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logical truth, Frege, the classic logic of Aristotle's, the logical concepts, the logical propositions, The algebra of Boole, classes, operations, Axioms in Boole's algebra, the Nothing and Universe, the law of dichotomy and the principle of contradiction, the principle of exclusion of the middle(Boole), the Boole's logic of propositons

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George

Mpantes

mathematics

teacher

www.mpantes .gr

classical logic. The concepts and propositions of classical logic became

abstract symbols of the logical universe, it is the application of algebra to

logic, as the application of algebra in problems of arithmetic. But what is

logic?

Abstract

The classic logic, the basic elements of classic logic, the concepts,

the proposition , the reasoning,

The Booles symbolic logic,

The new algebra of Boole

The great result

The critique

The logic of propositions

to discover the truths is the task of all sciences; it falls to logic to

discern the laws of truthI assign to logic the task of discovering the laws

of truth , not of assertion or thought. The word truth denotes the object

of logic as the "beauty" the aesthetic object, or "good," the object of moral

Gottlob Frege (1848-1935), the thought: a logical inquiry

Logical truth is one of the most fundamental concepts in logic,

and there are different theories on its nature. A logical

truth is a statement which is true and remains true

under all reinterpretations of its components other

than its logical constants. All of philosophical logic can

be thought of as providing accounts of the nature of

logical

truth,

as

well

as

logical

consequence.

Wikipedia

The concept of logic is contained in the classical definition of

reasoning from Aristotle: "reasoning is a logical and phrasal complex

where just put some proposals (the premises) that ensue with logical

necessity another proposal, different from the first." What is this logical

necessity?

Logic is the name of a discipline which analyses the meaning of

the concepts common to all the sciences, and establishes the general laws

governing the concepts .Alfred Tarski

So there is a discipline , namely rules and principles and

we go

there, where the Greeks started. Logic examines the products of thinking

and is trying to recognize and distinguish between genuine and spurious,

the correct from incorrect ( Papanoutsos ). Logic does not describe the

way in which the thought is manifested, but specifies the principles and

rules of right thinking. But beware: the Logic is interested in checking the

formal truth of sayings. The substantial truth check sciences (natural and

historical ). Logic, then, is a bureaucracy of reason, a language for

describing the steps of human thought on solid knowledge.

logic has so far nothing to do with the truth of the fact , opinions

or presumptions, from which an inference is derived; but simply takes

care that the inference shall certainly be true if the premises are true

whether the premises are true or false is not a question of logic

Augustus de Morgan

Formal logic

priceless good ' logician

whether the reasoning leading to the conclusion that freedom is a

priceless good, is logically correct. Unlike the psychologist will look to

explain how x arrived at these thoughts what is the intention, in what he

aims etc.

Conclusion: With these few quotes, we understand that: in the

universe of thought, first the Greeks managed to put an inner order and

discipline, a set of rules and principles that, a truth , that is s o m e t h I n

g

that

everyone

can

creating a system of thought , logical thinking, the reasoning, an order in

the chaos of all thoughts, the system which led to the conquest of science.

In this sense the logical thinking can be recognized only by the principles

of logic and without additional information .

To understand the symbolic logic we should recall the content of

classical logic, this is indeed that Boole described with mathematical

symbols.

The great and first laws of rational thought expressed by Aristotle ,

who mentions as " studied the principles of reasoning used by

mathematicians , and of these by abstraction, he derived laws that are

applicable to any proper reasoning ." These laws neither accept nor need

a proof. Willy-nilly we hold them without their knowledge . From here

stems therefore the inability of foundation of mathematics on Logic since l

ogIc is not

f o u n d e d a n y w h e r e..

reasonings .

1. The concepts

in classical logic are given in words and represent a number of

similar objects, eg theater , misconduct , square etc.

But the meaning of words (the content of concepts ) shows

shadings and variations and sometimes go too far from the original

meaning. Incomprehension and misunderstandings arise when different

concepts expressed by the same word ( eg, mass , function, authority,

performance, etc. ) The determination of the meaning of words - concepts

clearly and precisely, it is the first care of every science before being used

in the descriptions and analyzes.

for thinking, are the propositions for the explicit expression ( Papanoutsos

) The proposition is a statement and for the Logic statements are

opinions, underlying the distinction between truth and falsehood . Later in

logikistes will talk about truth value of a proposition.

