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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

SteamEndUserTraining SteamGenerationEfficiencyModule BlowdownLossesSection


Slide1BlowdownLossesModule Thissectionwilldiscussblowdownlossanditsaffectonboilerefficiency. [SlideVisualBlowdownLossesTitlePage] SteamGenerationEfficiency EfficiencyDefinition RadiationandConvectionLossesShellLosses BlowdownLosses StackLosses Slide2Blowdown Thenexttypeoflossinvestigatedisblowdownloss.Boilerfeedwaterisverycleanwater.However,infeedwatertherearesomedissolved chemicals.Essentiallypuresteamexitstheboilerthemajorityofthechemicalsenteringtheboilerwithfeedwaterarenotsolubleinthesteamand willnotleavetheboilerwiththesteam.Asaresult,theconcentrationofthesechemicalsincreasesintheboiler.Elevatedconcentrationsof chemicalsresultsinmanyseriousboilerproblemsincludingfoamingresultinginliquidcarryover,scalingonthewatersideofthetubes,and loosesludgeintheboilerwater.Blowdownistheprimarymechanismthatallowsustocontrolchemicalconcentrationsintheboilerwater. Blowdownallowsustomaintainanacceptableconcentrationofdissolvedandprecipitatedchemicalsintheboiler. Thereisanenergylossassociatedwithblowdown,becausethewaterhasbeenheatedtotheboilingpointfromfeedwaterconditions. Slide3BoilerBlowdown Therearetwogeneraltypesofboilerblowdown.Oneistypicallyfromthelowersectionsoftheboilercalledbottomblowdown.Theothertypeof blowdownistypicallyfromtheuppersectionsoftheboilerandiscalledsurfaceblowdown. Bottomblowdownisactuatedbecausesomesolidswillprecipitatefromthechemicalsdissolvedinthefeedwater.Thesesolidstendtobeheavier thanwater,andthereforetendtocongregateinlowersectionsoftheboiler.Bottomblowdownisusedtoflushthesesolidsout.Bottomblowdown istypicallyasignificantflowofwaterforaveryshortperiodoftime.Theintentistosweepawayanysolidprecipitatesformedinthewater.Even SteamEndUserTraining SteamGenerationModule BlowdownLosses1

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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

thoughwhileitisoccurringitisalargeflowrate,itcontinuesforashortperiodoftime.Asaresult,thetotalflowofbottomblowdownisusually muchlessthanthetotalflowsurfaceblowdown. Surfaceblowdownistypicallyamuchsmallerflowratethanbottomblowdown;however,itcontinuesforamuchlongerperiodoftimeoften continuously.Surfaceblowdownistheprimarymechanismusedtocontrolthedissolvedchemicalconcentrationsintheboiler.Surfaceblowdown endsupremovingmostoftheblowdownwater. [SlideVisualBoilerBlowdown] Thisschematicdepictsawatertubeboiler.Fuelandairentersatthelowerleftofthecombustionzone,feedwaterentersatthetopintothe steamdrumwhichconnectstothemuddrumthroughmanytubes.Themuddrumisatthebottomoftheboiler.Steamexitstheboilerfromthe steamdrumintothesuperheatersection,whichisshownatthetopoftheboiler.Thecombustiongasesleavingtheboilerthroughtheducting attheupperright.Thebottomblowdownisshownfromthebottommuddrum.Thesurfaceblowdownisshownatthetopfromthesteam drum. Slide4BlowdownControl Generally,surfaceblowdowniscontrolledbasedonboilerwaterconductivity.Conductivityisadirectmeasurementthatcancontinuouslyprovide anindicationofboilerwaterquality.However,conductivitymustbecorrelatedtoindividualchemicalcontaminantsthroughperiodicwater analysis.Conductivityandtheresultsofspecificboilerwatertestingaidinadjustingtheblowdownrate. [SlideVisualConductivitySensor] Thisschematicdepictsawatertubeboiler.Fuelandairentersatthelowerleftofthecombustionzone,feedwaterentersatthetopintothe steamdrumwhichconnectstothemuddrumthroughmanytubes.Themuddrumisatthebottomoftheboiler.Steamexitstheboilerfromthe steamdrumintothesuperheatersection,whichisshownatthetopoftheboiler.Thecombustiongasesleavingtheboilerthroughtheducting attheupperright.Thesurfaceblowdownisshownatthetopfromthesteamdrumwithaconductivitysensorcontrollingtheblowdownvalve position.Theblowdownisdischargedtothesewer. Slide5BlowdownLossEstimate Fromtheviewoftheboiler,feedwaterenters,steamandblowdownexit.Theboileraddsfuelenergytothesteamandblowdownthatexitthe boiler.Blowdownisanenergystreamthatisdischargedfromtheboiler.Blowdownistypicallyexpressedasafractionoffeedwatermassflowand canrangefromlessthan1%tomuchgreaterthan10%dependingonwaterchemistry,boileroperatingpressure,andotherfactors.However,it shouldbenotedthat10%blowdownratedoesnotmean10%energylossblowdowndischargedfromtheboilerisnothighenergysteam,itis moderateenergywater.Fromtheperspectiveoftheboiler,theenergyaddedtotheblowdownstreamisblowdownflowratetimesthedifference intheenthalpyoftheblowdownandthefeedwater.Therefore,10%blowdownratecantranslateinto5%fuelenergyinput.Itshouldbenotedthat therelationshipbetweenblowdownmassfractionandblowdownenergyfractionisdependentonmanyfactorsincludingboileroperating pressureandfeedwatertemperature. SteamEndUserTraining SteamGenerationModule BlowdownLosses2

