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Blue Riband

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The Blue Riband Trophy of 1935

The Sirius is considered the first Blue Riband holder for her 1838 voyage to New York at 8.03 knots (14.87 km/h). The Blue Riband (pronounced /blu rbnd/) is an unofficial accolade given to the passenger liner crossing the Atlantic Ocean in regular service with the record highest speed. The term was borrowed from horse racing and was not widely used until after 1910.[1][2] Under the unwritten rules, the record is based on average speed rather than passage time because ships follow different routes.[3] Traditionally, a ship is considered a

record breaker if it wins the eastbound speed record, but is not credited with Blue Riband unless it wins the more difficult westbound record against the Gulf Stream.[1] Of the 35 Atlantic liners to hold the Blue Riband, 25 were British, followed by five German, three American, as well as one each from Italy and France. 13 were Cunarders (plus Queen Mary of Cunard White Star), 5 by White Star, with 4 owned by Norddeutscher Lloyd, 2 by Collins, 2 by Inman and 2 by Guion, and one each by British American, Great Western, Hamburg-America, the Italian Line, Compagnie Gnrale Transatlantique and finally the United States Lines.[1] Many of these ships were built with substantial government subsidies and were designed with military considerations in mind. [3] Winston Churchill estimated that the two Cunard Queens helped shorten the Second World War by a year.[4] The speed of the last Atlantic liner to hold the Blue Riband, the United States was designed for her potential use as a troopship rather than her service as a commercial passenger liner.[3] There was no formal award until 1935 when Harold K. Hales (18681942), a British politician and owner of Hales Brothers shipping company, donated the trophy. The four feet tall nearly 100 pound Hales Trophy is made of solid silver and heavy gilt fashioned with a globe resting on two winged figures of Victory standing on a base of carved green onyx, with an enamelled blue ribbon encircling the middle, and decorated with models of galleons, modern ocean liners and statues of Neptune and Amphitrite, god and goddess of the sea. The trophy is surmounted by a figure depicting speed pushing a three-stacked liner against a figure symbolizing the forces of the Atlantic, which is represented in blue enamel with the traditional ocean liner route indicated by a red enamelled line.[5] The rules for the Hales Trophy are different from the traditional rules for the Blue Riband. For example, the Hales Trophy can be won by any type of surface commercial passenger vessel for a crossing in either direction. After the United States retired, the trophy was displayed in the American Merchant Marine Museum. In 1986, Richard Branson established a new speed record in a powerboat that cut two hours from the eastbound record, but was not awarded the Hales trophy because his boat was not a commercial passenger vessel. Four years later, in 1990, the owners of the passenger/car ferry Hoverspeed Great Britain received the Hales trophy when she established a new speed record for a commercial vessel on her eastbound delivery voyage without passengers with a time of 79 hours and 54 minutes.[6] In 1992 the Italian ship Destriero, with an average speed of 63 mph (101 km/h), improved the previous record to 58 hours and 34 minutes. However, the United States remains as the holder of the Blue Riband because all subsequent record breakers were not in Atlantic passenger service and their voyages were eastbound.[1]

Contents
[hide]

1 History o 1.1 Paddlers (183872) o 1.2 Single screw steamers (187289)

1.3 Double screw steamers (18891907) 1.4 Ships of state (190769) 2 Hales trophy 3 List of Record Breakers o 3.1 Westbound Record Breakers (Blue Riband Holders) o 3.2 Eastbound Record Breakers o 3.3 Post 1969 Hales Trophy Winners 4 References
o o

5 Further reading

[edit] History
[edit] Paddlers (183872)

In 1843, Great Western recorded a Blue Riband voyage of 10.03 knots (18.58 km/h). In 1832, Junius Smith, American lawyer turned London merchant, published the idea building a line of transatlantic steamships in the American Rail Road Journal.[7] After receiving no support for several years, his plan gained credibility when Scottish shipbuilder, Macgregor Laird became an investor.[2] Smith, who is often considered the Father of the Atlantic Liner, formed the British and American Steam Navigation Company to operate a London-New York service. About the same time, the question of Atlantic steamships was discussed at a 1835 director's meeting of the newly formed Great Western Railway when the lines chief engineer, Isambard Kingdom Brunel supposedly joked that the line could be made longer by building a steamship to run between Bristol and New York. The necessary investors were recruited by Brunel's friend, Thomas Guppy, a Bristol engineer and businessman.[8] The next year, the Great Western Steamship Company was established, even though the rail line was still years from completion.[9] By spring 1838, Brunels Great Western was ready for sea, but Smiths first ship was still without engines. When Great Western scheduled its initial sailing, Laird suggested that British and American charter the Irish Sea steamer Sirius from the St. George Steam Packet Company for two voyages to beat Great Western.[8] While the Sirius left Cork, Ireland four days before Great Western departed Avonmouth, Great Western still came

within a day of overtaking Sirius to New York.[3] To complete the voyage, Sirius was forced to burn spars when coal ran low.[8] With her westbound crossing at 8.03 knots (14.87 km/h), Sirius is considered the first holder of the Blue Riband even though the term would not be used for several generations.[1] Great Western herself became the prototype for all successful wooden paddlers and made a Blue Riband voyage at 10.03 knots (18.58 km/h) as late as 1843.[3]

