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Designation: D 1165 80 (Reapproved 1994)e1

Standard Nomenclature of

Domestic Hardwoods and Softwoods1


This standard is issued under the xed designation D 1165; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

e1 NOTEKeywords were added editorially in March 1994.

1. Scope 1.1 INTRODUCTION Species listed in this standard


1 This nomenclature is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D07 on Wood and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D07.91 on Technical Service. Current edition approved Oct. 6, 1980. Published December 1980. Originally published as D1165 51 T. Last previous edition D1165 80.

are grouped by Softwood, Hardwood, or Commercial Species Group categories. The Commercial Species Group category is composed of different species or genera grouped for marketing convenience and identied with a single commercial name. Commercial names represent commercial practice in the United States and Canada.

Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

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HARDWOODS Commercial Names2 Alder: Red Alder Ash: Black Ash4 Oregon Ash Pumpkin Ash Aspen: Aspen Poplar (North)* Balsam Poplar* Largetooth Aspen* Beech Box Elder Butternut Cherry Chestnut Cottonwood: Black Cottonwood* Cucumber Elder: See Box Elder Gum5 Holly Ironwood Madrone Maple: Oregon Maple Mulberry Myrtle: See Oregon Myrtle Oregon Myrtle Osage Orange Persimmon Popple: See Aspen Sassafras Silverbell Sycamore Tanoak Walnut Yellow Poplar Official Common Tree Names3 red alder black ash Oregon ash pumpkin ash quaking aspen (trembling aspen) balsam poplar (balsam) bigtooth aspen (largetooth aspen) American beech boxelder butternut black cherry American chestnut black cottonwood cucumbertree Botanical Names

Alnus rubra Fraxinus nigra F. latifolia F. profunda Populus tremuloides P. balsamifera P. grandidentata Fagus grandifolia Acer negundo Juglans cinerea Prunus serotina Castanea dentata Populus trichocarpa Magnolia acuminata

sweetgum American holly eastern hophornbeam Pacic madrone bigleaf maple red mulberry California-laurel Osage-orange common persimmon sassafras Carolina silverbell American sycamore tanoak black walnut yellow poplar

Liquidambar styraciua Ilex opaca Ostrya virginiana Arbutus menziesii Acer macrophyllum Morus rubra Umbellularia californica Maclura pomifera Diospyros virginiana Sassafras albidum Halesia carolina Platanus occidentalis Lithocarpus densiorus Juglans nigra Liriodendron tulipifera

2 The commercial names for lumber represent commercial practice in the United States and Canada. A dagger () indicates names recognized under the American Lumber Standard. The designation (north) identies Canadian lumber exported to the United States. An asterisk (*) indicates a commercial name applied only when the included species are harvested in Canada. 3 The official common names conform to the Check List of Native and Naturalized Trees of the United States (including Alaska), Agriculture Handbook No. 41, 1953, and are sometimes used as names for lumber. In addition to the official common name for a species, the Check List also lists other names by which the species and the lumber produced from it are sometimes designated. Names unique to Canada are shown in parentheses. 4 Black ash is known commercially in some consuming centers as brown ash, and is also sometimes designated as such in specications. 5 Usually designated either as red gum or as sap gum, as the case may be, or as gum or sweetgum if unselected for color.