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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

[SlideVisualBoilerBlowdownLossBoilerCalculation] L blowdown =m blowdown (h blowdown h feedwater )/x(100) m fuel xHHV fuel

Abbreviations L blowdown m blowdown h feedwater m fuel h HHV

=Lossduetoblowdown(%) =massflowrateofsteamgeneratedperpoundoffuelburned(lbm/lbm) =Enthalpyisheatcontentorusefulenergyofasubstance(Btu/lbmorkJ/kg) =HigherHeatingValueoffuel(Btu/lbm)


= massflowrateoffeedwater(lbm/lbm) = massflowrateofblowdown(lbm/lbm)

Slide6SystemLoss Again,fromtheperspectiveoftheboiler,theenergyaddedtotheblowdownstreamisblowdownflowratetimesthedifferenceintheenthalpyof theblowdownandthefeedwater.However,everypoundofblowdowndischargedfromthesystemismadeupwithcoldmakeupwaterasa result;aportionofthesteamgeneratedintheboilerisusedtoheatthemakeupwatertofeedwaterconditionsinthedeaerator.Therefore,froma systemperspective,theenergyassociatedwiththeblowdownstreamisevenlargerthanthatidentifiedfromtheboilerperspective. [VisualDescriptionSteamSystemImpactSchematic] Thisschematicrepresentsathreepressureheadersteamsystemwithmultipleboilersandallofthesystemcomponents.Feedwateris preheatedbysteaminjectionfromthelowpressuresteamdistributionheader,aswellaspreheatedmakeupwaterutilizingboilerblowdown heatrecovery. ThetopoftheschematicshowstheBoilerFeedwaterenteringthetwoboilers.Thetwoboilersareconnectedtothehighpressuresteam distributionheader. Thesteamexitstwoboilersandentersthehighpressuresteamsystemdistributionheader,indicatedbyalinebelowtheboilers. Underthehighpressuresteamdistributionline,youwillseethreeconeshapedgraphics,thatrepresentthesteamturbines.Theonenearestto theleftisahighpressuretocondensingturbine.Thisturbinedischargestothecondenserrepresentedbythebluecirclebelowtheturbine.The rectangulargraphictotherightoftheconeshapedgraphicindicatestheelectricalgenerationcomponentofthesteamturbine.Theturbinein themiddlereceiveshighpressuresteamandexhaustslowpressuresteamtothelowpressuresteamdistributionsystem,aswellasgenerates electricity.Thisturbineisdenotedasredconeandrectanglecombination.Thesteamturbinetothemostrightreceiveshighpressuresteam, SteamEndUserTraining SteamGenerationModule BlowdownLosses3

