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A r c h2e t y p e

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle

Midterm Presentation Fall 2013

Cole Booth Kurtis Calkins Scott Davis Benjamin Johnson Jeremy Johnson John McGee Alfredo Saracho Alysha Yinger

Introduction Fuel Cell Technology Overview Horizon H-1000XP Fuel Cell System Drivetrain Motor Motor analysis Steering System Front axle Suspension
Wheel Braking System Analysis on Incline Analysis on Wheel Frame Analysis Fabrication Summary Path Forward References Acknowledgements

Shell Eco-Marathon
Americas Competition Prototype Fuel Cell Apr 24 th 27 th 2014

Design Goals
Total weight: 80 lb 1000+ mpg-e Competition compliant


Batter y Energy storage device Energy is stored within battery itself Ceases to produce energy when reactants are consumed (discharged) Fuel Cell Energy conversion device Fuel and oxidant are supplied continuously Produces power as long as fuel is supplied
Energy Exchange Diagram (Proton Motor)


Unit Cell
Forms the core of the fuel cell Conver ts chemical energy contained in reactants into electrical energy Consists of an electrolyte layer in contact with an anode and a cathode

Fuel Cell Stacking

Unit cells are combined in a cell stack to achieve the voltage and power output required for desired application Stacking means connecting multiple unit cells in series via electrically inductive connecti ons
Fuel Cell Diagram (site)


Horizon H1000-XP Fuel Cell Stack (Horizon)

Developed for the Shell Eco Marathon 1 2 V batter y required for star t up, self suf ficient af ter wards Weight Stack: 4.9 kg (10.8 lbs) Entire system: 6.8 kg (15 lbs) Peak Power: 1100 W Rated Current: 0-33 A @ 30 VDC Fuel (Reactants ): Hydrogen and ambient air (Oxygen )

Rear Wheel


Wheel Sprocket
Motor Sprocket

DC Motor

Electric motor sprocket chain rear wheel sprocket Gear reduction ratio of 1 .32:1 Freewheeling hub on drive wheel Allows driver to boost and coast for increased fuel economy

Permanent magnet brushless motor 1000 W @ 48 VDC input Internal gear reduction: 5.6:1 Torque: 15.6 N-m(11.5 lb-ft) Efficiency: 80% Max speed: 550 rpm Current Rating: 26.2 A Weight: 8 kg (17.6 lb)

48 V 1000 W Electric Motor (


To accelerate the 90.7 k g (200 lb) vehicle at 0.25 m/s 2 a propulsion force at the rear wheel was calculated from Newtons Second Law. F x :ma x =F Pr opulsion -2F r esist ,f -F res ist ,r -F d r ag Propulsion force = 23.0 N (5.17 lb) Corresponding torque of wheel is 5.842 N-m (4.31 lb -f t) The acceleration of 0.25 m/s 2 allows the vehicle to accelerate to maximum velocity of 11 .8 m/s (25 mph) in 47 seconds.

Clean and lubricated chain is 98% ef ficient Maximum tension occurs when accelerating from rest 407.84 N (91 .7 lb) Under dynamic tension
Fatigue safety factors of; K V = 1.2, KC =1.34, K S =1.3

FT Ry T y Rx x

852.56 N (191 .6 lb) Light weight bicycle chain (ANSI 41) has max permissible working load of 1 .2 kN (269.7 lb) Vehicle application is 30% under maximum permissible working load

Steering Components
Ackermann Geometry Rack and pinion
12:1 ratio

Bushing Suspension

Computing Steering Angles

= 6 (20 )


= 18.2


= 20.1

Purposes of a Suspension System: Reduce the effect of shock forces Keep the tires in contact with the road (reduce scrubbing) Obtain Responsive handling Support vehicle weight Control the vehicles direction of travel
Polyurethane Bushing


Axle modeled as cantilever beam

Must support static weight 177 N

Max stress on axle due to bending:

= = 11 MPa (1600 psi) 3 .78

Rear wheel will utilize a chain driven freehub for increased efficiency over 2013s hub motor design 20 in. rims have been selected to be compatible with Michelin low rolling resistance tires supplied by Shell Eco-Marathon for added efficiency Front hubs will feature solid 20 mm (0.8 in.)through axles for added strength Rear hub will feature solid 12 mm (0.47 in.) through axle

Design Parameters
Lightweight Inexpensive Stopping power
Rotor Size: 203 mm (8 in.)

