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MATTER

MATTER anything that takes up space and has mass. There are three (3) states of matter that we will work with in chemistry. There is a 4th state of matter, plasma, that you should also be aware of.

3 States of Matter

1. SOLID has a definite shape (rigid) definite volume particles vibrate around fixed positions 2. LIQUID No definite shape (takes the shape of its container) Has definite volume Particles are free to move over each other, but are still attracted to each other 3. GAS No definite shape (takes the shape of its container) No definite volume Particles move in random motion with little or no attraction to each other Highly compressible

Matter can also be sub-divided into mixtures and pure substances. 1. MIXTURE has variable composition, the proportions that make up the mixture vary and can be separated by physical methods. Examples are wood, gasoline, wine, soil and air. Mixtures can be classified as homogeneous or heterogeneous. Solution is a homogeneous mixture like air (a gaseous solutions), wine (a liquid solution) and brass (a solid solution of copper and zinc). 2. PURE SUBSTANCES have constant composition and can only be separated by chemical reactions. Elements and compounds are pure substances. ELEMENTS is a substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical or physical means while COMPOUNDS is a substance with constant composition that can be broken down into elements by chemical processes. Pure substances get broken down in the process of chemical changes. Chemical changes involve a change in color, change in temperature, change in odor, or a gas is given off.

COLLOIDS
A colloid is a substance microscopically dispersed throughout another substance. The dispersed-phase particles have a diameter of between approximately 1 and 1000 nanometers. Such particles are normally invisible in an optical microscope, though their presence can be confirmed with the use of an ultramicroscope or an electron microscope. Homogeneous mixtures with a dispersed phase in this size range may be called colloidal aerosols, colloidal emulsions, colloidal foams, colloidal dispersions, or hydrosols. The dispersed-phase particles or droplets are affected largely by the surface chemistry present in the colloid. Some colloids are translucent because of the Tyndall effect, which is the scattering of light by particles in the colloid. Other colloids may be opaque or have a slight color. Colloidal solutions (also called colloidal suspensions) are the subject of interface and colloid science. This field of study was introduced in 1861 by Scottish scientist Thomas Graham.
Example of Colloids Representation of COlloids