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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

drivesapump(denotedasacircle/squarecombination)andisalsocalledasteamturbinedrivenpump,thendischargestothelowpressure steamdistributionsystemheader. Betweenthecondensingturbineandthehightolowpressureturbine,alightbluetriangulargraphicthatrepresentsapressurereducing valve,whichdischargestothelowpressuresteamdistributionheader,identifiedbyaredlinebelowtheturbines. Atthefarrightofthehighpressuresteamdistributionsystem,thehighpressureendusercomponentloadsareidentifiedthrougha rectangulargraphicandarrowsenteringandleavingtherectangle,indicatingheatexchangewiththecomponents.Theendusecomponents dischargecondensatethroughasteamtrap,representedbyarectangulargraphic.Schematically,condensatepassesthroughthebottomofthe trapandrecoveredinacondensingtankwhichisalsoconnectedtothelowpressuresteamdistributionsystem. Underthelowpressuresteamdistributionline,youwillseethelowpressureendusercomponentloadsidentifiedasarectangulargraphic andarrowsenteringandleavingtherectangle,indicatingheatexchangewiththecomponents.Theendusecomponentsdischargecondensate throughasteamtrap,representedbyanotherrectangulargraphic.Schematically,condensatepassesthroughthebottomofthetrapand recoveredinacondensatetank,inwhichsteamisventedrepresentedbyaverticalarrowleavingthetopofthetank. Thelowpressureendusercondensatetankusesapump,whichisdenotedbyacircle/squarecombination,todeliverthecondensatetothe maincondensatereceiver,whichisalargerectanglewiththreeinputsdenotedbythreearrowsatthetopoftherectangle.Thecondensate entersthismaincondensatereceivertank,afteritpassesthroughacontrolvalve,denotedasanhourglassshapewithadomeontop.The thirdcondensateinputcomesfromthecondensatefromtheheatexchangerthatutilizesthehighpressuresteamturbine.Thecondensate leavesthisheatexchangerandisdeliveredviaapump(denotedasacircle/squarecombination)tothemaincondensatereceiver. Themaincondensatereceiverthenpumps(denotedbyacircle/squarecombination)thehighpressurecondensate,lowpressurecondensate, andthecondensingsteamturbinecondensatetothedeaeratortankasdenotedbytworedrectangles,withthesmalleroneonthetop.Thetop rectanglealsoshowstwotriangles,eachpointedawayfromeachother,longestendsnearlytouching.Thebottomtriangleisconnectedtoa controlvalverepresentedbyaredhourglassfigurewithadomeontheside,whichprovideslowpressuresteamtothedeaeratorfromthe lowpressuresteamdistributionsystemtopreheatthecollectedcondensateandmakeupwater.Preheatedmakeupwateralsoschematically entersatthetopofthedeaeratorwiththecollectedcondensate. Themakeupwaterispreheatedfromtheboilerblowdownandlowpressuresteam.Boilerblowdownfromeachboilerisnotedasreddashed linesleadingtoablowdownreceivertankdenotedasaredrectangleontherightofthescreen.Flashsteamisdivertedfromtheblowdown flashvesseltothelowpressuresteamdistributionline,alsodenotedinreddashedlines.Liquidfromtheblowdownflashtankthen schematicallyentersthetopofaheatexchanger(representedasawhiteandgreenstripedrectangle).Makeupwaterisshownenteringthe heatexchangerfromtheright,afteritpassesthroughthewatertreatmentequipment,denotedastworedrectanglesfurtherontheright.The liquidexitingtheheatexchangerissenttothedeaerator. Theheatedboilerfeedwaterschematicallyexitsthedeaeratorfromthebottomandispumped(denotedasacircle/squarecombination)tothe feedwaterinletsofeachboiler,nearthetoptheschematic. SteamEndUserTraining SteamGenerationModule BlowdownLosses4

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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

Slide7SystemLossEstimate Theactualtotalsystemimpactassociatedwithblowdowncanbemorethantwicetheimpactidentifiedfromtheboilerperspective.Anestimateof thetotalsystemwideimpactofblowdownbeinglostfromthesystemcanbedeterminedbyevaluatingtheenergyaddedtotheblowdownstream byheatingmakeupwatertotheblowdownconditions.Thelossequationnotedhereestimatesthatimpact. L blowdown =m blowdown (h blowdown h feedwater )/ m fuel xHHV fuel

Abbreviations L blowdown m blowdown h feedwater m fuel h HHV

=Lossduetoblowdown(%) = massflowrateofblowdown(lbm/lbm) = massflowrateoffeedwater(lbm/lbm) =massflowrateofsteamgeneratedperpoundoffuelburned(lbm/lbm) =Enthalpyisheatcontentorusefulenergyofasubstance(Btu/lbmorkJ/kg) =HigherHeatingValueoffuel(Btu/lbm)