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SOFTWOODS Commercial Names2 Cedar: Alaska Cedar Eastern White Cedar* Incense Cedar Northern White Cedar Pacic Coast Yellow Cedar (North)* Port Orford Cedar Southern White Cedar Western Red Cedar Western Red Cedar (North)* Douglas- Fir: Douglas Fir Douglas Fir (South) Fir Alpine Fir (North)* Amabilis Fir (North)* Balsam Fir Balsam Fir (North)* Grand Fir (North)* Noble Fir Subalpine Fir Hemlock: Eastern Hemlock Eastern Hemlock (North)* Mountain Hemlock Western Hemlock Western Hemlock (North)* Larch: Western Larch Western Larch (North)* Pine: Eastern White Pine Eastern White Pine (North)* Idaho White Pine Jack Pine Jack Pine (North)* Lodgepole Pine Lodgepole Pine (North)* Northern White Pine Norway Pine Ponderosa Pine* Red Pine (North)* Sugar Pine Western White Pine* Redwood: California Redwood Redwood Spruce: Black Spruce (North)* Coast Sitka Spruce* Engelmann Spruce Engelmann Spruce (North)* Red Spruce (North)* Sitka Spruce Western White Spruce* White Spruce (North)* Tamarack: Tamarack Tamarack (North)* Yew: Pacic Yew Official Common Tree Names3 Alaska-cedar northern white-cedar incense-cedar northern white-cedar Alaska-cedar (Pacic Coast yellow cedar) Port-Orford-cedar Atlantic white-cedar western redcedar western redcedar Douglas-r Douglas-r6 subalpine r (alpine r) Pacic silver r (amabilis r) balsam r balsam r grand r noble r subalpine r eastern hemlock eastern hemlock mountain hemlock western hemlock western hemlock western larch western larch eastern white pine eastern white pine western white pine jack pine jack pine lodgepole pine lodgepole pine eastern white pine red pine ponderosa pine red pine sugar pine western white pine redwood redwood black spruce Sitka spruce Engelmann spruce Engelmann spruce red spruce Sitka spruce white spruce white spruce tamarackLarix laricina tamarack Pacic yew Botanical Names

Chamaecyparis nootkatensis Thuja occidentalis Libocedrus decurrens Thuja occidentalis Chamaecyparis nootkatensis C. lawsoniana C. thyoides Thuja plicata T. plicata Pseudotsuga menziesii P. menziesii Abies lasiocarpa A. amabilis A. balsamea A. balsamea A. grandis A. procera A. lasiocarpa Tsuga canadensis T. canadensis T. mertensiana T. heterophylla T. heterophylla Larix occidentalis L. occidentalis Pinus strobus P. strobus P. monticola P. banksiana P. banksiana Pinus contorta P. contorta P. strobus P. resinosa P. ponderosa P. resinosa P. lambertiana P. monticola Sequoia sempervirens S. sempervirens Picea mariana P. sitchensis P. engelmannii P. engelmannii P. rubens P. sitchensis P. glauca P. glauca

L. laricina Taxus brevifolia

Douglas-r from Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah.

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COMMERCIAL SPECIES GROUPS Commercial Names2 Ash: White Ash blue ash green ash white ash bigtooth aspen quaking aspen bigtooth aspen (largetooth aspen) quaking aspen (trembling aspen) balsam poplar (balsam) American basswood white basswood gray birch paper birch river birch sweet birch yellow birch Ohio buckeye yellow buckeye eastern redcedar southern redcedar Alaska-cedar incense-cedar Port-Orford-cedar western redcedar Alaska-cedar (Pacic Coast yellow cedar) western redcedar Douglas-r grand r Pacic silver r (amabilis r) western hemlock western larch Sitka spruce black cottonwood eastern cottonwood plains cottonwood swamp cottonwood balsam poplar baldcypress pond cypress owering dogwood Pacic dogwood Douglas-r10 western larch Douglas-r western larch eastern hemlock tamarack eastern hemlock tamarack balsam r black spruce red spruce white spruce Official Common Tree Names3 Botanical Names

Fraxinus quadrangulata F. pennsylvanica F. americana Populus grandidentata P. tremuloides Populus grandidentata P. tremuloides P. balsamifera Tilia americana T. heterophylla Betula populifolia B. papyrifera B. nigra B. lenta B. alleghaniensis Aesculus glabra A. octandra Juniperus virginiana J. silicicola Chamaecyparis nootkatensis Libocedrus decurrens Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Thuja plicata Chamaecyparis nootkatensis Thuja plicata Pseudotsuga menziesii Abies grandis A. amabilis Tsuga heterophylla Larix occidentalis Picea sitchensis Populus trichocarpa P. deltoides P. sargentii P. heterophylla P. balsamifera Taxodium distichum T. distichumvariant nutans Cornus orida C. nuttalli Pseudotsuga menziesii Larix occidentalis Pseudotsuga menziesii Larix occidentalis Tsuga canadensis Larix laricina Tsuga canadensis Larix laricina Abies balsamea Picea mariana P. rubens P. glauca

Aspen: Aspen Northern Aspen*

Basswood7 Birch8

Buckeye Cedar: Eastern Red Cedar Western Cedar

Western Cedars (North)* Coast Species*

Cottonwood: Cottonwood

Cypress9 Dogwood Douglas Fir-Larch Douglas Fir-Larch (North)* Eastern Hemlock-Tamarack Eastern Hemlock-Tamarack (North)* Eastern Spruce-Balsam r

