benefit consumers, Floridas tourism industry and the environment, said state Sen. Wilton Simpson, who sponsored the bill. Andrew Adams Page 1

A legal change in Florida could allow restaurants to offer wines poured from kegs.



72 W in es & V i ne s J U NE 2 0 13

Tourism Summit Held in New York

Gov. Cuomo wants to promote regionsincluding areas popular with wine-tasting consumers
lbany, N.Y.After convening a Tourism Summit on May 8 to generate ideas for increasing what is already a $92 billion industry in New York, Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo announced a $60 million allocation for tourism promotion. Learn more: The summit was similar to previous events Search keywords Tourism Summit. the Cuomo administration has organized to promote other economic sectors, including one in October 2012 about wine, beer and spirits. Approximately 200 tourism business operators, trade association leaders, state and local government officials and representatives from private industry attended the summit to present their ideas and hear the governors proposals. Cuomo has been actively seeking ways to boost the states economy, which has been in a slow recovery from the Great Recession. In the past, the state has not focused much funding on promoting New Yorks natural attractions, including the Finger Lakes. Now is the time to tell New Yorks story, Cuomo declared, adding that some bragging is needed to help boost local economies and create jobs upstate by drawing money and visitors from other states and countries. He continued, Right now it (the promotion in New York) is all county by county. Thats not working as well as it could. To address that problem, Cuomo announced a new program that will allocate $60 million for tourism promotion to encourage international and out-of-state tourists to visit upstate attractions as well as the beaches on Long Island. The state will work with the New York City Mass Transit Authority and the Port Authority, which will provide $2 million worth of advertising space on subways, bus and commuter rail systems and at airport arrival points to promote upstate tourism. In addition, television and print ads will market attractions by region within the state. According to the Cuomo administration, tourism is the fifth largest employer in New York and supported 714,000 jobs and generated more than $29 billion in wages in 2012. The more than 202 million international and domestic visitors to the state spent $57 billion in direct tourism spending and generated $7 billion in state and local taxes. Other suggestions at the Tourism Summit that may help wineries across New York included:  Giving international visitors arriving at the states airports and staying in hotels a small, free taste of wine and beer made in New York and telling them how to visit the vineyards and breweries.  Offer direct hotel booking and information about upstate tourism (including wine regions) to the millions of people flying into the state every year.  Aggressively promote agriculture tourism to appeal to people who love to eat locally grown food and to drink local wines. According to Jim Trezise, president of the New York Grape & Wine Foundation, Tourism is the lifeblood of the New York wine industry, which in turn is a major generator of tourism to many of


New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo (center) announces a new state program that will allocate $60 million for tourism promotion.

New Yorks rural areas. Of the 335 existing wineries, my guess is that about 300 would not exist without the direct sales opportunity that tourism provides. And without the more than 5 million tourist visits attracted by the wineries each year, many bed and breakfasts, hotels, restaurants, gas stations and limo/bus companies would not be here. Its what they taught us in biology as a symbiotic relationship. Linda Jones McKee

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Maryland Welcomes Antietam Highlands

Wine trail connects four wineries in two counties and joins five other trails across state

lear Spring, Md.Ten years ago, no wineries existed in Marylands Washington and western Frederick counties. Then Dr. Joe Fiola, viticulture and small fruit specialist at the Western Maryland Research and Education Center in Keedysville, Md., undertook a study of the suitability of soils for grapegrowing in Maryland and found that the stateand especially the region around Hagerstown, Md.had excellent potential. After seeing Fiolas work on soils, Don Munson, a Maryland state senator from Washington County, became an enthusiastic supporter of
Search keywords the states wine and grape industry (specifically Antietam Highlands. in Washington County) and helped build awareness at the state level and buoy the industry through funding. According to Kevin Atticks, executive director of the Maryland Wineries Association, four wineries have opened in the region, a fifth is about ready to open, and another four may open in the next 12-18 months. On April 16, those four wineries took another major step toward marketing the area as a wine region with the official establishment of the Antietam Highlands Wine Trail. The launch Learn more:

A ribbon-cutting ceremony April 16 at Knob Hall Winery signified the opening of the new Antietam Highlands Wine Trail.

included a ribbon-cutting ceremony at Knob Hall Winery in Clear Spring. Dick Seibert, managing partner of Knob Hall Winery and president of the Maryland Wineries Association, hosted the event. It is great to have the wine industry expanding into western Frederick County, Washington County and western Maryland, Seibert told Wine East. We have some unique soilactually some of the best soils and places to grow grapes in Marylandthat will help us produce excellent wine. The wineries on the Antietam Highlands Wine Trail plan to do wine trail events similar to those offered by other wine trails after they finish current bottling projects. In the meantime, the trail will give visitors another reason to stay longer in the area. The Antietam Highlands Wine Trail area includes five national parks, 10 state parks and more than 30 museums. More information is available at Linda Jones McKee

74 W in es & V i ne s J U NE 2 013

Quantity and Quality in a Tunnel

How the grapevine can produce both quantity and quality in a high tunnel By Richard Carey


n the March 2013 issue of Wines & Vines, I looked at how growers could use high-tunnel technology to control environmental factors affecting fruit quality, described how a tunnel works and reported the results of a research project that compared vines grown inside a tunnel and vines outside its protection. My article in the April 2013 issue examined the economic impact of using three-season tunnels and discussed factors that should be considered when constructing a tunnel and how they impact grapegrowing. This article will address the question of how tunnels can enable grapevines to provide high yields of high-quality fruit. Many in the grape- and wine-producing communities have seen high yields and superior quality as a difficult prospect to execute in the vineyard, while others such as John Gladstones, Richard Smart and Nick Dokoozian have offered hope that we can have both. From the work presented here, the physiology of the grapevine actually sets up conditions whereby the plant takes advantage of the controlled tunnel environment and allows quality fruit to be produced in larger quantities. The wine industry usually thinks of Californias Mediterranean climate, with its warm days and cool nights, as being ideal for growing grapes. Later in this article we will look at what really happens in the grapevine and see that Californias cool nights are not really an advantage due to relative reaction rates that take place in the vines photosynthetic processes. It is possible that a climate with less diurnal variation is preferable for achieving full ripeness in grapes. With less variation between day and night temperatures, the East may be able to produce superior fruit quality at higher yieldsespecially if other problematic issues can be taken care of by utilizing innovative systems such as high tunnels. If a plant is going to have the energy to produce fruit, it starts with the leaf.