Europa of 1848 won the Blue Riband with a voyage of 11.79 knots (21.84 km/h). This is one of the earliest known photos of an Atlantic steamship. The Cunard Line started its Liverpool-Halifax-Boston service in 1840 with the four ships that were slightly reduced versions of Great Western with about the same speed. Ultimately Cunard built nine additional wood paddlers. By 1846, Cunard was the only original steamship line that survived, largely because of its subsidy from the British Admiralty to carry the mails[3] and its emphasis on safety.[4] Until 1850, the record passed between various Cunarders, finally reaching 12.25 knots (22.69 km/h) for a 8 day Liverpool-Halifax crossing by Asia.[1] Record voyages during this period were often the result of using sails to gain extra speed from a following gale.[3] Cunard's first serious competition for the Blue Riband came from the American-owned Collins Line.[3] The American Government supplied Collins with a substantial subsidy to operate four wooden paddlers that were superior to Cunard's best.[10] In its first year, 1850, the Pacific won the Blue Riband at 12.46 knots (23.08 km/h) on a 10 day run from Liverpool to New York. Unfortunately, Collins suffered a setback when its Arctic foundered with heavy loss of life.[3] The next year, Cunard put further pressure on Collins by commissioning its first iron-hulled paddler, the Persia, which won the Blue Riband with a 9 day, 16 hour Liverpool-New York voyage at 13.11 knots (24.28 km/h).[1] During the Crimean War, Cunard supplied eleven of its ships for war service and suspended all routes except the Liverpool-Halifax-Boston service.[10] While the Collins' fortunes improved because of the lack of competition during the war, Collins collapsed in 1858 after the loss of two additional steamers.[3] Cunard emerged as the leading carrier of first class passengers and in 1862 commissioned the Scotia, the last paddle steamer to win the Blue Riband with a Queenstown-New York voyage at 14.46 knots (26.78 km/h). Scotia was the final significant paddler ordered for the Atlantic because under the terms of Cunard's mail contract with the Admiralty, it was still required to supply paddle steamers when needed for military service.[1]

[edit] Single screw steamers (187289)

White Star's Adriatic by George Parker Greenwood. She was the first screw liner to win the Blue Riband with a 1872 run at 14.65 knots (27.13 km/h)

Cunard's Etruria of 1885, averaged 19.56 knots (36.23 km/h) on a 1888 Blue Riband crossing In 1845, Brunels Great Britain became the first iron-hulled screw liner on the Atlantic. Starting in 1850, the Inman Line built numerous reduced versions for the steerage trade. In 1866, Inman started to commission single screw express liners that were the equal of Scotia.[3] The Admiralty allowed Cunard to order its first screw express liner, the Russia. [10] In 1871 both companies faced a new rival when the White Star Line commissioned Oceanic and her five sisters. The following year, White Stars Adriatic finally surpassed Scotia with a voyage at 14.65 knots (27.13 km/h).[1] The new White Star record breakers were especially economical because of their use of compound engines, but their high ratio of length to beam (10:1 compared to the previous norm of 8:1) increased vibration. To counter this, White Star placed the dining saloon midships and made their ships more luxurious. Inman rebuilt its express fleet to the new standard, but Cunard lagged behind both of its rivals.[3] In 1875, Inmans new City of Berlin averaged 15.21 knots (28.17 km/h) on its Blue Riband voyage.[1] During the five-year shipping depression that began in 1873, William Pearce, the controlling partner of the John Elder shipyard, became convinced that a crack steamer that carried only passengers and light freight could be profitable because she would attract more passengers and spend less time in port.[2] He proposed a ship that crammed the most powerful machinery possible into the hull, sacrificing everything to speed.[3] When Cunard rejected his proposal, Pearce offered his idea to the Guion Line, a firm primarily engaged in the steerage trade. The first ship Pearce built for Guion, the Arizona was described as a "souped up transatlantic hot rod" by one nautical historian.[2] While she only won the eastbound record,[10] two years later, Guion took delivery of the even faster Alaska that won the Blue Riband at 16.07 knots (29.76 km/h).[1] To continue the

program, Pearce offered Guion favourable terms on a third unit, the Oregon, which raised the Blue Riband to 18.56 knots (34.37 km/h) in 1884.[1] These ships were uncomfortable and their excessive coal consumption made them uneconomic.[3] However, for a while they were popular with American clients because of their American ownership.[10] After being out of the contest for a decade, Cunard finally started to rebuild. In 1884, Cunard purchased the Oregon from the Guion line when that firm defaulted on payments to the shipyard. Later that year, Cunard commissioned the first steel-hulled Blue Riband winners, the Umbria and Etruria.[10] Etruria, the faster of the pair, raised the Blue Riband standard to 19.56 knots (36.23 km/h) on a 6 day, 2 hour run from Queenstown to Sandy Hook in 1888. However, Etruria and her sister represented the limit of single screw technology.[1]

[edit] Double screw steamers (18891907)

Inman's City of Paris broke 20.01 knots (37.06 km/h) in 1889.

NDL's Kaiser Wilhelm der Groe raised the Blue Riband to 22.29 knots (41.28 km/h) in 1898 The Inman line fell on hard times after their intended Blue Riband contender, the City of Rome failed to meet expectations and was returned to her builders in 1882. Inman directors agreed to voluntary liquidation so that the largest creditor, the Philadelphiabased International Navigation Company could purchase Inman's assets.[3] The new owners provided the capital to build two outstanding record breakers, the twin screw City of New York and the City of Paris. Starting in 1889, the later ship won the Blue Riband on four occasions, including a voyage at 20.7 knots (38.3 km/h) in 1892. White Star,