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COMMERCIAL SPECIES GROUPS Commercial Names2 Eastern Woods Official Common Tree Names3 bigtooth aspen quaking aspen balsam r Carolina hemlock eastern hemlock eastern white pine jack pine red pine black spruce red spruce white spruce tamarack cedar elm rock elm September elm winged elm American elm slippery elm subalpine r Engelmann spruce lodgepole pine Engelmann spruce balsam r fraser r California red r grand r noble r Pacic silver r subalpine r white r hackberry sugarberry California red r grand r noble r Pacic silver r white r western hemlock grand r Pacic silver r (amabilis r) western hemlock Carolina hemlock eastern hemlock mockernut hickory pignut hickory shagbark hickory shellbark hickory alligator juniper Rocky Mountain juniper Utah juniper western juniper black locust honeylocust cucumbertree southern magnolia sweetbay black maple sugar maple red maple silver maple Botanical Names

Populus grandidentata P. tremuloides Abies balsamea Tsuga caroliniana T. canadensis Pinus strobus P. banksiana P. resinata Picea mariana P. rubens P. glauca Larix laricina Ulmus crassifolia U. thomasii U. serotina U. alata U. americana U. rubra Abies lasiocarpa Picea engelmannii Pinus contorta Picea engelmannii Abies balsamea A. fraseri A. magnica A. grandis A. procera A. amabilis A. lasiocarpa A. concolor Celtis occidentalis C. laevigata Abies magnica A. grandis A. procera A. amabilis A. concolor Tsuga heterophylla Abies grandis A. amabilis Tsuga heterophylla T. caroliniana T. canadensis Carya tomentosa C. glabra C. ovata C. laciniosa Juniperus deppeana J. scopulorum J. osteosperma J. occidentalis Robinia pseudoacacia Gleditsia triacanthos Magnolia acuminata M. grandiora M. virginiana Acer nigrum A. saccharum A. rubrum A. saccharinum

Elm: Rock Elm

Soft Elm11 Engelmann spruce-alpine Fir Engelmann spruce-lodgepole Pine Fir: Balsam Fir12 White r

Hackberry Hem-Fir

Hem-Fir (North)*

Hemlock: Eastern Hemlock Hickory

Juniper: Western Juniper

Locust Magnolia

Maple: Hard Maple13 Soft Maple


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COMMERCIAL SPECIES GROUPS Commercial Names2 Mixed Species Official Common Tree Names3 Alaska-cedar incense-cedar Port-Orford-cedar western redcedar Douglas-r10 California red r grand r noble r Pacic silver r subalpine r white r mountain hemlock western hemlock western larch blue spruce Engelmann spruce Sitka spruce lodgepole pine ponderosa pine sugar pine western white pine California red r grand r noble r Pacic silver r white r mountain hemlock western hemlock Alaska-cedar (Pacic Coast yellow cedar) western redcedar Douglas-r balsam r grand r Pacic silver r (amabilis r) subalpine r (alpine r) eastern hemlock western hemlock eastern white pine jack pine lodgepole pine ponderosa pine red pine western white pine black spruce red spruce Sitka spruce white spruce tamarack black oak blackjack oak California black oak cherrybark oak laurel oak northern pin oak northern red oak Nuttall oak pin oak scarlet oak Shumard oak southern red oak turkey oak water oak willow oak Botanical Names

Mountain Hemlock-Hem Fir

Northern Species*

Chamaecyparis nootkatensis Libocedrus decurrens Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Thuja plicata Pseudotsuga menziesii Abies magnica A. grandis A. procera A. amabilis A. lasiocarpa A. concolor Tsuga mertensiana T. heterophylla Larix occidentalis Icea pungens P. engelmannii P. sitchensis Pinus contorta P. ponderosa P. lambertiana P. monticola Abies magnica A. grandis A. procera A. amabilis A. concolor Tsuga mertensiana T. heterophylla Chamaecyparis nootkatensis Thuja plicata Pseudotsuga menziesii Abies balsamea A. grandis A. amabilis A. lasiocarpa Tsuga canadensis T. heterophylla Pinus strobus P. banksiana P. contorta P. ponderosa P. resinosa P. monticola Picea mariana P. rubens P. sitchensis P. glauca Larix laricina Quercus velutina Q. marylandica Q. kelloggii Q. falcatavariant pagodaefolia Q. laurifolia Q. ellipsoidalis Q. rubra Q. nuttallii Q. palustris Q. coccinea Q. shumardii Quercus falcata Q. laevis Q. nigra Q. phellos

