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1.

There is a significiant difference in the fluodide concentration in the seawater sample without TISAB added and that containing TISAB. Based on the results tabulated in Table 3, the difference between the concentration of both these samples are about 1.42 M(9.64 8.22 M). Sample without

TISAB added has higher concentration value. However, the high values does not indicate that the seawater sample contains high concentration of fluoride. It might probably due to the presence if interfering ions in the sample solution tested, for instance hydroxide ion. According to Skoog, Holler and Crounch (2007), ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) are not ion-specific. All are sensitive to other ions to some extent. Hence, TISAB is applied in the analysis of fluoride in water to eliminate the interference and thereby give reliable results.

2. The difference between the concentration values of the result ( 8.75 and the accepted value for the Quality Control ( 1.25 MF) is about

M)

M. By looking the figure, the experimental result which is the

measured concentration seems quite close to the true value. However, when the accuracy is quantified by calculating the percent error, using the formula: % error =

100,

It shows that the experimental values differ from the accepted values by 12.5%. The error calculation involves using the absolute difference of the experimental and theoretical values. If the percent error is rewritten by removing the absolute function, a negative percent error will be obtained as the experimental values is less than accepted values ( Miller & Miller, 2005 ; Uus & Heckard, 2006 ). Hence, the % error shows the experimental result is moderately accurate.

3. The results obtained in this practical considered precise. The precision of the results is determined by the replication of the measurement and is reflected

through the % relative standard deviation ( Housecroft & Constable 2006 ). The standard deviation calculates shows that the triplet readings taken during the measurement are closely to each other. Low &RSD ( refer Table 3) indicates the precision of the results.

1. TISAB is known as total ionic strength adjustment buffer. Occasionally, it contains other components which actively suppress interfering ions and control the pH value. In the analysis of fluoride in water, it is added to buffer the sample solution to acidic condition, about pH5.0 to 5.5, and hence no hydroxide ion will interfere with the fluoride electrode. Meanwhile, it helps to avoid the formation of complexes that are meant to be measured. Complexation would lower the activity and therefore the electrode response. TISAB is able to overcome this problem by complexing with aluminium (III) or iron (III), thus releasing bound fluoride that is able to be sensed by fluoride electrode. In addition to that, by adding sufficient of TISAB, it prevents a fluctuation in the activity coefficient og the ion being measured and gives a uniform ionic strength and standards. When the ionic strength kept constant, the activity will proportional to the concentration (Skoog, Holler and Crounch 2007). The straight line calibration curve can then be constructed using concentration uniots and the unknown concentrations can be read directly from the calibration graph.

2. The electrode behaves in a Nerbstian fashion as plot of measured potential against log [ F] shoes linear response ( refer Figure 1).

The potential measured by fluoride ISE is given by a form of the Nernst equation: E= constant + 59.2 ( pF ).

This equation shows when one changes the concentration of the fluoride sample by a factor of ten, the potential changes by 59.2mV ( where the values if 2.303RT/F is 59.2mV at 25 C ). The slopes if the calibration graph plotted above is -57.01 1.03mV, which is between -58.04 and -55.98mV. The range of the possible values is quite closely in the theoretical values -59.2mV. hence, this indicates that the electrode is functioning properly and the electrode is said ti be behaving in a Nernst fashion.

3.

The useful concentration range if the fluoride electrode us 0.02 to 2000 mg/L, or equivalent to 1.05 M. This is proven when the standard solution 5 with M appears as an outlier in the plot of

the fluoride concentration of the

measure potential versus log [F]. Fluoride ion-selective electrode can only measure the concentration maximum down to 1.05 5 is located outside if the concentration range. M. Standard solution

4.

The fluoride concentration found for the tap water sample is consistent with that reported by Melbourne Water. The acceptable fluoride concentration range for Melbourne is between 0.7 and 1.2 mg/L. The concentration of fluoride detected in tap water sample in the experiment is around 0,4503mg/L, which is much lesser than range referred to.

Conclusion Fluoride ion-selective electrode , which is a type of potentiometric measurements, provides a highly selective method for the determination if fluoride species in solution. Total ionic strength adjustment buffer, TISSAB is used to maintain a high and constant ionic strength which allows concentration to be used instead of activity, as well as to overcome complexation and maintain the pH of solution. The activity of fluoride ion is proportional to concentration only applied in solution with certain