which had not built an express liner since the Germanic of 1875, commissioned the Blue Riband winners, Teutonic of 1889 and Majestic of 1890 after receiving a subsidy from the Admiralty to make the pair available as merchant cruisers in the event of hostilities. Cunard countered with two even faster Blue Riband winners, the Campania and the Lucania of 1893.[10] The next year, Lucania recorded a voyage at 21.81 knots (40.39 km/h).[1] Inman became the American Line and ordered two additional express liners from American yards, but no attempt was made to best the new Cunarders. In 1894, Guion ceased sailing as its ships were now hopelessly outdated.[3] No sooner had Cunard reestablished its supremacy than new rivals emerged. Beginning in the late 1860s, several German firms commissioned liners that were almost as fast as the British mail steamers working from Liverpool.[3] In 1889, the Hamburg-America Line commissioned four double screw steamers capable of 18.00 knots (33.34 km/h). Its rival, Norddeutscher Lloyd (NDL) lagged behind until 1895 when it ordered two ships intended to take the Blue Riband. In 1898, the Kaiser Wilhelm der Groe raised the Blue Riband to 22.29 knots (41.28 km/h), while the other liner, the Kaiser Friedrich failed to achieve her contract speed and was returned to her builders. Hamburg America ordered the even more powerful Deutschland that reached 23.06 knots (42.71 km/h) on one of her 1900 Blue Riband voyages. However, Hamburg America quickly learned that these high powered double screw liners had vibration problems. Deutschland had the unpleasant nickname, "cocktail shaker" and actually lost part of her stern in 1902 because of the constant vibration.[1] Rather than match the new German speedsters, White Star decided to drop out of the competition and commission the four large Celtic-class luxury liners of more moderate speed. White Star realised that passengers preferred comfort even if this means spending an extra day at sea. In 1902, White Star joined the well capitalised American combine, the International Mercantile Marine Co. (IMM) that owned the American Line and others. IMM also had trade agreements with Hamburg America and Norddeutscher Lloyd. After its bad experience with the Deutschland, Hamburg America also dropped out of the race and commissioned large luxury liners based on the Celtic. However, NDL completed building a fleet of four additional express liners modelled on Kaiser Wilhelm der Groe.[3]

[edit] Ships of state (190769)

Cunard's Mauretania held the Blue Riband from 1909 to 1929 at 26.06 knots (48.26 km/h)

NDL's Bremen finally broke Mauretania's record in 1929 by averaging 27.83 knots (51.54 km/h)

The Italian Rex joined the Blue Riband club with a 1933 voyage of 28.92 knots (53.56 km/h)

CGT's Normandie won the Blue Riband at 30.58 knots (56.63 km/h) in 1937.

Cunard White Star's Queen Mary regained the Blue Riband at 30.99 knots (57.39 km/h) in 1938.

The United States won the Blue Riband at 34.51 knots (63.91 km/h) in 1952

After 1902, only the Cunard Line and the French Compagnie Gnrale Transatlantique were independent of the IMM combine. British prestige was at stake, and the Government provided Cunard with an annual subsidy of 150,000 plus a low interest loan of 2.5 million to pay for the construction of the two superliners, the Lusitania and Mauretania under the condition that they be available for conversion to armed cruisers when needed by the navy.[3] Starting in 1907, both ships won the Blue Riband and Mauretanias 1909 record of 26.06 knots (48.26 km/h) stood for 20 years.[1] However, these ships paid a price for speed and lacked many of the amenities found in the new White Star and Hamburg American luxury liners. Both Cunard rivals ordered a trio of even bigger luxury liners, the White Star Olympic-class capable of 21.5 knots (39.8 km/h) and Hapag Imperator-class capable of 22.5 knots (41.7 km/h). Even Cunard chose this approach when it ordered its third superliner, the Aquitania[4] As a result of the war, Hamburg American and Norddeutscher Lloyd lost their premier units. In 1926, the U.S. Government awarded Norddeutscher Lloyd (NDL) $27 million in compensation for its confiscated liners. By this time, improvements in turbine technology and hull form along with the use of fuel oil instead of coal made it possible to build more civilised record breakers. Using these funds, NDL ordered two ships designed to cross the Atlantic in five days, the Bremen and Europa. However, the American government netted the award against debts owed by the German Government and Berlin was forced to directly subside NDL to continue the project. Bremen recorded 27.83 knots (51.54 km/h) on her 1929 Blue Riband voyage and Europa increased the Blue Riband to 27.92 knots (51.71 km/h) in 1933.[1] In 1929, two lines from Italy each ordered a ship based on the German pair. Just as these ships were being completed, the Italian government nationalised the shipping industry, creating the Italian Line. While both superliners were successful, only the Rex won the Blue Riband, with a 1933 voyage at 28.92 knots (53.56 km/h).[3] Compagnie Gnrale Transatlantique also ordered a new superliner in 1929. The next year, Cunard started construction on a 80,000 ton liner that was to be the first of two record breakers fast enough to fit into a two ship weekly Southampton-New York service. [4] Compagnie Gnrale Transatlantique altered its plans to make its new liner even bigger.[1] However, as the 1929 shipping depression intensified, construction on Cunards hull 534 was halted while work on the heavily subsidised French ship continued. By 1934, White Star was failing and the British Government was concerned about potential job losses. Therefore, the government offered Cunard a loan of 3 million to complete hull 534 as the Queen Mary and an additional 5 million to build a second ship, the Queen Elizabeth if Cunard merged with White Star.[4] Compagnie Gnrale Transatlantiques Normandie entered service in 1935 and won the Blue Riband at 29.98 knots (55.52 km/h). Queen Mary was commissioned the next year, and after a few break-in voyages, took the Blue Riband to 30.14 knots (55.82 km/h). The two liners were operated a pair and traded the Blue Riband again, with the Cunard White Star Liner ultimately posting 30.99 knots (57.39 km/h) in 1938.[1] Queen Marys consort,

the Queen Elizabeth, was commissioned after war was declared and was never allowed to attempt the record.[3] Of the ships of state, only Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth and Europa survived the war. Europa became Compagnie Gnrale Transatlantique's Liberte and no attempt was made to retain her former speed when she was reconstructed.[3] However, the United States government was impressed by the large numbers of troops carried by the Queens during the war, and ordered a superliner that was as much a troop carrier as an express liner. On her maiden voyage in 1952, the United States upped the Blue Riband to 34.51 knots (63.91 km/h). In 1958, the transatlantic airlines put jet transports into service and the days of the record breakers were numbered. Liberte retired 1961, Queen Mary in 1967, and the United States in 1969.[1]