Propositions are

Mercury is a metal

The law is not disrupted

It is not certain that inhabited Mars

If day there is natural light

The ship ( at the time ) approaches Chios or Mytilene and later in symbolic

logic represented by the letters x, a, b, c q, r ...

The concepts in these propositions are mercury , metal, class ,

day , light , ship .

Types of propositions .

these are categorical , hypothetical disjunctive and

conjunctive propositions. An examination of the logic truth of

proposition of any type is the key issue of logic ( classical or modern ) and

is developed in every book of Logic ." We will look it, only in the light of

Mathematical Logic in a next article "the propositional calculus "

The

first

systematic

investigation

on

proposition

5

was

upon

in these and their combinations . These relate to the type ' A is B ' or ' A is

not B " Eg " Mercury is a metal "or" the solution to this problem is not

wrong "

Hypothetical propositions are of the type "if a ( or not a) then b ( b

or not ) eg ' if two triangles have corresponding sides have equal then the

corresponding angles equal " or " if it is night there is not natural light "

The disjunctive propositions are complex propositions associated

with links ( or- or , either - or, neither - nor ). They expressed as equally

possible two different opinions without revealing which of the two accept .

For example, " I will go Athens or Paris

The conjunctive propositions are complex propositions that the two

members are connected with " and ." eg X is a police officer and lives in

Athens

3.The reasonig .

The most complete of logical structures is the argument . It is a series of

interrelated propositions formed to make clear ( to "prove" ) the truth of a

statement. The method by which the mind devises an argument, is called

reasoning ( Papanoutsos ) . the leading propositions are called premises

and the final is the conclusion. Eg (the classical)

All men are mortal

Socrates is a man so

Socrates is mortal.

Reasoning are valid or invalid but the propositions are true or false.

as dictated by symbolic algebra had begun to grow. (Peacock).

.... The purpose of the following treatise is to investigate the fundamental laws of

thought by which reasoning is performed, to express with the symbolic language

of a calculus, and on this basis to install the science of logic and construct its

methods .... Boole, An investigation of laws of thoughts

principle of the permanence of equivalent forms" made the logical step

that the body of algebra is not necessarily the numbers, and the laws of

algebra are not necessarily the laws of real and complex numbers, and

finally d e v e l o p e d

n e w

representation of logic (

algebra of logic. But logic has no numbers. But the symbolic algebra has

been released from the numbers. Let's imagine it as a structure analogous

for example with group theory.

Symbolic logic (and mathematical logic) is a formalism of logic, and

basic characteristics of each formalism is the generalization through

subtraction (D 'Abro).

Let's think of the oldest mathematical formalism: this of algebra. A

myriad problems of practical arithmetic are treated with the formalism of

equations of algebra . The transition consists in the construction of the

equation and then we have the problem of solving the equation. We forget

the interpretation of symbols, profit, age , mass, speed etc and discuss

symbols, solving method, discriminant, Vieta formulas

problem is absent, we discus about abstract things and different, but they

face a myriad of real world problems.

Logic similarly has a myriad of problems: finding the truth or falsity

of propositions and arguments generated by a myriad of classes. If we

name a class with x ....?

In Booles algebra we transfer the logic on

formalism, the

momentum, is finally a branch of mathematics ....

But we need to understand its role. The classical logic with the

known fundamental laws is the basis and the formalism follows.

We do not produce the

Boole imagined, but conversely, the formalism is the copy, because the

mathematics we use in formalism, already contain them (the fundamental

laws ).

In the mathematical Analysis of Logic Boole offers a logic based

on mathematics, chiefly algebra. The term algebra refers to a typical

system , rather than a model ( ie the structure that brings us to the

mathematical reality) . For example, we say the algebra of integral

domains and the structure of integers which satisfy the algebra. Today we

describe a formal system with algebraic method of axioms. Especially for

algebra Boole, there are a variety of axioms . Choose one that focuses on

proportions with numerical algebra. ( Boole as a symbolist believed that

if that interpretations of symbols were chancing we would come to the

operations of numbers ). For Booles algebra, we use the letters a, b, c ...

two binary operations + and . a single operational symbol

(supplement) , and two fixed symbols 0 and 1.