Independent control of front and rear brakes Front and rear must independently immobilize vehicle placed on a 20% incline

Shimano XT Hydraulic Mountain Bike Disc Brakes


Incline Safety Requirements Front and rear independent actuation Track Performance Stopping distance @ 25 mph 30 ft


Re q u i r e d s t a t i c b r a k i n g to r q ue f o r c o m pet i t i o n :

7 8 N - m ( 57. 5 l b- f t ) 156 N-m (115.0 lb-ft)

S to p p in g d i s t a n c e ( w i t h r e a c t i o n t i m e ):
16 . 8 m ( 5 5 f t )

weight performance features manufacturing

Carbon Fiber Monocoque Body

polymer honeycomb
37x increase in stiffness 9.2x increase in flexural strength 1.06x increase in weight

embedded inserts
provides strong and precise mounting


Analysis Fabrication
two-piece female (top & bottom) CNC milled insulating foam jig for location dependent inser ts

Rear Component Truss

Weldments FEA for 7075-T6
Material Al 6061-T6 Al 7075-T6 1020 Steel Weight 1.6 kg (3.6 lb) 1.7 kg (3.7 lb) 4.8 kg (10.5 lb) welding coped piping through bolt connection to body FOS Displacement 2 3.5 2.5 2.48 cm (0.976 in.) 2.38 cm (0.938 in.) 0.848 cm (0.334 in.) Stress 143 MPa (20.8 ksi) 143 MPa (20.8 ksi) 142 MPa (20.7 ksi)

Continue to optimize frame per formance and features Rear component truss design Aerodynamics Finalize frame design to allow early manufacture Refine motor selection to reduce weight to under 10 lbs Retrofit previous vehicle with bushings to test ef fectiveness of suspension design Simplify steering system to reduce weight and manufacturing time Finalize integration of front and rear brake caliper mounts

1 . E G& G Te c h n ical Se r v i ces, In c . ( 2 0 0 4 , N ove mbe r). Fue l Ce l l H a n dbo o k ( Seve nth E di t i on). M o rg a ntow n, We s t V i rg inia, USA . 2 . Fu e l C e l l s : Wo rk ing P ri n c i p le . ( n . d. ) . Ret ri eved Se pte m be r 1 1 , 2 01 3 , fro m Fue l Ce l l Te c h n ology: h t t p: / / w w w.fuelc elltec hnology. info/ 3 . H o ri z on . ( 2 01 3). Ret ri eved Oc to be r 4 , 2 01 3 , fro m H o ri z o n Fue l Ce l l Te c h n ologies: h ttp: / / w w w. horiz onfuelc ell.c om 4 . Sh e l l G l o ba l. ( n . d. ) . S h e l l E c o - Ma r ath on . Re t r i ev e d S e p te m b e r 1 1 , 2 01 3 , f ro m h t t p: / / w w ell. c om/glo bal/environmen t -soc iet y /ec omarat h on. ht ml 5 . P roto n M oto r . C u t t i ng -E dge i n Fu e l C e l l Te c h n ol ogy . 2 01 2 : h t t p: / / w w w. proton - motor. de

6. Shenzen Unite Industries Co. (2011). BLDC Motor BM141 2ZXF 1000W . From -dcmotor 7. Tsubakimoto Chain Co. (2006). The Complete Guide to Chain . from jkjhttp://chain 8. Wong, J.Y. Theor y of Ground Vehicles (Four th Edition). 2008. John Wiley & kkSons, INC. Hoboken, NJ.

Bellco Credit Union H2 Eco-Challenger Team Ronald Rorrer, PhD Douglas Gallagher Joseph Cullen, MS Chris Yakacki, PhD Sean McDonough Friends and Family