Growing wine grapes in a tunnel allows vines to take advantage of the controlled environment to produce quality fruit at larger quantities.

Wine East HIGHLIGHTS: T  his third article in a series shows how greenhouse tunnels can enable high quality and high quantity for wine grapes.  The author explains how indirect light in a tunnel differs from direct sunlight on grapevine leaves, enabling more leaves to produce energy.  The author concludes that vines in tunnels in eastern North America can reach full maturity at lower carbohydrate production, and the grapes will make wines with better balance than in many western Mediterranean-climate growing regions.

Remember the structures involved for light capture and their ability to capture that energy and efficiently transfer it to the enzymatic motor that drives plant growth. That structure in the leaf builds everything a grape plant needs to produce its final product: grapes. The impact of irradiance There has been a considerable amount of research investigating the relationship between irradiance intensity on the leaf and production of carbohydrates. One interesting factor about this relationship

has been the discovery that for a whole group of plants known as broad-leafed plants (C3 plants), as opposed to grasses (C4 plants), the photosynthetic rate for C3 plants reaches its maximum production of carbohydrates at about 75% of full sun incident radiation. C4 plants do not have this limitation. Thus, for C3 plants, more radiation does not mean there is more carbohydrate production. Above this irradiance, the electrons that are generated cannot transfer their energy to the site of compound production fast enough to make use of that energy. Much like a solar panel that cant deliver its energy to the power grid, it grounds out and is lost to thermal increases in the leafs temperature, and at times the demise of the leaf due to heat. On a bright sunny day, light in the field falls directly on a leaf, and the light impacts the chloroplasts to generate the electrons for energy production. Leaves not directly exposed to this light can still produce energy, but they lose a vast amount of lights direct impact on the leaf that is in a direct line from the sun. Grapes grown in a tunnel that has the correct plastic barrier receive reflected light that is bouncing around the inside of the tunnel. On a clear sunny day I measured the direct incident radiation outside the tunnel at 1 watt
Win es & Vi n es JU NE 20 13 75


Vines work for energy transfer


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f you think back to high school biology class, photosynthesis is the one entropy-reducing reaction in our world. Entropy reduction happens when photons convert to electrons, and the electrons are converted into sugars that create the energy required to grow plants. Entropy is the tendency toward disorder, and as it decreases, higher energy products such as sugars and other carbohydrates, proteins and fats are created. Photosynthetic reactions capture and store energy from our sun for future use. Plants accomplish this feat by utilizing the pigment compounds in their leaves to capture the photons from the sun and funnel the photons striking the plants leaf to a point where, for all intents and purposes, the photons charge a battery in the chloroplast. Once the battery is charged, it can then transfer this energy to a motor that performs work for us. In the case of the grapevine, the work done is growing the vine and producing its fruit for us to harvest. The capturing light ofand producing energy-rich compounds ina plant are divided into the light reaction and the dark reaction (or light-independent reactions) of photosynthesis. The critical aspect of this set of reactions is the timing and location in the plant where they occur. The light reaction obviously happens in the chloroplasts, Light where a pigment-based antenna is laid out to capture light. Cartenoids In Figure 1 at right, the photons are captured by the antenna, Cartenoids b Antenna which transfers their energy to the reaction center at bottom complexes Chlorophyll a of the antenna. This transfer charges the battery by forming Reaction compounds such as ATP and NADPH, which have a higher center energy state than their ground state counterparts ADP and Figure 1: Chloroplasts NADP+. Notice in Figure 1 that there are different pigmented pigment arrangement capcompounds listed. Each one of these compounds absorbs tures various wavelengths of light. After being different wavelengths of light. The broader the spectrum of captured, each pigment electromagnetic energy the chloroplast absorbs, the more hands off electrons to the efficient the plant is at harvesting the suns energy. next molecule until the electron is transferred to Once produced, these energy-rich compounds must then the reaction center. migrate to the energy transfer point in the leaf and release their energy to drive the light-independent reactions or dark reaction in the chloroplast stoma to convert carbon dioxide into glucose through a complex series of reactions that all first-year biology students learn as the Calvin Benson cycle. All of these reactions occur in the plant structure called the thylakoid membrane, which is located in the chloroplast of the grape leaf. Figure 2 (at right) presents a more global, three-dimensional view of the chloroplast. There are Plant Cell Chloroplast Structure pigmented structures on the thylakoid membrane Outer membrane that absorb the photon, transferring its energy from Inner membrane one pigment to another, down the energy gradient to the reaction center in the thylakoid membrane. Here Stroma Lamellae Thylakoid Stroma is where the electron energy is converted into ATP Intermembrane space and NADPH, raising the chloroplasts energy state. Granum (Stack The light reactions on the thylakoid membrane of Thylakoids) all happen in a microsecond. The energy-rich Figure 2: The Thylakoid, Granum and compounds that have been produced must then Stroma create space for the chloromigrate to the stroma, where the dark reactions plast, which is surrounded by a series occur via the Calvin Benson cycle. From the of membranes. logistics of operation you can get a perspective for the time delay between the light reactions and the dark reactions because of the structural arrangement of the reaction sites in the fixation of carbon dioxide. R.C.


76 W in e s & V i ne s J U NE 2 013


per square centimeter. This is a normal energy of noonday sunperpendicular to the radiometer. Inside the tunnel, 75% of the direct sun measurement was averaged when measuring from perpendicular to the sun to as much as 30o declination from perpendicular. That means that much of the useful light is being scattered in the tunnel and is available to be captured by leaves that are not in line with the suns angle. It also means that the leaves that are receiving this light are efficiently using that light and not losing energy by grounding out the electrons captured.

The effect on grapevines growing in a classic Mediterranean climate is to have carbohydrates produced during early and later times of the day, with significant parts of the middle not performing at a maximal rate.
can see in Figure 3 at left, the chloroplasts are protected inside the cuticle of the leaf, and the cuticle has openings called stomata (pl. stomates). These are the openings where carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) enter and exit the grape leaf. The guard cells regulate the opening of the stomates, and the guard cells are controlled by the water potential of the leaf. The impact of temperature and water In hot, dry conditions, the guard cells become progressively more restrictive in their opening to protect the leaf from losing too much water vapor and thus jeopardizing the chloroplasts survival. If the stomata are closed, then no CO2 gets in and the O2 builds up on the inside of the leaf in the spongy mesophyll. CO2 consumption changes the pH of the water vapor, and that change has a feedback loop that slows the production of glucose. The backup of this process sends the light reaction into its ground state discharge of the electrons.