Oak: Red Oak

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COMMERCIAL SPECIES GROUPS Commercial Names2 White Oak Official Common Tree Names3 Arizona white oak blue oak bur oak California white oak chestnut oak chinkapin oak Emory oak Gambel oak live oak Mexican blue oak Oregon white oak overcup oak post oak swamp chestnut oak swamp white oak white oak bitternut hickory nutmeg hickory water hickory pecan longleaf pine slash pine jack pine red pine pitch pine ponderosa pine sugar pine lodgepole pine ponderosa pine loblolly pine longleaf pine pitch pine pond pine sand pine shortleaf pine slash pine table-mountain pine Virginia pine loblolly pine longleaf pine shortleaf pine slash pine pitch pine pond pine Virginia pine black spruce red spruce white spruce blue spruce Engelmann spruce balsam r subalpine r (alpine r) jack pine lodgepole pine black spruce Engelmann spruce red spruce white spruce black tupelo Ogeechee tupelo water tupelo Botanical Names

Pecan

Q. arizonica Q. douglasii Q. macrocarpa Q. lobata Q. prinus Q. muehlenbergii Q. emoryi Q. gambelii Q. virginiana Q. oblongifolia Q. garryana Q. lyrata Q. stellata Q. michauxii Q. bicolor Q. alba Carya cordiformis C. myristicaeformis C. aquatica C. illinoensis Pinus palustris P. elliottii Pinus banksiana P. resinosa P. rigida P. ponderosa P. lambertiana P. contorta P. P. P. P. P. P. P. P. P. P. P. P. P. P. P. P. P. ponderosa taeda palustris rigida serotina clausa echinata elliottii pungens virginiana taeda palustris echinata elliottii rigida serotina virginiana

Pine: Longleaf Pine

Northern Pine

Ponderosa Pine-Sugar Pine Ponderosa Pine-Lodgepole Pine

Southern Pine

Southern Pine (Minor)

Spruce: Eastern Spruce

Picea mariana P. rubens P. glauca P. pungens P. engelmannii Abies balsamea A. lasiocarpa Pinus banksiana P. contorta Picea mariana P. engelmannii P. rubens P. glauca Nyssa sylvatica N. ogeechee N. aquatica

Engelmann Spruce Spruce-Pine-Fir*

Tupelo

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COMMERCIAL SPECIES GROUPS Commercial Names2 Western Woods Official Common Tree Names3 incense-cedar western redcedar Douglas-r California red r grand r noble r Pacic silver r subalpine r white r mountain hemlock western hemlock western larch lodgepole pine ponderosa pine sugar pine western white pine Engelmann spruce California red r grand r noble r Pacic silver r subalpine r white r mountain hemlock western hemlock lodgepole pine ponderosa pine sugar pine western white pine Engelmann spruce black willow peachleaf willow Botanical Names

White Woods

Willow

Libocedrus decurrens Thuja plicata Pseudotsuga menziesii Abies magnica A. grandis A. procera A. amabilis A. lasiocarpa A. concolor Tsuga mertensiana T. heterophylla Larix occidentalis Pinus contorta P. ponderosa P. lambertiana P. monticola Picea engelmannii Abies magnica A. grandis A. procera A. amabilis A. lasiocarpa A. concolor Tsuga mertensiana T. heterophylla Pinus contorta P. ponderosa P. lambertiana P. monticola Picea engelmannii Salix nigra S. amygdaloides

2. Keywords 2.1 commercial species; domestic hardwoods; domestic


7 For some commercial uses where a white appearance is a requirement, the sapwood of American basswood (Tilia americana) is specied under the designation white basswood. This commercial use designation should not be confused with the species (Tilia heterophylla) having the common name white basswood. 8 Usually designated either as red birch or as sap (white) birch, as the case may be, or as birch if unselected for color.

softwoods; tree
9 Cypress includes types designated as red cypress, white cypress, and yellow cypress. Red cypress is frequently classied and sold separately from the other types. 10 Douglas-r from anywhere in the United States except Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. 11 Soft elm lumber is sometimes designated as white elm. 12 Balsam r lumber is sometimes designated either as eastern r or as balsam. 13 Hard maple or soft maple sometimes is specied to be white; this can be interpreted as being a requirement for sapwood.