[edit] Hales trophy


In 1935, Harold K. Hales (18681942), a member of the UK Parliament and owner of a shipping company, commissioned a Sheffield goldsmith to produce a large trophy to be presented to the fastest ship crossing the Atlantic.[11] The rules for the trophy did not correspond to the traditional rules for the Blue Riband in that the trophy could be awarded to any surface passenger ship achieving the fastest speed in either direction. Other rule changes further complicated the situation. For example, before the trophy was finished, Hales made arrangements to present the trophy to the Rex. In the meantime, Normandie took the record and Hales changed the rules so that any new claimant must wait three months to give the current holder a chance to beat the new record.[12] In August, 1935, the trophy was presented to the Rex,[13] and then transferred to the Normandie two months later.[14] Cunard White Star's Queen Mary was the next winner, but Cunard White Star refused to accept the trophy. The Queen's captain explained that, "We don't believe in racing on the Atlantic, or in blue ribands, or trophies and the like."[15] Hales again changed the rules so that the trophy could only be won by a "non-British ship".[1] Hales died in 1942 and the location of the trophy was unknown when the United States Lines (USL) started planning the maiden voyage of its new record breaker, the United States. The trophy was found at the Sheffield goldsmith where it had been originally made.[16] In 1952, USL accepted the trophy at a ceremony attended by 400 guests.[17] It was displayed in USL's New York City headquarters until after the United States was taken out of service in 1969. Ten years later, the trophy was transferred to the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy's museum as a relic.[16] In 1986, Richard Branson was successful in setting a new eastbound transatlantic speed record in the powerboat Challenger II. He was not awarded the Hales trophy because his boat was not a commercial vessel. In 1990, the 242-foot (74 m) catamaran passenger/car ferry Hoverspeed Great Britain was scheduled to take a delivery voyage from her Australian builders to begin cross channel operations. Her owners confirmed with the Hales trophy trustees in the UK that their vessel would be eligible for the trophy if they beat the United States record, even though the ship would not actually carry passengers

on the trip. The trustees ruled that the ship still met the criteria. After Hoverspeed Great Britain's successful voyage, the Maritime Museum considered challenging the decision on the grounds that Hales donated the award for ships providing Atlantic passenger service,[6] but decided not to because of the cost of legal fees. The trophy case at the academy remained empty for the next eight years until Carnival Cruise Lines loaned the museum a replica of the trophy.[16] In 1992, the Italian powerboat Destriero made a voyage at 53.09 knots (98.32 km/h), breaking Challenger II's record. The current holder of the Hales Trophy is the catamaran Cat-Link V (now Fjord Cat) for a 1998 delivery voyage (without passengers) at 41.3 knots (76.5 km/h).[16] However, the United States is still considered the holder of the Blue Riband.[1]

[edit] List of Record Breakers


The following is the latest consensus list of the research to date. Because there was no sanctioning body for the Blue Riband, researchers are limited to surviving shipping company archives and press reports to develop the list of Blue Riband winners. Early writers including Arthur Maginnus (1892), Henry Frey (1896), Charles Lee (1931) and C. R. Benstead (1936) were the standard sources until the 1950s. Since then, C. R. Vernon Gibbs (1952),[3] and Noel Bonsor (1975) added to the body of knowledge, with additional detail about the German ships provided by Arnold Kludas.[1] Over the years, the lists have not agreed. For example, Gibbs credits Inman's City of Paris with a 1866 Blue Riband voyage, and Cunard's Russia with an eastbound record the following year because he considered as dubious Scotia's Blue Riband claim of 14.46 knots (26.78 km/h), supposedly based on a very long track.[3] Later writers have included the Scotia claim.[1] Gibbs also includes the claimed Blue Riband voyage at 17.6 knots (32.6 km/h) of the National Line's America of 1884[3] that was not confirmed by later researchers.[1]

[edit] Westbound Record Breakers (Blue Riband Holders)


Steamer Year Dates Line From To Sandy Hook New York New York New York Distance 3,583 nautical miles (6,636 km) 3,220 nautical miles (5,960 km) 3,140 nautical miles (5,820 km) 3,086 nautical miles (5,715 Days, hours, minutes Speed

Sirius Great Western Great Western Great Western

1838

4 April22 B&A April 8 April23 GW April 2 June17 June GW

Cork

1838

Avonmouth

1838 1839

Avonmouth Avonmouth

18 May31 GW May

8.03 knots 18 d, 14 (14.87 h, 22 m km/h) 8.66 knots 15 d, 12 (16.04 h, 0 m km/h) 8.92 knots 14 d, 16 (16.52 h, 0 m km/h) 13 d, 12 9.52 knots h, 0 m (17.63