Figure 3
Cuticle Epidermis Palisade mesophyll Air space Vein Stomata Spongy mesophyll
Each one of the football-shaped structures in the leaf cell is a chloroplast. They are arranged to capture as much incident radiation as possible. The interstitial space in the leaf is for the gas exchange for CO2 coming in and the excess O2 coming out, as regulated by the stomata.

This diffusion of light does not necessarily affect the final efficiency of the leaf. What it does do is make better use of the available photons because it is possible for more leaves of the plant to utilize those photons. The next part of the photosynthetic process is conversion into energy-producing compounds. The light reaction is essentially instantaneous. The light-independent reaction takes considerably longer to occur because it involves migration of the components from the site of production to the site of use. Each species has its own maximal level of energy conversion. If there is ADP present at the reaction center, it will be energized to ATP and for NADP+ to be converted into NADPH to make glucose. However, the plant does not have all these important structures hanging out exposed to the outside atmosphere. As you
Win es & V i n es JU NE 20 13 77

Thus the chloroplasts are protected from overproduction of their light-capturing function when water becomes a limiting constituent in a leafs survival. This limitation starts happening as the temperature in the vineyard climbs above 85oF, with photosynthesis completely shut off above about 95oF. The dryer the air, the higher the evapotranspiration rate in the leaves and the lower the water potential of the leaf; thus, the shutdown can be at lower temperatures in dry climates than in more humid climates. If, on any given day during the growing season, a particular leaf has a localized water stress, either from being in direct sun or some other more global effect on the plant (such as a lack of water from the soil environment), then that is going to affect the overall efficiency of the plants energy production. Through this knowledge of the leaf functioning during the day, it is reasonable to expect that in plain daylight growing conditions, a grape leaf can have reduced energy production efficiencies in what we have thought is a perfectly

Grapes grown in a tunnel that has the correct plastic barrier are exposed to reflected light that bounces around the inside of the tunnel.

good environment: long, warm, sunny days. The effect on grapevines growing in a classic Mediterranean climate is to have carbohydrates produced during early and later times of the day, with significant parts of the middle not H&W_Dec10.qxp performing at a maximal rate. In a

climate like the eastern United States, energy production may not operate at the maximal rate for longer times of the day than Mediterranean climates, but with higher humidity, the slightly lesser intensity of10:59 the sun 10/12/10 AMshould Page let 1 the net carbohydrate production be at least close,

78 W in es & V i ne s J U NE 2 013

if not slightly ahead, of vineyards in a Mediterranean climate. The next element in the process is to examine the light-independent reactions. These reactions create the motor that constructs the vine. Whether the sun is out or not, respiration continues as long as there is juice in the battery. All of these reactions are enzymatically controlled and as such are rate-limited by the local temperature of the reaction sites. It is common wisdom in grapegrowing circles that warm days and cool nights make the best wines. If in Mediterranean climates you have warm days that may

In conclusion, these vines are not over-cropped and have not showed signs of stressful growth.

have some rate-limiting carbohydrate production during the day, coupled with cool nights that slow the rate of respiration used in carbohydrate production and other plant physiological developments, then the average rate of development is slowed down for every hour that the plant is at less than optimal temperature for respiratory reactions during the growth season. In grapegrowing environments in the eastern U.S., the average temperature is lower than Californias Mediterranean climate, but the diurnal fluctuation is much narrower due to higher nighttime

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temperatures. Growing grapes in a tunnel environment further moderates the highs and the lows of the ambient environment. In the tunnel, scattered light enters the canopy and gives a larger number of leaves more sunlight throughout the day. When warm nights provide a higher rate of respiration during the growing season, the likely outcome will be to have physiological maturity coincide more closely with carbohydrate production. Thus, vines can reach full maturity at lower carbohydrate production, and the grapes will make wines that are better balanced than what is currently happening in many western Mediterranean growing regions. In conclusion, from every person who has seen these plants and every person who has tasted the wines produced, these vines are not over-cropped and have not showed signs of stressful growth. The pruning weight seems to be increasing with each year and is in balance with the crop load. The only way a vine can support this amount of production is if the systems are in balance for the grape. Otherwise, flavors and aromas

would not be produced, and/or color would not be available. This is new territory to examine, and I will report back when there is more information. W E Authors note: I used many different sources to validate my thoughts and conclusions for the information collected for this article. If anyone wishes to have the citations of the original research that helped me come to my understandings of the results and conclusions presented here, please email me via edit@winesandvines. com, and I will provide that information.

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June 22 Traverse City Wine & Art Festival

July 23 California Wine Export program hosted by the Wine Institute in San Francisco. Details: July 25 Organic Winegrowing Conference hosted by the Napa Valley Grapegrowers at 8 a.m. at Spottswoode Estate Vineyard & Winery in St. Helena, Calif. Details: July 26-28 International Pinot Noir Celebration at Linfield College in McMinnville, Ore. Details: July 30 Sweet and Fortified Wine Association annual meeting at California State University, Fresno, from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. Contact to register. July 31-Aug. 2 Indy International Wine Competition judging at Purdue University in Lafayette, Ind. Details:

June 1 Auction Napa Valley hosted by the Napa June 2 A Celebration of Wine featuring wine

featuring art demonstrations and the wines of 30 Michigan wineries Traverse City, Mich. Details:

and food tasting and an auction to support the California State University, Fresno, viticulture and enology program. Details:

June 22-23 Escape to Marylands Wine County features 16 participating wineries offering tastings, tours, food and wine discounts. To see more industry Details: June 23-24 The

June 4-6 TopWine China, an international

wine exposition in Beijing, China. Details:

June 6-8 Wine Bloggers Conference at the Penticton Lakeside Resort in Penticton, B.C. Details: June 7 Sonoma County Winegrape Commissions annual grower seminar from 7:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. at Shone Farm, 7450 Steve Olson Way, Forrestville, Calif. Details:
Calif. Details:

Northwest Wine Expo, an exhibition of Pacific Northwest wines for the trade only at the Dallas Convention Center during the Southwest Foodservice Expo. Details:

events and classes, go to and click on Calendar.

