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ANNALS OF MTeM FOR 2011 &

PROCEEDINGS
OF THE 10TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE MODERN TECHNOLOGIES IN MANUFACTURING 6th-8th OCTOBER 2011

EDITOR: CS. GYENGE

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EDITOR'S NOTE This Publication was reproduced by the photo process, using the manuscripts and soft copies supplied by their authors. The layout, the figures and tables of some papers did not conform exactly with the standard requirements. In some cases the layout of the manuscript was rebuilt. All mistakes in manuscripts there could not been changed, nor could the English be checked completely. The readers are therefore asked to excuse any deficiencies in this publication which may have arisen from the above causes. The editor and the MTeM Cluj Napoca are not responsible either for the statements made or for the opinion expressed in this publication. Copyright 2011 by MTeM CLUJ-NAPOCA Abstracting and nonprofit use of the material is permitted with credit to the source. Libraries are permitted to photocopy for private use of patrons. Instructors are permitted to photocopy isolated articles for noncommercial classroom use without fee. After this work has been published by MTeM Cluj-Napoca, the authors have the right to republish it, in whole or part, in any publication of which they are an author or editor, and to make personal use of the work. Any republication, referencing, or personal use of the work must explicitly identify prior publication in the MTeM Cluj-Napoca of the 10th International Conference Modern Technologies in Manufacturing, Editor Cs. Gyenge.

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Nationale a Romaniei INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE MTeM Proceeding of the 10th International Conference MTeM, Cluj-Napoca, 6th - 8th October 2011 Ed:Cs.Gyenge Cluj Napoca: p. 335; cm 21/29,7 Bibliogr. Index. ISBN 978-606-8372-02-0 Editura Mure Tiparul executat la S.C. CROMATIC TIPO S.R.L. Targu Mures, str. Calarasilor nr. 58 Tel./fax: 0265-215597 E-mail: cromatictipo@cromatictipo.ro Web site: www.cromatictipo.ro Additional copies can be obtained from the publisher: MTeM CLUJ-NAPOCA, TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF CLUJ-NAPOCA DEPARTAMENT OF MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING, B-dul Muncii 103 105, 3400 CLUJ-NAPOCA, ROMANIA PHONE:0040 64 415051 FAX: 0040 64 415054 E-MAIL: cgyenge@tcml.east.utcluj.ro

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CONTENTS

PLENARY SECTION KEY NOTE PAPERS A


Albu, S., Pozdrca, Al. The contact between a face milling cutter and a helical surfaces Andras, I., Kovacs, I., Andras, A., Tomu, B. Computer aided simulation of coal extraction process with complex technological systems

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Bala, M., Blc, N., Pcurar, R. Research regarding heat affected zone after edm-wc process Bil, D. Selection criteria for cutting plates at high speed machining Bere P., Berce P., Iancau H., Sabau E. Research regarding the delamination of carbon/epoxi composites plates Bichi, I., Banabic, D., Coma, D.S. Research on the shock heat treatment method used for modifying the formability of aluminium alloys Bir, V., Banabic, D. Advanced non-real-time monitoring systems: two case studies Bob, M., Bob, D. Aspects regarding profile modification of spur gears Bocan, I., Hancu, L., Borzan, M., Fabre, M., Ivens, I. Mechanical behavior of plain woven carbon fabric reinforced shape memory polymer composites Bodzs, S., Duds, I. Modeling and mathematical analysis of conical helical surface Bondrea, I., Petruse, R. Augmented reality applied in assembly design Borzan, M., Trif, A., Bereschi, A. Studies about screw tap execution technology and screw tap control Brdlk, P. The batching injection of co2 in blow molding process Bucur, B., Bolo, V. experimental study of the thermal limit for the gearbox worm facegear with reverse tapered pinion