Columbia Great Western Cambria

1841

4 June15 June

Cunard Liverpool

Halifax New York Halifax

1843

29 April11 GW May

Liverpool

1845

19 July29 Cunard Liverpool July 3 June12 June Cunard Liverpool

America

1848

Halifax

Europa

1848

14 October Cunard Liverpool 23 October 18 May27 Cunard Liverpool May

Halifax

Asia

1850

Halifax

km) 2,534 nautical miles (4,693 km) 3,068 nautical miles (5,682 km) 2,534 nautical miles (4,693 km) 2,534 nautical miles (4,693 km) 2,534 nautical miles (4,693 km) 2,534 nautical miles (4,693 km)

10 d, 19 h, 0 m 12 d, 18 h, 0 m 9 d, 20 h, 30 m 9 d, 0 h, 16 m 8 d, 23 h, 0 m 8 d, 14 h, 50 m

km/h) 9.78 knots (18.11 km/h) 10.03 knots (18.58 km/h) 10.71 knots (19.83 km/h) 11.71 knots (21.69 km/h) 11.79 knots (21.84 km/h) 12.25 knots (22.69 km/h)

Pacific

11 September 1850 Collins Liverpool 21 September 1851 6 August Collins Liverpool 16 August 28 June7 July Collins Liverpool

New York New York New York Sandy Hook

3,050 nautical 12.46 knots 10 d, 4 miles (5,650 (23.08 h, 45 m km) km/h) 3,039 nautical miles (5,628 km) 3,037 nautical miles (5,625 km) 3,045 nautical miles (5,639 km) 2,820 nautical miles (5,220 km) 2,778 nautical miles (5,145 km) 2,800 nautical miles (5,200 km) 2,829 nautical miles (5,239 km) 12.91 knots 9 d, 19 (23.91 h, 26 m km/h) 13.04 knots 9 d, 16 (24.15 h, 52 m km/h) 13.11 knots 9 d, 16 (24.28 h, 16 m km/h) 14.46 knots 8 d, 3 h, (26.78 0m km/h) 14.53 knots 7 d, 23 (26.91 h, 17 m km/h) 14.65 knots 7 d, 23 (27.13 h, 7 m km/h) 15.21 knots 7 d, 18 (28.17 h, 2 m km/h)

Baltic

Baltic

1854

Persia

1856

19 April29 Cunard Liverpool April

Scotia

1863

19 July27 New Cunard Queenstown July York 17 May25 Sandy W.Star Queenstown May Hook 30 July7 August W.Star Queenstown Sandy Hook

Adriatic

1872

Germanic City of Berlin

1875

17 Sandy 1875 September Inman Queenstown Bank 25

September Britannic 1876 27 October Sandy W.Star Queenstown 4 November Hook 6 April13 Sandy W.Star Queenstown April Hook 9 April16 Sandy Guion Queenstown April Hook 14 May21 Sandy Guion Queenstown May Hook 18 June25 Sandy Guion Queenstown June Hook 29 April6 Sandy Guion Queenstown May Hook 13 April19 Sandy Guion Queenstown April Hook 16 August Sandy Cunard Queenstown 22 August Hook 29 May4 June 27 May2 June 2 May8 May Cunard Queenstown Sandy Hook Sandy Hook Sandy Hook 2,795 nautical miles (5,176 km) 2,830 nautical miles (5,240 km) 2,802 nautical miles (5,189 km) 2,871 nautical miles (5,317 km) 2,886 nautical miles (5,345 km) 2,844 nautical miles (5,267 km) 2,861 nautical miles (5,299 km) 2,801 nautical miles (5,187 km) 2,848 nautical miles (5,274 km) 2,854 nautical miles (5,286 km) 2,855 nautical miles (5,287 km) 2,788 nautical miles (5,163 km) 2,777 nautical miles (5,143 km) 2,778 nautical miles (5,145 km) 2,785 nautical 15.43 knots 7 d, 13 (28.58 h, 11 m km/h) 15.76 knots 7 d, 11 (29.19 h, 37 m km/h) 16.07 knots 7 d, 6 h, (29.76 20 m km/h) 16.67 knots 7 d, 4 h, (30.87 12 m km/h) 16.98 knots 7 d, 1 h, (31.45 58 m km/h) 17.05 knots 6 d, 23 (31.58 h, 48 m km/h) 18.56 knots 6 d, 10 (34.37 h, 10 m km/h) 18.73 knots 6 d, 5 h, (34.69 31 m km/h) 19.22 knots 6 d, 4 h, (35.60 12 m km/h) 19.56 knots 6 d, 1 h, (36.23 55 m km/h) 19.95 knots 5 d, 23 (36.95 h, 7 m km/h) 20.01 knots 5 d, 19 (37.06 h, 18 m km/h) 20.10 knots 5 d, 18 (37.23 h, 8 m km/h) 20.35 knots 5 d, 16 (37.69 h, 31 m km/h) 5 d, 15 20.48 knots

Germanic

1877

Alaska

1882

Alaska

1882

Alaska

1882

Alaska

1883

Oregon

1884

Etruria

1885

Umbria

1887

Etruria

1888

Cunard Queenstown

City of Paris 1889

Inman Queenstown

City of Paris 1889

22 August Sandy Inman Queenstown 28 August Hook 30 July5 August W.Star Queenstown Sandy Hook

Majestic

1891

Teutonic

1891

13 August Sandy W.Star Queenstown 19 August Hook

City of Paris 1892 20 July27 Inman Queenstown Sandy

July City of Paris 1892

Hook

13 October Sandy Inman Queenstown 18 October Hook 18 June23 Sandy Cunard Queenstown June Hook 12 August Sandy Cunard Queenstown 17 August Hook 26 August Sandy Cunard Queenstown 31 August Hook