June 24-28 American Society for Enology and Viticulture National Conference at the Portola Hotel & Spa in Monterey, Calif. Details: June 29 Silicon Valley Wine Escape featuring the wines of Santa Clara Valley from 9:30 a.m. to 4 p.m. at Campbell Community Center in Campbell, Calif. Details: June 30 Pinot Days, trade and public tasting, 2-5 p.m. at Fort Mason in San Francisco. Details:

July 31-Aug. 2 Society of Wine Educators Conference at the Renaissance Orlando at Sea World in Orlando, Fla. Details:

June 7-8 Monterey Wine Festival in Monterey, June 8 The Barbera Festival at Cooper Ranch in June 8 First Blush California Ros Competition


Plymouth, Calif. Details:

August 2-4 West of West Wine Festival, Sebastopol, Calif., Details:

at The Meritage Resort and Spa in Napa, Calif. Details:

Aug. 16 International Cold Climate Wine Competition held on the campus of the University of Minnesota. Details:

June 8 Leland Wine and Food Festival from noon to 6 p.m. next to Leland Harbor on the Leelanau Peninsula in Michigan. Details:
featuring Idaho wines at the Idaho Botanical Garden, Boise, Idaho. Details:

June 9 Savor Idaho, a wine and food festival

July 11-14 Central Coast Wine Classic charity wine auction in Avila Beach, Shell Beach and San Simeon, Calif. Details: July 14-16 Chateau Ste. Michelle and Dr. Loosen estate of Germany host the fourth Riesling Rendezvous at Chateau Ste. Michelle and Bell Harbor International Conference Center in Seattle. Details: July 15-16 Wine Industry Technology Symposium at the Napa Valley Marriott in Napa, Calif. Details: July 15-17 WineTech, the Australian wine
industry trade exhibition at the Sydney Convention & Exhibition Center. Details:


June 1-8/California Polytechnic State University Vineyard Practices. Two Saturday sessions, 8:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m. Erhart Ag Building on Cal Poly campus in San Luis Obispo, Calif. Register at

June 11 Taste of Mendocino tasting featuring

the wines of Mendocino County at The Presidio in San Francisco. Details: its annual conference about direct shipping at the Napa Valley Marriott in Napa, Calif. Details:

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June 15-16 Escape to Marylands Wine County

features 16 participating wineries offering tastings, tours, food and wine discounts. Details: spirits exhibition in Bordeaux, France. Details:

July 15-18 American Society for Enology and Viticulture-Eastern Section National Conference at the Marriott in Winston-Salem, N.C. Details: July 17 The Importance of Soil and Geology in Tasting Terroir, a Case Study from the Willamette Valley, a 3:30 p.m. webinar by Scott Burns with Portland State University organized by the Oregon Wine Research Institute. Details: July 18-21 Taste our Terroir wine and food festival in the Livermore Valley region of California. Details:

OIV Wine Marketing Short Course, fundamentals of producing and marketing grapes and wine in the United States from brand establishment to distribution and sales. Organized through the Organisation Internationale de La Vigne et du Vine (OIV), UC Davis Exention and the UC Davis Department of Viticulture and Enology. Details: extension. Hands-on viticulture and enology training at Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y. A weeklong program geared for wine enthusiasts, home winemakers or those interested in investing or establishing a winery or vineyard. Details:
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June 16-20 Vinexpo international wine and

June 18 Wine Label Digial Conference hosted

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An Annual Report by ShipCompliant and Wines & Vines



Trends and milestones for shipping wine directly to consumers.

Introduction Executive summary Highlights Scope and Method Broad Strokes Who is shipping wine? The price of wines being shipped What wines are being shipped? From where is wine being shipped? Napa County Sonoma County Rest of California Oregon Washington State Rest of the United States To where is wine being shipped? 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 10 11 11 12 12 13
Report Contributors Jeff Carroll, ShipCompliant Pawel Smolarkiewicz, ShipCompliant Lynne Skinner, Wines & Vines


There are any number of ways to gauge the importance and This report looks at the winery to consumer shipping channel for the months January 2012 through December 2012, signicance of a given wine distribution channel. How much revenue does a channel represent? To what degree does the examining this distribution channel from a number of perindustry as a whole and in its parts spectives including who is shipping, depend upon the distribution chanIn 2012, Direct-to-Consumer what is being shipped, the cost of nel? How do consumers respond to the products being shipped and from shipments outpaced the channel? where it is being shipped. In 2012 the winery-to-consumer shipping channel, a sub-segment of the direct to consumer channel, expanded at a rate that indicated it is growing and remains signicant, particularly to the luxury wine consumer and the smaller artisan wine brands that serve this sector of the market.

domestic wine exports

During the 12-month period covered by this report, more than $1.46 billion worth of wine was shipped from wineries to consumers. At this amount, the winery-to-consumer shipping channel has surpassed the value of wine exported from the United Statesa signicant milestone.


In 2012, the volume of wine shipped from wineries increased 7.7% over 2011 to 3.18 million 9-liter cases. That is an 18% increase over 2010. The value of these shipments, $1.46 billion, represents a 10% increase over 2011 and a 24% increase over 2010 The total value of direct-to-consumer shipments was greater than the value of wine exported from the United States. The report shows a continued migration of shipments occurring toward the last third of the year. Wineries of all sizes continue to increase the volume and value of shipments, though larger wineries increased their shipments at a greater rate than smaller wineries. Three wine typesCabernet Sauvignon, Red Blends and Pinot Noirdominate winery-to-consumer shipments and represent 51.8% of the volume of wines shipped. As they have in the general wine retail sector, Ros wines saw signicant increase in direct shipments from wineries.

Pinot Noir shipments from Sonoma County boomed in 2012. Among all varietals shipped, Ros, Sparkling Wine and Pinot Noir saw the greatest increases in volume and value of shipments over 2011. Though underperforming the overall winery-to-consumer shipping channel in 2012, wines shipped from Napa still represent 49% of the value of all wines shipped due in large part to their average bottle price of $56.87, far more than all other regions. Washington State saw a robust increase in cases shipped and a 40% increase in value of Washington wines on a 19% increase in average bottle price. As a destination for wine shipments, California dominates with 32% of all shipments, while the top 5 states as destinations for shipments (CA, NY, TX, IL, FL) represent over 60% of all shipments.


The 2013 Direct Shipping Report is a collaboration between ShipCompliant and Wines & Vines Magazine. The scope of this report concerns wines shipped directly from wineries to consumers. It is important to note that wines shipped from retailers to consumers and wines sold at a winery and carried out of the winery at the time of purchase are not taken account of in this report. Rather, this report is concerned solely with winery-to-consumer shipments originating in all 50 states. As a result, this report does not attempt to portray the outlines of the entire Direct-to-Consumer sales channel. The report is based on millions of anonymized transactions that ultimately led to direct shipments from January 2012 through December 2012. Using the comprehensive Wines & Vines database of all 7,400+ wineries across the United States, the ShipCompliant transactions are the basis to project shipments from all United States wineries using multiple stratications including location of winery, annual production of winery and destination of shipment.

