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# Oblique Shocks

Gas Dynamics

## Oblique shock and expansion waves

Mach waves can be either compression waves (p2 > p1) or expansion waves (p2 < p1), but in either case their strength is by denition very small (|p2 p1| p1).
A body of nite thickness, however, will generate oblique waves of nite strength, and now we must distinguish between compression and expansion types.
The simplest body shape for generating such waves is

a concave corner, which generates an oblique shock (compression), or
a convex corner, which generates an expansion fan.

Gas Dynamics

## Oblique shock and expansion waves

The ow quantity changes across an oblique shock are in the same direction as across a normal shock, and across an expansion fan they are in the opposite direction.
One important difference is that po decreases across the shock, while the fan is isentropic, so that it has no loss of total pressure, and hence po2 = po1 .

Gas Dynamics

## Oblique Shock Waves

The gure shows an oblique shock wave produced when a supersonic ow is deected by an angle. We can think of the deection as caused by a planar ramp at this angle although it could be generated by the blockage produced by a solid body placed some distance away in the ow.

Therefore almost all of the normal shock relations can be converted to oblique shock relations with the substitution

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Governing Equations

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## Flow deection versus shock angle for oblique shocks

At point (a) the ow is perpendicular to the shock wave and the properties of the ow are governed by the normal shock relations. In moving from point (a) to (b) the shock weakens and the deection of the ow behind the shock increases until a point of maximum ow deection is reached at (b). The Mach number behind the shock is subsonic up to point (c) where the Mach number just downstream of the shock is one.

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Mach angle

An Example

With the information shown in Figure, we proceed to compute the conditions following the shock.

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Solution

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Solution (cont.)

For the conditions in this Example, compute the stagnation pressures and temperatures.

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Solution (cont.)

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## Reection of Oblique Shock

An oblique shock is assumed to generated from a body that turns the ow through an angle as shown in the gure.
The entire ow on passing through this wave is then turned downwards through an angle .
However, the ow adjacent to the lower at wall must be parallel to the wall. This is only possible if a reected wave is generated, as shown in the following gure, that turns the ow back up through .

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Since the ow downstream of the reected wave must again be parallel to the wall, both waves must produce the same change in ow direction. Thus, in order to determine the
properties of this reected wave, the following procedure is used:

1. For the given M1 and determine M2 and p2 / p1.
2. For this value of M2 and since the turning angle of the second wave is also determine M and p3 / p2.
3. The overall pressure ratio is then found from:

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4. The angle that the reected wave makes with the wall is 2 + and since 2 was found in step 2, this angle can be determined.

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An Example

Solution

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Solution (Cont.)

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Solution (Cont.)

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## INTERACTION OF OBLIQUE SHOCK WAVES

It will be noted from the results and discussion given about the properties of oblique shock waves that:

1. An oblique shock wave always decreases the Mach number,
2. The shock angle, , (considering only the non-strong shock solution) for a given turning angle, , increases with decreasing Mach number.

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The ows in regions 4 and 5 shown in the gure must, of course, be parallel to each other. Therefore, conservation of momentum applied in a direction normal to the ows in these two regions indicates that the pressures in regions 4 and 5 must be the same.
The initial waves separating regions 1 and 2 and regions 1 and 3 are, of course, determined by the Mach number in region 1 and the turning angles, and .
The properties of the "transmitted" waves are then determined from the condition that the pressures and ow directions in regions 4 and 5 must be the same.
The density, velocity and entropy will then be different in these two regions and the slipstream shown must, therefore, exist.
Of course, when = the initial waves are both of the same strength as are the transmitted waves. No slipstream then exists.

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An Example

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