Campania

1893

Campania

1894

Lucania

1894

miles (5,158 km) 2,782 nautical miles (5,152 km) 2,864 nautical miles (5,304 km) 2,776 nautical miles (5,141 km) 2,787 nautical miles (5,162 km)

h, 58 m 5 d, 14 h, 24 m 5 d, 15 h, 37 m 5 d, 9 h, 29 m 5 d, 8 h, 38 m

(37.93 km/h) 20.70 knots (38.34 km/h) 21.12 knots (39.11 km/h) 21.44 knots (39.71 km/h) 21.65 knots (40.10 km/h)

Lucania

23 September Sandy 1894 Cunard Queenstown 28 Hook September 1894 21 October Sandy Cunard Queenstown 26 October Hook Needles Sandy Hook Sandy Hook Sandy Hook Sandy Hook Sandy Hook

2,782 nautical 21.75 knots 5 d, 7 h, miles (5,152 (40.28 48 m km) km/h) 2,779 nautical miles (5,147 km) 3,120 nautical miles (5,780 km) 3,044 nautical miles (5,637 km) 3,050 nautical miles (5,650 km) 3,141 nautical miles (5,817 km) 21.81 knots 5 d, 7 h, (40.39 23 m km/h) 22.29 knots 5 d, 20 (41.28 h, 0 m km/h) 22.42 knots 5 d, 15 (41.52 h, 46 m km/h) 23.02 knots 5 d, 12 (42.63 h, 29 m km/h) 23.06 knots 5 d, 16 (42.71 h, 12 m km/h)

Lucania

Kaiser 30 March3 Wilhelm der 1898 NDL April Groe Deutschland 1900 6 July12 July

Hapag Eddystone

26 August Deutschland 1900 1 Hapag Cherbourg September Deutschland 1901 26 July1 August Hapag Cherbourg

10 September 1902 NDL Cherbourg 16 September 2 September Deutschland 1903 Hapag Cherbourg 8 September Kronprinz Wilhelm Lusitania 1907

3,047 nautical 23.09 knots 5 d, 11 miles (5,643 (42.76 h, 57 m km) km/h) 3,054 nautical 23.15 knots 5 d, 11 miles (5,656 (42.87 h, 54 m km) km/h) 2,780 nautical 23.99 knots 4 d, 19 miles (5,150 (44.43 h, 52 m km) km/h)

Sandy Hook

6 October Sandy Cunard Queenstown 10 October Hook

Lusitania

1908

Lusitania

1908

Lusitania

1909

Mauretania 1909

Bremen

1929

Europa

1930

Europa

1933

Rex

1933

Normandie 1935

Queen Mary 1936

Normandie 1937

Queen Mary 1938 United States

1952

2,889 nautical miles (5,350 km) 2,891 nautical 5 July10 Sandy Cunard Queenstown miles (5,354 July Hook km) 2,890 nautical 8 August Cunard Queenstown Ambrose miles (5,350 12 August km) 26 2,784 nautical September Cunard Queenstown Ambrose miles (5,156 30 km) September 3,164 nautical 17 July22 NDL Cherbourg Ambrose miles (5,860 July km) 3,157 nautical 20 March NDL Cherbourg Ambrose miles (5,847 25 March km) 3,149 nautical 27 June2 NDL Cherbourg Ambrose miles (5,832 July km) 3,181 nautical 11 August Italian Gibraltar Ambrose miles (5,891 16 August km) 2,971 nautical 30 May3 CGT Bishop Rock Ambrose miles (5,502 June km) 2,907 nautical 20 August C-WS Bishop Rock Ambrose miles (5,384 24 August km) 2,906 nautical 29 July2 CGT Bishop Rock Ambrose miles (5,382 August km) 2,907 nautical 4 August8 C-WS Bishop Rock Ambrose miles (5,384 August km) 2,906 nautical 11 July15 USL Bishop Rock Ambrose miles (5,382 July km) 17 May21 Sandy Cunard Queenstown May Hook

24.83 knots 4 d, 20 (45.99 h, 22 m km/h) 25.01 knots 4 d, 19 (46.32 h, 36 m km/h) 25.65 knots 4 d, 16 (47.50 h, 40 m km/h) 26.06 knots 4 d, 10 (48.26 h, 51 m km/h) 27.83 knots 4 d, 17 (51.54 h, 42 m km/h) 27.91 knots 4 d, 17 (51.69 h, 6 m km/h) 27.92 knots 4 d, 16 (51.71 h, 48 m km/h) 28.92 knots 4 d, 13 (53.56 h, 58 m km/h) 29.98 knots 4 d, 3 h, (55.52 2m km/h) 30.14 knots 4 d, 0 h, (55.82 27 m km/h) 30.58 knots 3 d, 23 (56.63 h, 2 m km/h) 30.99 knots 3 d, 21 (57.39 h, 48 m km/h) 34.51 knots 3 d, 12 (63.91 h, 12 m km/h)

[edit] Eastbound Record Breakers


Not to be confused with Blue Riband holders

Steamer

Year

Dates

Line

From New York New York New York

To

Distance

Days, hours, minutes 18/0/0 14 d, 15 h, 59 m 12 d, 16 h, 34 m 9 d, 21 h, 44 m 12 d, 7 h, 30 m 9 d, 12 h, 0 m 9 d, 10 h, 44 m 8 d, 22 h, 44 m 8 d, 12 h, 44 m 9 d, 20 h, 14 m 9 d, 17 h, 15 m 9 d, 10 h, 22 m 9 d, 3 h, 24 m 8 d, 23 h, 19 m