9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53

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Capustiac, A., Banabic, D. An application of virtual reality in the automotive industry Chean, P., Bolo, V. The influence of the tool path regarding the roughness resulted from the milling process of the complex surfaces Cigan V., Vucan I. Researches regarding the behavior of a al2o3 particle in a plasma jet considering the injection angle and the diameter of the particle Cioban, D., Achima, Gh., Popa, A., Budai, A. F. Aspects of public service management Ciotea, M., Bolo, V. Numerical modeling research on the double front worm wheel

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Costea, A., Gyenge, Cs. Research on the predictive maintenance procedure for paper industry uboov,N., Kuric,I. Software program for training of control system sinumerik 840d Curta, R.T., Blc,N., Crean, A. New software to generate the CNC code for turning operations

77 81 85

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Dezs, G., Szigeti F., Varga Gy. Study on the process of environmentally conscious drilling Drstvenek, I., Valentan, B., Bali, J., Brajlih, T. Speed evaluation and comparisson of additive manufacturing systems Duds, L. Introducing improved space analysis capabilities of surface constructor Duds, I. General mathematical model for investigation of cylindrical and conical worms and hobs

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Farkas, F. A., Bode, F., Vuscan, I. Contribution for controll of autonomous underwater vehicle (auv) Farkas, F. A., Bode, F., Vuscan, I. Numerical simulation analysis and form optimization of autonomous underwater vehicle Filip, F.C. Methods of implementing continuous flow Florea, C., Iancu, H. Considerations regarding the influence of manufacturing processes of the composite structures on their mechanical behaviour Fodorean, I., Berce, P., Muresan S., Pop, D. Injection moulding using metal spraying technology Fulop, D., Gyenge,Cs., Fulop, I. Risk assessment method regarding to environmental impact and safety and health of workers in pulp and paper industry

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Grozav, S., Oprea O. V. Gligor, Gh. Cam system for design and simulation process of extrusion for small pieces used in mining industry Gyenge, Cs., Murariu, V. Improuvements to the sonic drilling head

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Hamidi, B. Optimization of the hoisting system of vehicle J Julean, D., Nedezki, C. Assesment of factors influencing surface roughness on turning of aa6060-t6

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Kiksi, V., Achima, G., Harag, S., Budai, A. F. Lubrication of injection molds used for the pressurized aluminum casting Kodcsy, J., Lska, J., Danyi, J. Magnetic finishing of metal parts based on plastic

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deformation and abrasion Kolev, I., Sovilj, B., Sovilj-Niki, I. Mathematical model for optimization of the cutting conditions by drilling Kostal, P., Mudrikova, A. Laboratory of flexible manufacturing Krajov, K., Pechek, F. Design of material flow, machine and devices layout and their application on the model example Krrabaj, S., Bytyci, B., Osmani, H. Generating of technological parameters for the design and optimization blanking tools Kuric, I. Selective and dynamic classification

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Lavrynenko S. N., Mamalis A.G., Rucki M. instrumental providing of ultraprecision mashining of polymers for bioengineering destination Legutko, S., Wieczorowski, K., Kluk, P. research of the state of surface layer after centerless grinding Leordean, D., Marcu, T., Prem, F., Radu, S.A., Berce, P. Researches regarding manufacturing of porous metal structures for medical application produced by selective laser melting (SLM) Luca, A., Balc, N., Drstvensek, I., Popan, A. Mathematical modeling of aluminum vacuum casting process

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Micaciu. A., Vucan, I. Device for grinding of recees helicoidal surfaces at the cutting tools adaptable on the plane grinding machines Micaciu A., Vucan I. Establishing the formula for adjusting a device for checking the pitch of the exterior cylindrical helical surfaces Mihailesc, N., Achima, Gh., Popa, A., Sudrijan, M., Budai, A. F. Possibilities of increasing the quality of sheet metal parts using the fine blanking Mircea, A., Vuscan I., Considerations about the kinematics motions of the machining centers using specific devices Murean, S., Blc , N., Pop , D., Fodorean , I. Influence of process parameters to manufacture titanium parts by SLM Murean, C., Achima, Gh., Popa, A., Budai, A. F. Technological aspects regarding the bending of large diameter tubes