Axioms for the algebra of Boole .

1. ab = ba

.

a+b = b+a

.

2 . ( a b) c = a (b. c)

(a+b) + c = a+(b+c)

3. 1 . a = a

0+a = a

4. a.a = 0

a + a = 1

5. a ( b + c) = a.b+a.c

6 a = a .a

a + (b.c) = (a + b) (a + c)

a+ a = a

sign a-b = a.b

Then from ( 3 ) we have

7. 1 -a =1. a = a

8. with (4) is

a(1- a) = 0

a+(1-a) = 1

classes) is the set of subsets of a fixed set with operations the union,

intersection and complement respectively for

+ . and

and the identity set I , are respectively 0 and 1. Even the commutative

ring ( with a suitable interpretation of the operations ) in abstract algebra.

The symbols

Boole describes his system

thoughts 1854 as

All the operations of language, an instrument of reasoning, may be

conducted by a system of symbols composed of the following elements

as:

1.literal symbols as x,y,z.representing things as subjects of our

perceptions (the classes)

2. Symbols of operations, as +,- . standing for those operations of

the mind by which the conceptions of things are combined or resolved so

as to form new conceptions involving the elements

3.the sign of identity =

These symbols of logic are

agreeing with and partly differing from the laws of the corresponding

symbols in the science of Algebra.. Boole

the class in which it belongs nothing (Nothing) and 1 as the class that

contains all objects (the universe) of the debate.

The operations .

Thus if x alone stands for white things

stands for horned things and x, y retain their previous interpretations ,

let x.y.z represent horned white things.

It is evident that according to the above combinations we have the

first general law

x.y=y.x (1) also x(yz)=(xy)z

If the two symbols have the same signification, their combination

expresses no more than either of the symbols taken alone would do. In

such case we should therefore have x.y=x or x.x=x

Now in common Algebra the combination x.x is more briefly

represented by x2. Let us adopt the same principle of notation here;

Because the mode of expressing a particular succession of mental

operations, is a thing in itself quite as arbitrary as the mode of expressing

a single idea or operation. In accordance with this notation, then the

above equation assumes the form

x2=x , (2) (law of dichotomy).(Boole)

The logical addition + stand for and and or and both. They

are applied to concepts whose classes are completely distinct,

we have x+y=y+x (3)

and +

addition. If x are men and y voters then x+y represent men and

10

distributivity law

z.(x+y)=z.x+z.y ,(4)

by letting x represents men

represent Europian.

In section 11, Boole introduces another operation represented by

(logical substraction) this operation we express in common language by

the sign except as all men except Asiatics, all states except those

which are monarchical. Here it is implied that the things excepted form a

part of the things from

represent men and y Asiatics the conception all men except Asiatics wiil

be expressed by x-y or x-x.y

Now the expression 1-x represents the supplemental class of

objects that is all the objects that do not exist in class x.

Proves, the equivalences with algebra of numbers

x + y = z y = z-x (prop.II13)

also x = y z.x = z.y (prop.II 14) but not vice versa, and it seems

easily the distributive law for subtraction.

That is let x men y Asiatics z white men

To apply the adjective "white" in class "all people except Asians' is

the same to say white people except white Asians this is x(y-z)=x.y-x.z

his work:

We have seen that the symbols of Logic are subject to the special

law x2=x.

11

Now of the symbols of number there are but two , viz. 0 and 1

which are subject to the same formal law. The equation x 2=x considered

as algebraic, has no other roots than 0 and 1. Hence , instead of

determining the measure of formal agreement of the symbols of logic with

those of number generally, it is more immediately

suggested to us to

compare them with symbols of quantity admitting only the values 0 and .

Let us conceive then an algebra in which the symbols

x,y admit

indifferently of the values 0 and 1, and of these values alone. The laws the

axioms and the processes of such an algebra will be

identical in their

whole extent with the laws, the axioms and the processes of an algebra of

Logic. Difference of interpretation will alone divide them..