The model, built to project the totality of winery directto-consumer shipments, provides a vivid picture of this important distribution channel. In the course of retrieving and processing the data model, the wineries and purchasers of wines are kept entirely anonymous. The 2013 Direct Shipping report is the fourth such examination of this important sales channel by ShipCompliant and Wines & Vines. This and all subsequent reports will examine a 12-month calendar period from January 1st through December 31st. Additionally, this is the rst report that has broken out Red Blends and White Blends in examining which varietal wines have been shipped by wineries. These new varietal categories, signicant ones in the world of direct shipping, were called out as a result of more detailed documentation of the transactions run through the ShipCompliant Direct platform during 2012.


Winery Direct-to-Consumer Shipments Continue to Surge

The value of winery-to-consumer wine shipments outpaced the value of domestic wine exports* in 2012, accentuating the importance of the direct to consumer channel.
Direct-to-Consumer $1,465,933,542

Value of Direct-to-Consumer Shipments in 2012

72 bottles

Value Direct-to-Consumer Shipped

$1.2 B

Domestic Exports $1,430,000,000

$.6 B

shipped every minute




Total number of cases shipped in 2012 increased by 7.7% over 2011 for a total of 3,179,602 9-liter cases.
Monthly Volume Shipped in 2011 and 2012
2011 2012 +10% +13% 400 K

37% of shipments occur in last quarter

Q1 22%

-1% +26% +14%

Total Volume (Cases)

300 K

Q4 37%

200 K

Q2 23% Q3 18%

100 K




The total value of all wine shipped direct to consumers from wineries in 2012 increased by 10% over 2011 to $1.46 billion. This represents a 24% increase over the value of 2010 shipments.
Volume and Value of Wine Shipped from 2010-2012
Volume Value Vol: +7.7% Val: +9.9% Vol: +9.3% Val: +12.5% 3.0 M Total Volume (Cases) $1.4 B $38 $37.63 $37 $36.56 $36 2010 1.8 M 2010 2011 2012 $0.8 B 2011 2012 Total Value $1.6 B

Average price per bottle is steadily increasing

$39 2% $38.42

3.4 M

2.6 M

$1.2 B

2.2 M

$1.0 B


Wineries are categorized by annual case production
Limited Production Under 1,000 Very Small 1,000-4,999 Small 5,000-49,999 Medium 50,000-49,9999 Large Over 500,000

Small-sized wineries account for just over 50% of all shipments, while this category of winery only accounts for 5.2% of domestic wine production
Share of value by winery size
Large 3% Limited Production 5.4% Very Small 17.4%

Small wineries account for only 5% of total production, but hold 51% of the value of all direct-to-consumer shipments.

Medium 23%

Small 51% 5% of total production 51% of total sales value


Smaller wineries shipping less; Big wineries shipping more

Wineries are categorized by annual case production

Limited Production Under 1,000

Very Small 1,000-4,999

Small 5,000-49,999

Medium 50,000-499,999

Large Over 500,000


Medium and large sized wineries saw the largest increases in the volume and value of wine shipments over 2011

Growth of volume shipped in 2012

2011 1.4 M CASES SHIPPED +15.1% 2012 +10.2%

Large wineries direct ship only a fraction of their production.

Percent of production shipped direct

Large .1% Medium 3% 9% 7% 10%

.7 M

-7.6% -13.8%

Small Very Small +14.2% Limited Production











Limited Production

Very Small




Direct-to-consumer details by winery size

Annual Production (Cases) Limited Production Very Small Small Medium Large Under 1000 1,000 - 4,999 5,000 - 49,999 50,000 - 499,999 Over 500,000 Volume Shipped (Cases) 119,280 447,439 1,548,803 920,492 143,587 Percent of Total Volume 3.8% 14.1% 48.7% 28.9% 4.5% Percent Volume Change -13.8% -7.6% 10.2% 15.1% 14.2% Value of Wine Shipped $79,414,142 $255,113,575 $747,618,785 $339,220,646 $44,566,393 Percent of Total Value 5.4% 17.4% 51.0% 23.1% 3.0% Percent Value Change -9.7% 3.7% 10.8% 18.3% 16.6% Price per Bottle $55.48 $47.51 $40.23 $30.71 $25.86 Per Bottle % Change 4.7% 12.3% 0.5% 2.8% 2.1%


Ultra expensive wines see signicant improvement in sales

The highest and lowest priced wines each saw a 14% increase in volume over 2011, leading other segments.

Volume of wine shipped in 2011 and 2012

2011 800 K OVER $100 4.6% $50-$99.99 17% UNDER $15 17% 2012

No price category dominates volume

Total Volume (Cases)

600 K

+14.1% -3.0%

400K +14.6% 200K

$40-$49.99 10%

$15-$19.99 13%

$30-$39.99 15%
11 12 11 12 11 12 11 12 11 12 11 12 11 12

$20-$29.99 24%
























Wines priced at $50 or more represent 50% of total value of wines shipped, while only 21% of the volume of wine shipped.
Value of wine shipped in 2011 and 2012
2011 $450 M Volume 30% Total Value (USD) +19.1% $300 M 20% 10% $150 M Value 2012


ve r








Total share of volume and value in 2012

$1 5-

$2 0-

$3 0-

$4 0-

11 12

11 12

11 12

11 12

11 12

11 12

11 12

$1 5

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9. 9

9. 9

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nd er

-$ 1

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-$ 9

$1 5

$2 0

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$1 0

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.9 9 O ve r$ 10 0

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Three Reds Dominate the Varietal Mix

All gures represent transactions in which the varietal was specied


Three wines (Cabernet Sauvignon, Red Blends and Pinot Noir) represent 52% of total volume and a whopping two-thirds of total value of wine shipments. For the rst time, wines identied as Red Blends are segmented in the Shipping Report and represent and considerable 15% of total volume and 19% of total value
Volume of wines shipped by varietal in 2011 and 2012
VARIETAL Cabernet Sauvignon Pinot Noir Blend - Red Chardonnay Zinfandel Syrah/Shiraz Sauvignon Blanc Merlot Sparkling Blend - White Petite Sirah Cabernet Franc Ros Pinot Gris/Grigio Riesling Sangiovese 8% 8% 32% 1% 12% 0% 100 K 300 K 500 K 2012 2011 10% 7% 1% 7% 8% 20% YOY CASES SHIPPED 2% 16%