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Nieszporek, T., Boca, V. A new method of manufacturing the worm gear with concave profile

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Olh, L. M., Gyenge, Cs., Bogr, I. New technological solution for gear transmission manufacturing Ommik, M., Barnek, I. The machine part control by using on - machine measurement systems THE 10th INTERNATIONAL MTeM CONFERENCE, 6th-8th OCTOBER 2011

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Osmanaj, S., Selimaj, R. Analysis of voltage source inverter through d, q model

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Paclt, R. Runner system of plastic injection mould Pcurar, R.A., Berce, P., Mller, P., Bala, M. The manufacturing of silicone rubber molds for the food industry Patalita, C.P., Vucan, Gh. I. Intelligent systems for machining processes monitoring Pescaru, R., Oancea, Gh. Parametrization of curves obtained from clouds of points using catia environment Petera, P. Construction of the mold for observation the filling stage of pim technology in automatic cycle Pokordi, L. Stochastic model of manufacturing equipments maintenance processes Pop, D., Berce, P., Filip, A., Muresan, S., Fodorean, I. Experimental research in the field of SLM, for the production of biocompatible components Pop, G. M., Popa, M. S., Pfeifroth, T., Koukach, D. Mathematical modeling and analysis of process temperatures in drilling reinforced composites using response surface methodology Pop, G. M., Popa, M. S., Contiu, G., Koukach, D. Process temperature determination in drilling reinforced plastics composites using ir thermography Popan, A., Blc, N., Luca A., Curta, R. A new software solution for abrasive water jet cutting Popescu, A., Iancu, H., Hancu, L., Prun, R. Research on extrusion optimization for reinforced polyamide Portik, T., Varga, T., Pokordi, L. Development of supplier-rating based on fuzzy set theory Prem, F., Leordean, D., Balc, N., Pacurar, R. The influence of working parameters of SLM technology on surface quality and precision of stainless steel parts

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Silvia, ., Nina, D., Karol, V. Distinction of the individual components before assembly in the workspace of intelligent assembly cell Selimaj, R., Osmanaj, S. Inside air temperature and modeling of closed space by nonstationary heat transfer conditions Simon, V. Manufacture of face-hobed spiral bevel gears on CNC hypoid generator Stoica, L., Achima, Gh., Popa, A., Budai, A. F. The quality of small diameter tubular parts obtained by cold extrusion

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Tirla, A., Popa, M. S., Koukash, D., Preja, D., Badiu, I. Mathematical modelling of the EDM process using the Cu-St pair of materials. Tirla, A., Popa, M. S., Preja, D., Koukash, D., Simon, V. Mathematical modelling of the edm process using the graphite-steel pair of materials.

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Trif, A., Borzan, M., Barboni, E. Contributions about the optimisation of the guillotine knives geometry used in the company "s.c. novis house publishing and printing s.r.l." ClujNapoca Trohk, A., Kolozsi-Tth, M. The research of wireless industrial communication systems for mechatronic and logistics systems

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Velchev, S., Kolev, I., Sovilj, B., Ivanov, K., Sovilj, N. Method of defining the tools effective rake angle in case of small thickness of the cutting layer Vucan, Gh. I., Patalita, C.P. Early detection of machine faults based on vibrations monitoring and analysis

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EARLY DETECTION OF MACHINE FAULTS BASED ON VIBRATIONS MONITORING AND ANALYSIS


VUCAN, Gh. I.; gheorghe.vuscan@tcm.utcluj.ro PATALITA, C.-P.; carol.patalita@tcm.utcluj.ro
Abstract: The predictive maintenance programs are based on monitoring and analysis of equipment condition. The state of a machine is evaluated by tracking of certain technical parameters and functional changes which provide signs about the emergence of a defect. Vibrations monitoring and analysis is the most commonly used assessment method for industrial equipment condition, which enables both early detection and diagnosis of faults occurring in equipment operation. Key words: Condition Based Maintenance; Machine Monitoring; Vibrations Monitoring