Speed 7.31 knots (13.54 km/h) 9.14 knots (16.93 km/h) 10.17 knots (18.83 km/h) 10.98 knots (20.33 km/h) 10.99 knots (20.35 km/h) 11.11 knots (20.58 km/h) 11.18 knots (20.71 km/h) 11.80 knots (21.85 km/h) 12.38 knots (22.93 km/h) 13.03 knots (24.13 km/h) 13.06 knots (24.19 km/h) 13.46 knots (24.93 km/h) 13.89 knots (25.72 km/h) 14.15 knots (26.21

Sirius Great Western Great Western Britannia Great Western Columbia

1 May19 1838 May 1838 7 May22 May 25 June8 July

B&A

GW

1838

GW

1841

4 August Cunard Halifax 14 August 28 April11 GW May New York

1842

1843

4 April14 Cunard Halifax April 18 May27 Cunard Halifax May 18 July27 Cunard Halifax July 19 July28 Cunard Halifax July 10 May20 New Collins May York 7 February New Collins 17 February York 2 April12 Sandy Cunard April Hook 14 May23 Sandy Cunard May Hook 6 August Sandy Cunard 15 August Hook

Hibernia

1843

Hibernia

1843

Canada

1849

Pacific

1851

Arctic

1852

Persia

1856

Persia Persia

1856 1856

3,159 nautical Falmouth miles (5,850 km) 3,218 nautical Avonmouth miles (5,960 km) 3,099 nautical Avonmouth miles (5,739 km) 2,610 nautical Liverpool miles (4,830 km) 3,248 nautical Liverpool miles (6,015 km) 2,534 nautical Liverpool miles (4,693 km) 2,534 nautical Liverpool miles (4,693 km) 2,534 nautical Liverpool miles (4,693 km) 2,534 nautical Liverpool miles (4,693 km) 3,078 nautical Liverpool miles (5,700 km) 3,051 nautical Liverpool miles (5,650 km) 3,048 nautical Liverpool miles (5,645 km) 3,048 nautical Liverpool miles (5,645 km) 3,046 nautical Liverpool miles (5,641

km) Scotia 16 December New 1863 Cunard 24 York December 4 December Sandy 1869 Inman 12 Hook December 11 January Sandy 1873 W.Star 19 January Hook 1875 2 October Sandy Inman 10 October Hook 5 February Sandy W.Star 13 February Hook

km/h)

2,800 nautical 14.16 knots 8 d, 5 h, Queenstown miles (5,200 (26.22 42 m km) km/h) 2,780 nautical 14.74 knots 7 d, 20 Queenstown miles (5,150 (27.30 h, 33 m km) km/h) 2,840 nautical Queenstown miles (5,260 km) 2,820 nautical Queenstown miles (5,220 km) 2,894 nautical Queenstown miles (5,360 km) 15.09 knots 7 d, 20 (27.95 h, 9 m km/h) 15.37 knots 7 d, 15 (28.47 h, 28 m km/h) 15.79 knots 7 d, 15 (29.24 h, 17 m km/h)

City of Brussels

Baltic City of Berlin Germanic

1876

Britannic

16 December Sandy 1876 W.Star 24 Hook December 1879 22 July29 Sandy Guion July Hook 30 May6 June Guion Sandy Hook

2,892 nautical 15.94 knots 7 d, 12 Queenstown miles (5,356 (29.52 h, 41 m km) km/h) 2,810 nautical Queenstown miles (5,200 km) 2,791 nautical Queenstown miles (5,169 km) 15.96 knots 7 d, 8 h, (29.56 11 m km/h) 16.81 knots 6 d, 22 (31.13 h, 0 m km/h)

Arizona

Alaska

1882

Alaska

12 September Sandy 1882 Guion 19 Hook September 1884 29 March5 Sandy Guion April Hook 26 April3 Sandy Guion May Hook 30 July6 August Cunard Sandy Hook

2,781 nautical 17.10 knots 6 d, 18 Queenstown miles (5,150 (31.67 h, 37 m km) km/h) 2,916 nautical Queenstown miles (5,400 km) 2,916 nautical Queenstown miles (5,400 km) 2,853 nautical Queenstown miles (5,284 km) 2,853 nautical Queenstown miles (5,284 km) 17.12 knots 7 d, 2 h, (31.71 18 m km/h) 18.09 knots 6 d, 16 (33.50 h, 57 m km/h) 18.18 knots 6 d, 12 (33.67 h, 54 m km/h) 18.39 knots 6 d, 11 (34.06 h, 9 m km/h)

Oregon

Oregon

1884

Oregon

1884

Oregon

3 Sandy 1884 September Cunard Hook 10

September Etruria 1885 1 August7 Sandy Cunard August Hook 7 July14 July Cunard Sandy Hook 2,822 nautical Queenstown miles (5,226 km) 2,981 nautical Queenstown miles (5,521 km) 2,894 nautical Queenstown miles (5,360 km) 2,814 nautical Queenstown miles (5,212 km) 2,928 nautical Queenstown miles (5,423 km) 2,911 nautical Queenstown miles (5,391 km) 2,911 nautical Queenstown miles (5,391 km) 2,897 nautical Queenstown miles (5,365 km) Needles 18.44 knots 6 d, 9 h, (34.15 0m km/h) 19.36 knots 6 d, 4 h, (35.85 50 m km/h) 20.03 knots 6 d, 0 h, (37.10 29 m km/h) 20.11 knots 5 d, 19 (37.24 h, 57 m km/h) 21.30 knots 5 d, 17 (39.45 h, 27 m km/h) 21.81 knots 3 d, 13 (40.39 h, 28 m km/h) 21.90 knots 5 d, 12 (40.56 h, 59 m km/h) 22.00 knots 5 d, 11 (40.74 h, 40 m km/h)