52% of wines shipped in 2012

Varietals with the largest increase in shipments over 2011 Ros and 53% growth since 2010 Sparkling Wine Pinot Noir 32% 20% 16%

Volume Shipped (cases) Cabernet Sauvignon Pinot Noir Blend - Red Chardonnay Zinfandel Syrah / Shiraz Fume / Sauvignon / Blanc Merlot Sparkling Blend - White Petite Sirah Cabernet Franc Ros Pinot Gris / Grigio Riesling Sangiovese 563,594 443,467 422,219 331,099 208,536 152,658 121,922 120,782 84,797 67,132 47,869 43,734 42,238 36,764 34,700 33,934

Percent of Total Volume 20.4% 16.1% 15.3% 12.0% 7.6% 5.5% 4.4% 4.4% 3.1% 2.4% 1.7% 1.6% 1.5% 1.3% 1.3% 1.2%

Percent Volume Change -2.0% 15.5%

Value of Wine Shipped $424,395,734 $222,427,239 $253,961,127

Percent of Total Value 31.8% 16.6% 19.0% 9.1% 5.1% 4.2% 2.4% 3.3% 2.2% 1.2% 1.2% 1.4% 0.7% 0.6% 0.5% 0.8%

Percent Value Change -2.4% 19.3%

Price Per Bottle $62.75 $41.80 $50.12

Per Bottle % Change -0.4% 3.3%

10.1% 6.9% -1.2% 6.9% -8.3% 20.0%

$121,270,104 $68,540,284 $56,050,041 $32,086,447 $44,254,891 $29,344,383 $16,458,660

5.9% 11.4% 0.9% 0.9% -16.9% 14.3%

$30.52 $27.39 $30.60 $21.93 $30.53 $28.84 $20.43

-3.8% 4.2% 2.1% -5.6% -9.4% -4.8%

8.3% -7.6% 32.2% 0.7% -12.0% -0.4%

$15,521,912 $18,853,091 $9,296,304 $7,387,970 $6,470,432 $10,077,903

10.3% 0.8% 22.2% 2.0% -11.1% 2.9%

$27.02 $35.92 $18.34 $16.75 $15.54 $24.75

1.9% 9.1% -7.6% 1.3% 1.1% 3.3%


Despite Dominating, Napa Shipments Underperform Overall

While all six regions broken out in this report saw increases in both volume and value of wines shipped in 2012, Napa, Rest of California and Oregon all underperformed the overall wine shipping market by volume.
Volume (Cases) Napa Rest of CA Sonoma Rest of US Oregon Washington 1,046,046 899,044 672,597 340,387 105,074 116,455 Volume Change 3.4% 3.9% 11.4% 23.7% 6.8% 18.2% Value $ 714 M $ 296 M $ 286 M $ 72 M $ 47 M $ 50 M Value Change 8.0% 6.2% 10.1% 31.2% 10.5% 40.7% Price per Bottle $ 56.87 $ 27.48 $ 35.42 $ 17.68 $ 37.62 $ 35.82 Price Change 4.4% 2.3% -1.2% 6.1% 3.6% 18.9%

Washingtons signicant increases make it the big winner Volume Shipped Value Shipped Average Price Per Bottle 18% 41% 19%

Wines from regions outside of California, Oregon, and Washington, now representing 10% of all wines shipped, increased their total volume of wine shipped by 24% over 2011.


At an average bottle price of $56.87, wines shipped from Napa are signicantly higher priced than any other region. While representing 33% of all wines shipped, Napa wines represent fully 49% of the total value of consumer direct wine shipments in the United States.

Share of Volume and Value Comparison by Region in 2012







4% 3%





5% 3% 3%



National Average $35.42 $17.68 $35.82 $37.62



Napa County wines identied as Red Blends have the highest average price of any specic varietal wine from any region in America with an average price of $88.52.
HIGHLIGHTS Share of Volume Share of Value Avg. Bottle Price 32.9% 48.7% $56.87
3.4% 8.0% 4.4%
Cabernet Sauvignon Blend - Red Chardonnay Pinot Noir Merlot Sauvignon Blanc Zinfandel Sparkling Syrah / Shiraz Cabernet Franc Petite Sirah Ros Blend - White Pinot Gris / Grigio Sangiovese Riesling Volume (Cases) 329,691 146,872 110,700 78,491 56,078 49,404 46,535 42,901 24,842 18,269 16,430 10,412 10,265 6,944 6,092 4,037 Volume Change -5.4% -12.9% 9.0% -11.2% -5.6% -2.0% 4.8% 6.5% 22.7% 15.8% 9.9% --12.9% -11.3% -20.8% % of Volume 34.4% 15.3% 11.5% 8.2% 5.9% 5.2% 4.9% 4.5% 2.6% 1.9% 1.7% 1.1% 1.1% 0.7% 0.6% 0.4% Value of Shipments $311,012,321 $156,018,772 $48,035,617 $39,032,270 $26,981,491 $16,157,992 $20,045,599 $15,589,529 $12,901,089 $10,553,473 $6,835,408 $2,899,065 $4,718,981 $1,723,697 $2,650,508 $1,097,854 Value Change -2.0% -9.5% 2.3% -22.2% -0.5% 8.3% 2.2% 14.3% 34.4% 25.0% -3.8% --6.6% -1.5% -12.2% % of Value 46.0% 23.1% 7.1% 5.8% 4.0% 2.4% 3.0% 2.3% 1.9% 1.6% 1.0% 0.4% 0.7% 0.3% 0.4% 0.2% Price/ Bottle $78.61 $88.52 $36.16 $41.44 $40.10 $27.25 $35.90 $30.28 $43.28 $48.14 $34.67 $23.20 $38.31 $20.68 $36.25 $22.66 Price Change 3.5% --3.0% -6.1% -12.4% 5.4% 10.4% -2.4% 7.3% 9.5% 7.9% -12.4% -7.3% 11.0% 10.8%

70% of all wines shipped from Napa County represent four varietals: Cabernet Sauvignon, Red Blends, Pinot Noir & Chardonnay Despite a 3.5% increase in the average bottle price of Napa Countys agship wine, Cabernet Sauvignon, in 2012, both the volume and value of this wine decreased from 2011