1. INTRODUCTION Predictive maintenance (PdM), also known as Condition Based Maintenance (CBM), is based on monitoring of machines operating parameters, continuously or at predetermined intervals, and comparison with corresponding values of parameters obtained for the new equipment. Common techniques are based on: Vibration monitoring and analysis; Temperature monitoring by direct measurement or thermography analysis; Lubricant analysis and determination of wear residues in lubricants; Machine performance analysis (energy consumption, pressure, workload, etc.); Acoustic emission and noise in operation. The goal of all these parameters measurements is to diagnose a faulty operation, at an early stage, so that maintenance interventions can be planned at the optimum time before propagation of the defect, with minimal costs.

monitoring. Unlike other techniques, vibrations monitoring and analysis can also provide identification of defective components. Due to these advantages, vibration monitoring and analysis is the dominant technique used in predictive maintenance [Mobley, 2002]. 2. VIBRATIONS MONITORING 2.1. Equipment Vibration Signature All mechanical systems in motion generate a vibration profile (signature) that reflects the operation of machinery. Vibration analysis is applicable to all moving mechanical and electromechanical systems. Vibration profile analysis is a useful tool in developing a predictive maintenance system and for the fault diagnosis of mechanical components. These vibrations are due to periodic or quasi periodic events that occur during operation of the machine: rotating shaft, meshing gears, rotating bearings, rotating electric fields, motor or pumps cycles, etc. Knowing the frequency of these events, their vibrations can be identified. A change in the vibration level of a certain frequency, detected by the frequency analysis techniques, will signal the emergence of a fault that can be located. The basic procedure in all vibration monitoring systems are based on the determination of machine vibration profile as new (or in normal operation), and tracking how this profile is changing during operation. 2.2. Permanent vs. Intermittent Monitoring Machinery condition monitoring can be done continuously or intermittently. Permanent monitoring is used only for critical equipment in the production process which must

Fig. 1 Fault detection interval according to the used method After [Hardig, 2007], vibration monitoring provides faults detection in the earliest stage (Fig. 1). The method can be used both for continuous monitoring and intermittent

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be stopped immediately if a change in the vibrations profile indicates an imminent failure. This technique requires permanent installation of vibration sensors on the monitored machine. The main advantage of this technique is that it responds very quickly to unexpected faults that cant be predicted. The main disadvantage is the high cost of permanently mounted sensors. At the same time, for a fast response, continuous monitoring is based on analysis of relatively simple signal parameters, such as overall RMS or peak vibration level, which can be calculated and analyzed quickly, but don't give much advance warning of impeding failure. Intermittent monitoring is used for most machines. Data are collected manually at predetermined intervals using a single vibration sensor and a portable data acquisition system. The data is then processed off line. Intermittent monitoring advantages are: low cost of monitoring equipment; using advanced analysis techniques, much more advance warning of impeding failure is achieved. Intermittent monitoring disadvantages are: it can't be use if equipment failure is unpredictable because unexpected failures, which occur rapidly, can't be detected; the interval at which the data are collected must be chosen carefully, depending on the monitored equipment and based on technical and economical considerations. 2.3. Vibrations Sensors In vibration based condition monitoring, physical quantities that can be tracked are displacement, velocity or acceleration of the vibration movement. Depending on the purpose and on the monitored frequency domain, tracked physical quantity is chosen and then the appropriate sensor. Displacement sensors, also known as seismic sensors, are used for measuring low frequency and high amplitude vibration. In general, they are relatively large in size and mass for which they are suitable to measure low frequency vibrations of large structures. Usual displacement sensors used in machine condition monitoring are proximity sensors, also known as Eddy probe, which makes a non-contact measurement of the distance from the sensor to the moving object, based on Foucault currents. Proximity sensors are used mainly to measure radial vibration of a spindle shaft in a journal bearing. Usually two sensors oriented at 90 degrees are used, one horizontal and one vertical. Also, proximity sensors can be used to measure the shaft "phase" (the angular distance of the vibration plane of the shaft to a fixed plan).