Then he explains that the respective interpretations of 0 and 1 in

the system of logic are Nothing and Universe. Even proves in logical

interpretation of the symbols 0 and 1, the numerical laws 0.x=0 and 1.x

=x

Example

We shall prove the mathematical

logic

All horses are mammals.

All mammals are vertebrate.

Thus all horses are vertebrates.

Let x class "horses" y class "mammals" and z the "vertebrates"

Will translate into equations this reasoning.

When we say that all horses are mammals is meant there is no horse that

is not a mammal, that

x (1-y) = 0 x-xy = 0 x = xy ...... (1) similarly

y (1-z) = 0 y-yz = 0 y = yz ..... (2)

therefore x = xy = x (yz) = (xy) z = xz .... (3)

from (3) x = xz

12

That as a consequence of the fundamental law of thought x 2 = x is

impossible for any being to possess a quality and at the same time not to

posses it: if the case is "truth " and " not true " there is no intermediate

value , there is only true and not true and this is the principle of

exclusion of the third or of middle (from

two contradictory

propositions true is always one). Still it could be read that x can not be not

x

(what is x while is not x is Nothing ( 0 ) , and this is the principle of

contradiction ( a concept can not be inconsistent with itself ) .

Boole notes that what has been commonly regarded as a

fundamental axiom of metaphysics is but a consequence of a law of

thought, mathematical in its form.

Critique .

Bool proves

of contradiction is a great axiom of metaphysics ! What is this law of

thought? It is an assumption ad hoc. The law of dichotomy is limited in

x2=x which is always true But the equation x3=x is always true too. Why

doesnt

it

contradiction!

The equation x(1-x ) = 0 has two solutions which

Boole

But this is the principle of contradiction. Why is there nothing else but

Nothing and the Universe? He could set something third and consider the

equation x3=x.

13

contradiction.

Still Boole to ensure dichotomy as a limit of human perception ,

builds a trichotomy:

x = y = z (identical sets);

xyz = x; then,

x3 = x ;

x (1 x)(1+x) = 0;

The solutions are 0, 1, and 1. He illustrates as If x = all men, and

(1 x) = everything that is not all men, then what does (1 + x)

represent? Boole points out that this is surely beyond the comprehension

of human minds. So trichotomies are outside the realm of rational thought,

at least in this universe, and for human faculties.

what really does (1 + x) represent?

It

does

not

represent

anything

because

Boole

defined

principle of contradiction, and not vice versa. There would be (in axiomatic

base ) and something else except 0 and 1, but there in nothing to add !

The axiomatic bases does not fall from the sky, they are processes a

posteriori, made to describe what doctrine we want. The principle of

contradiction is behind the calculus of Boole, and not vice versa.

Boole is trying to get laws to the intangible , the spiritual , but the

science of Logic is like seismology, follows and records the results of an

activity which we can not penetrate in any way. Mind can not study itself.

Boole except classes concepts, also introduced what we call logic

of propositions, but we will not follow . In this interpretation, the symbol p

is the proposition eg " mercury is metal" and claim p mean that the

statement is true. ( ... Aristotle) .

14

Then the - p means that it is not true that " Mercury is metal ."

Similarly the - (-p) means that it is not true that " mercury is not metal" so

the mercury is metal.

The law of excluded middle for propositions, which affirms that any

proposition is either true or false, was exppressed by Boole as

p + (-p) = 1 where 1 represents true.

The product p. q means that both propositions p and q are true

while p + q means either p or q or both are true..

Booles symbolic logic played a prominent role in the evolution of

Mathematical Logic. As from the axioms of Euclid we arrived at the

formalism of Hilbert, so from Boole we came to the logicism of Russell, a

philosophical attempt of interpretation and foundations of mathematics.

George Mpantes

www.mpantes.gr

mpantes on scrbd

I have read :

:

A Boole anthology ;

James Gasser,

Barnett ()

The loss of certainty :Morris Kline Oxfod University Press

Foundations and fundamental concepts of mathematics Howard

Eves Dover

15

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