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APPENDIX
(Nonmandatory Information) X1. STANDARD NOMENCLATURE OF FOREIGN SPECIES AND TRADE GROUPS OF WOODS COMMONLY USED IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA14

Commercial Terminology14 HARDWOODS Abiurana Andiroba Angelique Apamate Apitong Avodire Balsa Banak Capirona Cativo Cedro (see Spanish-cedar) Cedar maclo Courbaril Crabwood (see Andiroba) Cuangare Gola Gommier Goncalo alves Grapia Greenheart Grumixava Guatambu Gurjun Ilomba Jarrah Jelutong Kalunti Kapur Karri Keladan Keruing Khaya Kokrodua Lapacho Lauan:18 Dark red commercial subgroup: Red lauan Tangile Light red commercial subgroup: Almon

Botanical Name15

Commercial Terminology HARDWOODS

Botanical Name15

Bumelia obtusifolia Bagtikan Carapa guianensis (South America) MayapisLaurel Dicorynia guianensis White lauanLignumvitae Tabebuia rosea Laurel Dipterocarpus spp. (Philippines) Lignumvitae Turraeanthus africanus Limba Ochroma pyramidale Lupuna Virola spp. Mahogany Calycophyllum spruceanum Mengkulang Prioria copaifera Meranti Mersawa Carapaspp. (Central America) Hymenaea courbaril Dialyanthera spp. Tetraberlinia tubmaniana Dacryodes excelsa Astronium graveolens Apuleia leiocarpa Octotea rodiaei Micropholis gardnerianum Balfourodendron riedelianum Dipterocarpus spp. (India and Burma) Pycnanthus angolensis Eucalyptus marginata Dyera costulata Shorea kalunti (Philippines) Dryobalanops spp. Eucalyptus diversicolor Dryobalanops oblongifolia (Malaysia) Dipterocarpus spp. (Indonesia and Malaysia) Khaya spp. Pericopsis elata Tabebuia spp. (lapacho group)
Parana-pine Pine, Caribbean Pine, ocote

Parashorea plicata Shorea squamataP Pentacme contorta Cordia spp. (alliodora group) Guaiacum sanctum Terminalia superba Ceiba samauma Swietenia macrophylla Tarrietia spp. 16(Malaysia) Shorea spp. (Malaysia and Indonesia) Anisoptera spp. (Malaysia and Indonesia) Triplochiton scleroxylon Aucoumea klaineana Anisoptera spp. (Philippines) Paratecoma peroba Cybistax donnell smithii Gonystylus spp. Dalbergia nigra D. latifolia Campnosperma panamensis Brosimum utile Calophyllumbrasiliensis Entandrophragma cylindricum Shorea spp. [Borneo (Kalimantan)] Cedrela spp. Tectona grandis Tarrietia spp.16(Indonesia)

Obeche Okoume Palosapis Pau marm (see guatambu) Peroba de campos Philippine-mahogany (see lauan) Primavera Ramin Rosewood, Brazilian Rosewood, Indian Sajo Sande Santa Maria Sapele Seraya Spanish-cedar Teak Teraling Virola17(see cuangare) Walnut, European Walnut, topical

Juglans regia Juglans spp. (Central and South America)


SOFTWOODS Araucaria angustifolia Pinus caribaea P. oocarpa

Shorea negrosensis S. polysperma Shorea almon

14 Principal reference for nomenclature is FPL 125, Properties of Imported Tropical Woods, Forest Service, USDA. Many species have local or vernacular names, particularly if growing over a wide distribution. The common name used is offered as in most common use in the general area of production or trade. 15 Locations in parentheses indicate the general geographic source corresponding to the indicated species or species combination. Spp. indicates a trade group. More than one species are often represented in wood furnished under this commercial terminology. 16 The generic name Heritiera is sometimes used in place of the Tarrietia. The anatomical and lumber characteristic of Tarrietia and Heritiera are quite different, however. 17 The vernacular name virola should not be confused with the botanical name of banak which has the same spelling. 18 A commercial grouping of Shorea spp. Parashorea plicata, and Pentacme contorta from the Philippines.

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