Fig. 2 Velocity Probe [AzimaDLI, 2009] Velocity probes or velocimeters are sensors used to measure the velocity of vibration. The velocity probe was one of the first vibration transducers to be built. It consists of a magnet that can move freely inside a coil (Fig. 2). The coil is attached to the tracked object and moving with it. Free suspended magnet tends to keep the position (remain stationary) due to force of inertia. The relative motion between the magnetic field and the coil induces a current that is proportional to the velocity of motion. In general, velocity probes are also relatively large in size and mass and with the emergence of the accelerometer, a versatile and relatively low cost sensor, velocity probes began to be used less often, achieving the vibration speed by integrating the accelerometer signal.

Fig. 3 Accelerometer [AzimaDLI, 2009] Accelerometers are standard sensors to measure machines vibration. The accelerometer contains one or more piezoelectric crystals and a seismic mass (Fig. 3). If the seismic mass is moving, the piezoelectric crystal is mechanical stressed (tensile/compressive, shear or bending strains, depending on the construction of the sensor) and an output voltage is produced, proportional to the force applied on it. As the force acting on the crystal is proportional to the acceleration of the seismic mass, the output voltage is proportional to acceleration. 3. VIBRATION ANALYSIS In machine condition monitoring based on vibration analysis, we look at two parameters: frequency and amplitude of the vibrations. The

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vibration frequency indicates the type of fault that occurred (defective component) and vibration amplitude indicates the severity of the fault [SKF, 2009]. In vibration analysis, measuring the vibration amplitude can be made in three modes: broadband measurement, narrowband measurement and components measurement [Mobley, 2002]. Broadband or overall measurement of the vibration amplitude is a measure of the total energy of all components of the machine vibrations. Generally accepted frequency range for broadband measurements is 1010000Hz [SKF, 2009]. Scales factors used to characterize the amplitude of vibration are: Peak value (Pk), Peak to Peak value (PtP) or Root Mean Square value (RMS). Narrowband measurement of the vibration amplitude is made in a particular frequency domain selected by the operator, specific for the diagnosis of certain faulty equipment. For example, detecting faults in the pumps can be made by narrowband measurements, in an area that includes its own operating frequency. Measuring the amplitude of a certain component (frequency) is made for monitoring / diagnosing a particular item in a machine, whose basic vibration frequency in the operating conditions is known. If possible, it is necessary to make vibration measurements in three directions: axial direction, horizontal direction and vertical direction [SKF, 2009]. Typically, vibration in the horizontal direction are the biggest, because the greatest flexibility of the machine in the horizontal plane. Also, imbalances produces a radial vibration, there is stronger horizontal than vertical. Vertical vibrations are reduced due to greater rigidity in this plan, due to the action of fastening systems and their weight. Typically, vibrations in the axial direction are very small, because most loads are perpendicular to the shaft. Shaft misalignment and bending can lead to vibrations in axial direction. 3.1. Machine Overall Condition Evaluation After measuring the vibration is necessary to evaluate the vibration severity. The first method is by comparing the measured values with the vibration severity charts. Depending on the recorded values of the vibrations speed (RMS values) and the size of equipment, the ISO 10816-1995 standard evaluates the vibrations severity as in the Table 1. Table 1 Vibrations Severity Chart ISO 10816
Class IV Large machine P75kW Elastic support

Vibrations velocity, RMS [mm/s]

Class I Small machine P 5kW

The ISO recommendations cover only the vibrations from 102000Hz domain and generally refer only to rotating machines. Therefore, based on ISO standards and experience, manufacturers of equipments and monitoring programs have developed their own machinery vibration severity charts. But the most efficient and reliable method for vibrations severity evaluation is to compare the most recent readings of the overall vibrations with previous readings, for the same measurement, seeing the evolution of the vibration signals, trending over time [SKF, 2009]. The trend is easier to analyze when the value are plotted in a trend chart, in which the previous measured values are presented together with the current value and a baseline signifying the limit for machine normal operating.