Pinot Noir, the most commonly shipped wine from Sonoma County, saw a stunning increase in both the volume (25%) and value (32%) in 2012.
HIGHLIGHTS Share of Volume Share of Value Avg. Bottle Price 21.2% 19.5% $35.42
11.4% 10.1% 1.2%
Pinot Noir Chardonnay Cabernet Sauvignon Zinfandel Volume (Cases) 155,542 103,462 77,254 69,708 46,970 32,169 28,194 27,490 17,917 11,286 10,232 9,495 8,417 6,846 5,454 1,860 0.1% -23.8% 255.2% Volume Change 26.9% 11.2% 3.3% 3.7% % of Volume 25.4% 16.9% 12.6% 11.4% 7.7% 5.3% 4.6% 4.5% 2.9% 1.8% 1.7% 1.6% 1.4% 1.1% 0.9% 0.3% Value of Shipments $89,454,296 $41,859,677 $44,309,170 $23,795,268 $21,385,916 $7,460,120 $9,248,957 $7,959,939 $7,651,242 $3,394,605 $2,293,614 $2,931,529 $1,617,526 $1,384,308 $2,313,399 $302,421 Value Change 32.2% -2.7% -5.1% 6.9% % of Value 33.5% 15.7% 16.6% 8.9% 8.0% 2.8% 3.5% 3.0% 2.9% 1.3% 0.9% 1.1% 0.6% 0.5% 0.9% 0.1% Price/ Bottle $47.93 $33.72 $47.80 $28.45 $37.94 $19.33 $27.34 $24.13 $35.59 $25.06 $18.68 $25.73 $16.01 $16.85 $35.35 $13.55 Price Change 4.2% -12.5% -8.1% 3.1%

Four varietal wines represent twothirds of the volume of wine shipped out of Sonoma County: Pinot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Zinfandel Sonoma County Ros saw a 50% increase in its volume of shipments and a 58% increase in the value of those shipments in 2012. It now represents just under 2% of all wines shipped from Sonoma County wineries.

Blend - Red Sauvignon Blanc Syrah / Shiraz Merlot Sparkling Sangiovese Ros Petite Sirah Blend - White Pinot Gris / Grigio Cabernet Franc Riesling

-6.8% -0.4% 27.4% 13.4% 36.0% 49.3% -7.1%

--1.0% -0.2% 4.8% 21.2% 37.1% 58.1% -11.7% --1.1% -28.2% 62.9%

--7.3% 0.2% -17.7% 6.9% 0.8% 5.9% -4.9% --1.2% -5.7% -54.2%



The collection of varietal wines shipped direct to the consumer from California regions outside Napa and Sonoma are a highly diverse lot with no single varietal dominating shipments.
HIGHLIGHTS Share of Volume Share of Value Avg. Bottle Price 28.3% 20.2% $27.48
3.9% 6.2% 2.3%
Pinot Noir Blend - Red Cabernet Sauvignon Chardonnay Zinfandel Syrah / Shiraz Sauvignon Blanc Petite Sirah Merlot Blend - White Sparkling Sangiovese Pinot Gris / Grigio Cabernet Franc Ros Riesling Volume (Cases) 145,059 121,666 109,389 91,098 90,572 68,873 30,405 19,293 18,401 16,233 15,816 13,138 9,788 8,524 8,190 3,572 Volume Change 15.4% --4.5% 4.6% 16.0% -15.0% 13.1% 1.8% -24.3% % of Volume 18.8% 15.8% 14.2% 11.8% 11.8% 8.9% 3.9% 2.5% 2.4% 2.1% 2.1% 1.7% 1.3% 1.1% 1.1% 0.5% Value of Shipments $59,565,433 $44,803,421 $47,678,143 $24,007,141 $24,253,444 $23,165,628 $6,705,608 $4,791,211 $4,635,099 $3,829,330 $3,435,443 $3,053,931 $1,816,017 $3,056,510 $1,700,285 $553,269 Value Change 23.8% --14.7% 13.3% 20.2% -15.4% -7.6% -4.1% -11.9% % of Value 23.2% 17.4% 18.5% 9.3% 9.4% 9.0% 2.6% 1.9% 1.8% 1.5% 1.3% 1.2% 0.7% 1.2% 0.7% 0.2% Price/ Bottle $34.22 $30.69 $36.32 $21.96 $22.32 $28.03 $18.38 $20.69 $20.99 $19.66 $18.10 $19.37 $15.46 $29.88 $17.30 $12.91 Price Change 7.3% --10.7% 8.4% 3.6% -0.4% -18.3% -5.8% 16.4% --18.0% -4.0% 5.4% 0.4% -9.7% 16.0%

Sparkling wine from the Rest of California region now represents over 2% of total shipments from this region after a whopping 86% increase in volume of wines shipped over 2011. Zinfandel now represents 12% of the total volume of wine shipped from the Rest of California region after experiencing a 16% increase in volume and 20% increase in the value of shipments in 2012.

-85.7% -19.5% 2.0% -35.2% 19.9% 30.9%

-52.1% -22.7% 7.5% -34.9% 8.3% 51.9%

With 60% of all wines shipped to consumers being Pinot Noir, no region is more dominated by a single varietal than Oregon.
HIGHLIGHTS Share of Volume Share of Value Avg. Bottle Price
Volume (Cases) Pinot Noir Chardonnay Blend - Red Pinot Gris / Grigio Syrah / Shiraz Sparkling Blend - White Riesling Cabernet Sauvignon Ros Merlot Sauvignon Blanc Cabernet Franc Zinfandel Petite Sirah Sangiovese 57,059 6,822 6,420 6,375 4,140 2,836 2,595 2,594 2,271 2,246 983 507 239 208 190 74 Volume Change -1.8% 22.2% % of Volume 59.7% 7.1% 6.7% 6.7% 4.3% 3.0% 2.7% 2.7% 2.4% 2.4% 1.0% 0.5% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% Value of Shipments $32,170,680 $3,422,836 $1,708,164 $1,278,002 $1,427,434 $1,413,519 $423,942 $567,263 $958,943 $570,149 $235,129 $68,741 $115,810 $66,745 $62,920 $20,869 Value Change 4.5% 24.9% % of Value 72.3% 7.7% 3.8% 2.9% 3.2% 3.2% 1.0% 1.3% 2.2% 1.3% 0.5% 0.2% 0.3% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% Price/ Bottle 46.98 41.81 22.17 16.71 28.73 41.53 13.61 18.22 35.18 21.16 19.93 11.30 40.35 26.73 27.54 23.41 Price Change 6.5% 2.2% --2.4%

3.3% 3.2% $37.62

6.8% 10.5% 3.6%



Oregon Syrah shipments direct to the consumer jumped 110% in 2012 and 131% in value, making Syrah now the 5th most commonly shipped wine. Chardonnay, the second most frequently shipped wine from Oregon at 7% of total volume, increased its shipments by 22% in 2012 and increased the value of shipments by 25%.



