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:
Statistics

:
MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY
: )( The Arithmetic Mean
:( The Weighted Mean )
:(The Median)
:(The Mode)
) ( Skewness
:( Geometric Mean )
: )(Harmonic Mean
:(PercentilesQuartiles, Deciles)
:MEASURES OF DISPERSION
:( Range and Midrange )
:(Interquartile Range)
:(Absolute Mean Deviation)
:(Variance and Standard Deviation)

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...
:

pdfMachine
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.





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:Statistics

.
statistics status
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: :Data

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pdfMachine
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( : Ratio Variables )
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pdfMachine
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pdfMachine
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Frequency Distribution

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)( :
)(

)(
6
59 - 50
6
A
8
69 - 60
8
B
16
79 - 70
16
C
22
89 - 80
22
D
8
99 - 90
8
E

60
60


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:
(.
( R.
( M
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M

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:
:
104 154 70 158 160 142 130 112 138 68 66 184 74 120 86 62 86 82
166 98 68 118 92 148 138 78 120 138 166 156 148 102 122 148 136
184 162 154 142 116 166 188 132 156 96 68 100 136 130 128 190
188 170 102 118 168 82 80 76 196 84 110 98 108 120 124 140 176
114 108 92 76 120 194 156 110 132 146 150 128 136 102 174 102
. 92 152 138 128 122 126 100 172 152 198 76 188 96 140 160 190
.
:
:
( :
86 86 84 82 82 80 78 76 76 76 74 70 68 68 68 66 62
108 108 104 102 102 102 102 100 100 98 98 96 96 92 92 92
122 122 120 120 120 120 118 118 116 114 112 110 110
138 136 136 136 132 132 130 130 128 128 128 126 124
152 152 150 148 148 148 146 142 142 140 140 138 138 138
168 166 166 166 162 160 160 158 156 156 156 154 154
198 196 194 190 190 188 188 188 184 184 176 174 172 170
( R 62
198:
R = 198 62 = 136
(: M
M = 1 + 3.3 [log (100)] = 1 +( 3.3 x 2 )= 1+6.6= 7.6 8
(: I

I = R / M = 136 / 8 = 17
( 62
17 62 + 17 = 79
79 + 17 = 96 .....
:

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62
79
96
113
130
147
164
181

11
9
16
15
16
15
8
10
100

: : Relative Frequency Table


.
.
.
: : Percentage Frequency Table
.

. .
:

62
79
96
113
130
147
164
181

11
9
16
15
16
15
8
10
100


0.11
0.09
0.16
0.15
0.16
0.15
0.08
0.10
1.00

%11
%9
%16
%15
%16
%15
%8
%10
%100

pdfMachine
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: Class Mark ) ( Xi
U L.
:
Xi = ( L + U ) / 2

79 62:
Xi = ( 62 + 79 ) / 2 = 141 / 2 = 70.5
:

62
79
96
113
130
147
164
181

70.5
87.5
104.5
121.5
138.5
155.5
172.5
189.5

11
9
16
15
16
15
8
10
100

0.11
0.09
0.16
0.15
0.16
0.15
0.08
0.10
1.00

%11
%9
%16
%15
%16
%15
%8
%10
%100

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( 0.5 )
( 0.5 ).
0.05
0.05.
: 50 50
97 5 10
:

pdfMachine
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: :
Cumulative Frequency "Less Than"
. Cumulative Frequency "Or More"
96
9 + 11 = 20 113
9 + 11 + 16 = 36 ......
62 100
79 100 11 = 89
....
:

0
) (
< 62
11
) (
< 79
20
) (
< 96
36
) < 113(
51
) < 130(
67
) < 147(
82
) < 164(
90
) < 181(
100
) < 198(

100
) > 62(
89
) > 79(
80
) > 96(
64
) > 113(
49
) > 130(
33
) > 147(
18
) > 164(
10
) > 181(
0
) > 198(

:


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:
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(.
(.
(.
(.
(.

pdfMachine
!Is a pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease
Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across
nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine.
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: :Simple Bar Charts


.Multiple Bar Charts


: 60
:

60

22

C
16

:
.
1 .

.
1
.
:

60
:

A
B
C
D
E

6
8
16
22
8
60

8
10
20
16
6
60
:


1


....

.

pdfMachine
!Is a pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease
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: :


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.
:
7:

50
60
70
80
90
100
110

8
12
14
24
8
8
6
80

:



.
:

: .
.

50

90 - 99
8

80 - 89
16

70 - 79
18

50 - 69
8

: 50 69:
10 8

= 50 69 = 4
20

pdfMachine
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:
90 - 99
8
8

80 - 89
16
16

70 - 79
18
18

50 - 69
8
4

: :
.
) (

) ( .
.
:

7
:

55
50
65
60
75
70
85
80
95
90
105
100
115
110

8
12
14
24
8
8
6
80

pdfMachine
!Is a pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease
Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across
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: :

::
( :


.
: 50
:

pdfMachine
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( :
:
: 50
:

: :Pie Charts

:
) (

= 360
)(

:.

16

10

.
::
10

( = 109 = 360
33
16

( = 175 = 360
33

( = 54 = 360
33

( = 22 = 360
33

(109 + 175 + 54 + 22 = 360 ) 360

pdfMachine
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.

)(


) )(
(
.

MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY




) (
.

: )( :The Arithmetic Mean





) (
). (X bar
.
)
( )
(.

pdfMachine
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( : n
.
* n
:

: 8 351210

) ( X bar

( : k

(
)
() :
)............ (

: 5862
:

3,2,4,1

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: :

: )(The Weighted Mean





:
)........... (

. ()
.