0.28 0.45 0.71 1.12 1.80 2.80 4.50 7.10 11.20 18.00 28.00 45.00

Machine Classes Class II Class III Medium Large machine machine 15kW<P P75kW P<75kW Rigid support

Good

Satisfactory

Unsatisfactory

Unacceptable

Fig. 4 Trend chart at Silcotub S.A. Zalu In Fig. 4 is presented such a trend chart for a monitored machine at Silcotub S.A. Zalau, which highlights the emergence of a fault. 3.2. Fault Diagnosis For fault diagnosis is necessary to use advanced processing and analysis techniques on vibrations signals.

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The most commonly used technique is spectral analysis, based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Applying FFT, complex vibration signal is decomposed into simple vibrations components, of different frequencies (Fig. 5). case, are used either statistical methods such as SPC (Statistical Process Control method), HMM (Hidden Markov Model) and Cluster Analysis or methods based on Artificial Intelligence (AI). AI techniques have been increasingly applied to machine diagnosis and have shown improved performance over conventional approaches. The most used AI techniques for machine diagnosis are Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Evolutionary Systems (ES). Other AI techniques used include Fuzzy Logic Systems (FLS), Fuzzy-Neural Networks (FNN), Neural-Fuzzy Systems (NFS) and Evolutionary Algorihtms (EA). An ANN is a computational model that mimics the human brain structure. It consists of simple processing elements connected in a complex layer structure. A processing element comprises a node and a weight. The ANN learns the unknown function by adjusting its weights with observations of input and output. Feedforward neural network (FFNN) structure is the most widely used neural network structure in machine fault diagnosis. In contrast to neural networks, which learn knowledge by training on observed data, ESs utilise domain expert knowledge in a computer program with an automated inference engine to perform reasoning for problem solving. 4. CONCLUSION Due to the multitude of information provided and the ability to early detect faults, machinery vibration monitoring and analysis is the main method used in predictive maintenance programs. The paper gave a review of this method, the sensors used, the characteristics that are tracked and the applicable analysis techniques. Fig. 6 FFT spectral analysis for a fan from Silcotub S.A. Zalu To diagnose faults in ball bearings or gear mesh is used Envelope Detection technique (also known as Amplitude Demodulation). Vibration signals generated by the failure of these components are high frequency but their magnitude is much smaller than rotational and structural vibration signals, so these signals can be masked. By Envelope Detection, the low frequencies of rotational or structural vibrations are filtered out, then the signal is amplified to increase resolution, and finally FFT spectral analysis is applied to identify faults. In complex equipment diagnosis, fault isolation and fault identification are very difficult. In this 5. REFERENCES

Fig. 5 Decomposition of a complex vibration signal using FFT Knowing the vibration frequencies of the machine components, in the specific operating conditions, the FFT spectrum analysis FFT spectrum analysis provides information for determining the location of the problem, the cause of the problem and, with trending, how long until the problem becomes critical. In Fig. 6 is presented a FFT spectral analysis of vibration signal for a fan at Silcotub S.A. Zalau, in which the rotor imbalance was detected.

Hardig, K. (2007). Proactive Maintenance Strategy: Asset Efficiency Optimisation (AEO), SKF Reliability Systems, www.skf.com Mobley, R.K. (2002). An Introduction to Predictive Maintenance, 2nd Edition, Butterworth Heinemann, ISBN: 0750675314, London Randall, R.B. (2011). Vibration-based Condition Monitoring: Industrial, Automotive and Aerospace Applications, Wiley, ISBN: 0470747854, Chichester, UK *** (2009). Vibration Analysis Reference, Azima DLI, www.azimadli.com *** (2009). Vibration Diagnostic Guide, SKF Reliability Systems, www.skf.com

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