-3.1% -1.4% 30.0% 17.5% 2.9% -20.2% -4.5% -2.3% -13.8% -24.1%

--8.6% 43.9% 21.7% 36.5% 143.0% 182.3% 68.8% 139.7% -39.0%

--7.3% 87.1% 42.9% 40.4% 94.1% 169.7% 64.9% 106.7% -53.7%



Three wines represent 70% of all volume shipped direct to the consumer: Red Blends, Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah.
HIGHLIGHTS Share of Volume Share of Value 3.7% 3.4%
18.2% 40.7% 18.9%
Blend - Red Cabernet Sauvignon Syrah / Shiraz Merlot Riesling Chardonnay Sauvignon Blanc Ros Cabernet Franc Blend - White Pinot Gris / Grigio Pinot Noir Sangiovese Zinfandel Sparkling Petite Sirah Volume (Cases) 31,393 26,815 15,025 5,807 4,679 4,308 4,120 2,905 2,157 2,110 1,913 1,548 548 319 264 79 Volume Change % of Volume 30.2% 25.8% 14.4% 5.6% 4.5% 4.1% 4.0% 2.8% 2.1% 2.0% 1.8% 1.5% 0.5% 0.3% 0.3% 0.1% Value of Shipments $16,629,492 $15,605,967 $6,604,934 $1,791,374 $825,835 $945,099 $765,385 $517,653 $799,012 $465,195 $335,288 $516,965 $156,875 $94,409 $43,845 $26,160 Value Change % of Value 36.1% 33.8% 14.3% 3.9% 1.8% 2.0% 1.7% 1.1% 1.7% 1.0% 0.7% 1.1% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% Price/ Bottle 44.14 48.50 36.63 25.71 14.71 18.28 15.48 14.85 30.87 18.38 14.61 27.82 23.84 24.66 13.86 27.59 Price Change

-57.7% 7.1% -46.7% -8.1% 33.9% 150.9% 44.0% 12.6%

-69.4% 16.7% -40.0% -3.3% 43.8% 183.3% 3.2% 21.9%

-7.4% 8.9% 12.7% 5.2% 7.4% 12.9% -28.3% 8.2%

Avg. Bottle Price $35.82

Washington Cabernet Sauvignon increased its cases shipped in 2012 by 58% and its value by a remarkable 69%. As in other regions, Ros saw a signicant increase in shipments in 2012, However, its 28% dip in average price per bottle resulted in the value of Ros shipments remaining relatively stagnant. Sauvignon Blanc pulled even with Chardonnay as the most commonly shipped white wine on a 150% increase in the number of cases shipped and a 183% increase in the value of those shipments.

--1.1% -15.0% -38.2% -54.8% 31.1% 671.7%

--2.3% -6.7% -34.0% -54.0% 36.8% 507.2%

--1.2% 9.7% 6.8% 1.8% 4.4% -21.3%


While 31% of all wines shipped from wineries outside California, Oregon and Washington are Red Blends, this region continues to ship a wildly diverse set of wines.
HIGHLIGHTS Share of Volume Share of Value 10.7% 4.9%
23.7% 31.2% 6.1%
Blend - Red Blend - White Cabernet Sauvignon Riesling Chardonnay Merlot Syrah / Shiraz Cabernet Franc Ros Pinot Noir Sauvignon Blanc Sparkling Pinot Gris / Grigio Sangiovese Petite Sirah Zinfandel Volume (Cases) 68,897 27,512 18,174 17,959 14,710 12,023 11,584 9,092 8,254 5,768 5,317 5,063 4,898 2,795 2,382 1,194 Volume Change % of Volume 31.9% 12.7% 8.4% 8.3% 6.8% 5.6% 5.4% 4.2% 3.8% 2.7% 2.5% 2.3% 2.3% 1.3% 1.1% 0.6% Value of Shipments $13,415,364 $5,403,685 $4,831,190 $3,123,790 $2,999,735 $2,651,858 $2,702,000 $2,014,887 $1,315,539 $1,687,594 $928,600 $1,210,805 $850,658 $801,115 $874,684 $284,819 Value Change % of Value 29.7% 12.0% 10.7% 6.9% 6.6% 5.9% 6.0% 4.5% 2.9% 3.7% 2.1% 2.7% 1.9% 1.8% 1.9% 0.6% Price/ Bottle $16.23 $16.37 $22.15 $14.49 $16.99 $18.38 $19.44 $18.47 $13.28 $24.38 $14.55 $19.93 $14.47 $23.89 $30.60 $19.88 Price Change



--3.5% 0.5%

Avg. Bottle Price $17.68

Ros shipments from the other 47 states increased by 67% over 2011, while the value of those shipments increase by 95%. The volume and value of Syrah shipped from the rest of the United States increased by 100% and 102% respectively in 2012. Together, wines identied as Red Blends and White Blends represent 44% of the total cases of wines shipped from the rest of the United States.



-4.8% 1.1% 0.4% 16.5% -3.4% 7.8% 19.5% 1.5% 14.8% 11.9% 8.9%

-10.6% 67.2% 53.9% 86.4% 86.5% 36.9% 78.2% 212.2% -16.7%

-10.2% 94.8% 48.7% 101.0% 122.8% 39.0% 104.5% 249.4% -9.3%



Consumers in 5 states receive nearly 60% of all wine shipments

Shipments to California, New York, Texas, Illinois and Florida represent well over half of all shipments. Californians are the leading recipients of shipped wines taking in 32% of all volume shipped in 2012.

Share of Total Value of Wines Shipped

Almost one in every 3 bottles ships to California

Top 10 states that receive the most wine per capita

1. California 2. New York 3. Illinois 4. Minnesota 5. Oregon 6. Florida 7. Colorado 8. Texas 9. New Jersey 10. Nevada

<1% 1%-2% 2%-4% 4%-6% 6-10% +10%


Growth in year over year value of shipments

Maryland increased 179% over 2011 to $15.6 M

Maryland opened to direct shipping in July 2011 and is quickly climbing the ranks of popular ship-to states

2012 2011 2010

20th most popular 31st most popular Shipping Prohibited

Tennessee shipments consistently increasing

<-11% -10%-0 1%-10% 11%-20% 21%-30% 31%+

2012 2011

24% 44%


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