:

:

pdfMachine
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:
:
:
.

: 8351210 7.6 :
8 7.6 = 0.4 , 3 7.6 = - 4.6 , 5 7.6 = - 2.6 , 12 7.6 = 4.4
10 7.6 = 2.4
= -2.6 - 4.6 + 0.4 + 4.4 + 2.4 = - 7.2 + 7.2 = 0
: X a

:
.

mi i fi.
:

.

.
.

pdfMachine
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: A ) (
Xi A:

:
(.
()( .
(.
:
( ).(
(
.
(.

pdfMachine
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: )(The Median
) (


.

.
: 165,170,164,172,167,168,173
1424 .
.
: 173 , 172 , 170 , 168 , 167 , 165 , 164 :
n = 7(n+1)/2 :
(7+1)/2=8/2=4
4. 168 :
:
. 20,21,26,27,29,30,32,33 :.
: 33 , 32 , 30 , 29 , 27 , 26 , 21 , 20 :
n =8 .:
n/2 = 8/2 = 4
(n/2) + 1 = ( 8/2 ) + 1 = 4 + 1 = 5
:
( 27 + 29 ) / 2 = 56 / 2 = 28
)( :
:

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(.
( ( n / 2 ) n.
( f1 f2
n/2
A
L
:

f1 f2
.
::

( ::

(: (n/2)
20 / 2 = 10
10 15 , 7 10
:
, f2 = 15 , L = 10.5 8.5 = 2

f1 = 7

A = 8.5

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:
:
n
: 2

) (
.

( :.
( :
.
::

( : :

pdfMachine
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(
n
2 2
10


) (

.
(
.
(


. 9.25

: 9.20$, 3.75$, 3.96$,


3.28$, 2.52$ :
(.

( .

( : =
9.20$, 3.96$, 3.75$, 3.52$, 2.28$ 3.75 :
(:

* 9.20 .
.

pdfMachine
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:

::
:

40/2=20.

118- 126
127- 135
136 - 144
145 - 153
154 - 162
163 - 171
172 - 180

3
5
9
12
5
4
2
40

:
3 + 5 + 9 = 17
20 3. (12)

145 - 153144.5 153.5


144.5 153.5:

:
:
:
3 + 5 + 9 = 17
:
3 + 5 + 9 + 12 = 29
:
L1
L1 = 144.5
n= 40
n
( )1 ( )1 = 17
median = 12
median
c=9
c
:

pdfMachine
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:
(.
(.
(.
:
(.
(.

: )(The Mode
) (
Unimodal
Bimodal

.
: 18 , 12 , 11 , 10 , 10 , 9 , 9 , 9 , 7 , 5 , 22 :
Unimodal. 9
: 16 , 15 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 8 , 5 :.
: 2 , 3 , 4 , 4 , 4 , 5 , 5 , 7 , 7 , 7 , 8 :
) (Bimodal. 4 , 7
) ( :



:
( 1
. 2
( A.
( L
:

pdfMachine
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: :

:
:

2
6
11
8
3
30


-30
-32
-34
-36
40-38

pdfMachine
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:
(.
(.
:
(.
(
.

) :( Skewness


:
( :(Skewness)
(+) : > >
).(

pdfMachine
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:(Skewness) (
> > :)(
.()

== ) :(Symmetry) (
.( )(

: :(
.( ) =

pdfMachine
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: )(Geometric Mean
G G.M
n
:


.
: 2 , 4 , 8
:

: 3 , 5 , 6 , 6 , 7 , 10 , 12 :
:

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: )(Harmonic Mean

H
n
.

: 3 , 5 , 6 , 6 , 7 , 10 , 12 :
:

: > >

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: )Quartiles, Deciles
:(Percentiles


) . (Median

.
.
.


.

.

.

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MEASURES OF DISPERSION


) ( .
) (8

.
1

11

16

18


)(
)(
:

: ):(Range and Midrange


. R
= R

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:
( = R.
( = R.

: R80 , 30 , 70 , 62 , 40 , 82 :
:82 =

30 =
R = 82 30 = 52

: R:
90 - 99
1

80 - 89
2

70 - 79
11

60 - 69
15

50 - 59
9

40 - 49
2

::
: 94.5
44.5: R
R = 94.5 44.5 = 50
: 99.5
39.5: R
R = 99.5 39.5 = 60

. R

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: ):(Interquartile Range
Range

(Interquartile Range) Q
:

:
(.
( Q1.
( Q3.
(:
::
67,65,69,58,55,71,72,70
:55,58,65,67,96,70,71,72 :
,

::
59,67,65,69,58,55,70,72,74
:55,58,59,65,67,69,70,72,74 :
,

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: ):(Absolute Mean Deviation

M.D.:

:2,3,6,8,11 :
:

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: ):(Variance and Standard Deviation
: ( Variance )
)( :

) : ( Standard Deviation

S
:
n

.


:

pdfMachine
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:
:

:
:
72-74
8

69-71
27

63-65
18

66-68
42

60-62
5

::

60-62
63-65
66-68
69-71
72-74

fx

61
64
67
70
73

5
18
42
27
8
100

305
1152
2814
1890
584
6745

-6.45
-3.45
-0.45
2.55
5.55

41.6025
11.9025
0.2025
6.5025
30.8025

208.0125
214.2450
8.5050
175.5675
246.4200
852.7500

" "

pdfMachine
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REFERENCES

(
(
(
(
(

)(
.
)(
- .
)( -
.
)(
.
)(
-.

pdfMachine
!Is a pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease
Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across
nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine.
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pdfMachine
Is a pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease!
Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across
nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine.
Get yours now!