Etruria

1888

City of Paris 1889

15 May22 Sandy Inman May Hook

City of New 17 August Sandy 1892 Inman York 23 August Hook Campania 1893 6 May12 May 6 May12 May 2 June8 June Cunard Sandy Hook Sandy Hook Sandy Hook

Lucania

1894

Cunard

Lucania

1894

Cunard

Lucania

1895

18 May24 Sandy Cunard May Hook Sandy Hook

23 Kaiser November Wilhelm der 1897 NDL 29 Groe November Deutschland 1900

3,065 nautical 22.33 knots 5 d, 17 miles (5,676 (41.36 h, 23 m km) km/h) 3,085 nautical 22.84 knots 5 d, 15 miles (5,713 (42.30 h, 5 m km) km/h) 2,981 nautical 23.36 knots 5 d, 7 h, miles (5,521 (43.26 38 m km) km/h) 3,083 nautical miles (5,710 km) 3,082 nautical miles (5,708 km) 3,112 nautical miles (5,763 23.38 knots 5 d, 11 (43.30 h, 51 m km/h) 23.51 knots 5 d, 11 (43.54 h, 5 m km/h) 5 d, 11 23.58 knots h, 58 m (43.67

18 July24 Sandy Hapag July Hook

Eddystone

4 September Sandy Deutschland 1900 Hapag 10 Hook September Deutschland 1901 13 June19 Sandy Hapag June Hook 10 July17 Sandy Hapag July Hook 14 June20 NDL June Sandy Hook

Eddystone

Eddystone

Deutschland 1901 Kaiser Wilhelm II 1904

Eddystone Eddystone

Lusitania

1907

19 October Sandy Cunard 24 October Hook

Queenstown

30 Beady Mauretania 1907 November Cunard Hook 5 December Mauretania 1908 25 January Sandy Cunard 30 January Hook 7 March12 Sandy Cunard March Hook

Queenstown

Queenstown

Mauretania 1908

Queenstown

Mauretania 1909

3 February Cunard Ambrose Queenstown, 8 February 17 March Cunard Ambrose Queenstown 22 March 5 May10 May Cunard Ambrose Queenstown

Mauretania 1909

Mauretania 1909

Mauretania 1909

16 June21 Cunard Ambrose Queenstown June 20 August Cunard Ambrose Cherbourg 25 August 27 July1 August NDL Ambrose Eddystone

Mauretania 1924

Bremen

1929

Bremen

1933

10 June15 NDL June 7 June11 June CGT

Ambrose Cherbourg

Normandie 1935

Ambrose Bishop Rock

Queen Mary 1936

26 August C-WS Ambrose Bishop Rock 30 August 18 March CGT 22 March Ambrose Bishop Rock Ambrose Bishop Rock

Normandie 1937

Normandie 1937 4 August8 CGT

km) 2,807 nautical miles (5,199 km) 2,807 nautical miles (5,199 km) 2,932 nautical miles (5,430 km) 2,932 nautical miles (5,430 km) 2,930 nautical miles (5,430 km) 2,934 nautical miles (5,434 km) 2,934 nautical miles (5,434 km) 2,933 nautical miles (5,432 km) 3,198 nautical miles (5,923 km) 3,084 nautical miles (5,712 km) 3,199 nautical miles (5,925 km) 3,015 nautical miles (5,584 km) 2,939 nautical miles (5,443 km) 2,967 nautical miles (5,495 km) 2,936 nautical

4 d, 22 h, 53 m 4 d, 22 h, 33 m 5 d, 2 h, 41 m 5 d, 0 h, 5m 4 d, 20 h, 27 m 4 d, 18 h, 35 m 4 d, 18 h, 11 m 4 d, 17 h, 21 m 5 d, 1 h, 49 m 4 d, 14 h, 30 m 4 d, 16 h, 15 m 4 d, 3 h, 25 m 3 d, 23 h, 57 m 4 d, 0 h, 6m 3 d, 22

km/h) 23.61 knots (43.73 km/h) 23.69 knots (43.87 km/h) 23.90 knots (44.26 km/h) 24.42 knots (45.23 km/h) 25.16 knots (46.60 km/h) 25.61 knots (47.43 km/h) 25.70 knots (47.60 km/h) 25.88 knots (47.93 km/h) 26.25 knots (48.62 km/h) 27.91 knots (51.69 km/h) 28.51 knots (52.80 km/h) 30.31 knots (56.13 km/h) 30.63 knots (56.73 km/h) 30.99 knots (57.39 km/h) 31.20 knots

miles (5,437 km) 2,938 nautical 10 August Queen Mary 1938 C-WS Ambrose Bishop Rock miles (5,441 14 August km) 2,942 nautical United 3 July7 1952 USL Ambrose Bishop Rock miles (5,449 States July km) August

h, 7 m 3 d, 20 h, 42 m 3 d, 10 h, 40 m

(57.78 km/h) 31.69 knots (58.69 km/h) 35.59 knots (65.91 km/h)

[edit] Post 1969 Hales Trophy Winners


Not to be confused with Blue Riband holders Steamer Year Dates Line From To Distance Days, hours, minutes Speed

Hoverspeed 23 Aegean Great 1990 June Speedlines Britain

36.6 knots 3 d, 7 h, (67.8 54 m km/h) 3,125 nautical 38.9 knots Tarifa, 3 d, 9 h, Catalonia 1998 9 June Buquebus Manhattan miles (5,788 (72.0 Spain 40 m km) km/h) Cat-Link V 41.3 knots 20 2 d, 20 (or today 1998 Fjord Line (76.5 July h, 9 m Fjord Cat) km/h)

[edit] References