Slide8BlowdownManagement Blowdownlossismanagedthroughtwoprimaryavenues.First,theamountofblowdownrequiredcanbereducedifthefeedwaterqualityis improved.Second,thermalenergycanberecoveredfromtheblowdownstream.Toalesserdegree,theblowdowncontrolstrategycanbe improvedtoreducetheamountofblowdown. Generally,feedwaterqualityisimpactedmostbythemakeupwater.Condensateiscommonlythecleanestwaterinthesteamsystem.Makeup watermustbeconditionedbeforeitisaddedtothesystem.Themakeupwatertreatmentsystemcanbeimprovedresultinginimprovedmakeup waterquality.Commonimprovementsincludechangingfromsodiumcyclesofteningtodemineralizationortoreverseosmosisconditioning. Ofcoursefeedwaterqualitycanbeimprovedthroughincreasedcondensaterecovery. Blowdownthermalenergyrecoverywillbediscussedinmoredetailinthissection.But,itshouldbenotedthatthermalenergyrecoveryhas provenaverysuccessfulmanagementactivity. Inanyevent,thefirststepinmanagingblowdownistomeasuretheenergylossassociatedwithit.Wewilluseourexampleboilertofurther examinetheblowdownissues. Slide9BlowdownEstimate Utilizingconventionalflowmetersfortheblowdownstreamisproblematicbecausetheblowdownisreadytoboil.Mostflowmeterswillimposea sufficientpressuredroptoresultintwophaseflow,whichisverydifficulttomeasure.Therefore,inordertomeasureblowdownrate,weusually measurechemicalcompositioninthefeedwaterandintheboilerwater.Thechemicalcomponentmeasuredintheanalysismustbeofsufficient SteamEndUserTraining SteamGenerationModule BlowdownLosses5

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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

concentrationtoallowaccuratemeasurementwithourinstruments.Wetaketheratioofthechemicalconcentrationinthefeedwatertothe chemicalconcentrationintheboilerwatertoestablishtheblowdownrate. Ourexampleboilerisoperatingwithanominalblowdownrateof6%. [SlideVisualBlowdownRateFractionEquation] %Blowdown=C feedwater (100)=15ppm(100) C blowdown 250ppm %Blowdown=6.0% mass offeedwaterflow Abbreviations C=conductivityofwater(partspermillion) B=blowdownratefraction(percentoffeedwater) BlowdownPercentisequaltotheConductivityofthefeedwaterdividedbytheConductivityoftheblowdown;allmultipliedby100. BlowdownPercentisequaltothe15partspermilliondividedby250partspermillion;allmultipliedby100. BlowdownPercentisapproximatelyequalto6%massofthefeedwaterflow. Slide10BlowdownFlowRate

equalsMassFlowRateandequals Theseblowdownequationsarebasedonasimplemassbalanceontheboilerwaterandsteamflows. m BlowdownFraction.Itmustbenotedthatsteadyflowandsteadyoperatingconditionsareassumedintheanalysis.Additionalanalysisisrequired forsystemsoperatingwithintermittentblowdown.Theblowdownflowrateforourexampleboilerisabout6,400lbm/hr. [SlideVisualBlowdownFlowRateCalculation] m blowdown= (B)m steam (1B) m blowdown= (0.06)100,000lbm/hr6,400lbm/hr (10.06)
SteamEndUserTraining SteamGenerationModule BlowdownLosses6

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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

ThemassflowrateoftheblowdownisequaltotheBlowdownFraction;dividedby1minustheBlowdownFraction;allmultipliedbythemass flowrateofthesteam. Themassflowrateoftheblowdownisequalto0.06;dividedby1minus0.06;allmultipliedbythe100,000poundsperhourequals6,400 poundsperhour. Abbreviations m blowdown= massflowrateofblowdown(lbm/lbm) m steam =massflowrateofsteamgeneratedperpoundoffuelburned B=blowdownratefraction(percentoffeedwater) Slide11BoilerLossEstimate Theexampleboileroperateswithapproximately6%ofthefeedwaterleavingtheboilerasblowdown.Thisrepresentsapproximately1percentof equalsmassflowrate,hequalsenthalpy,isblowdownfraction,HHVequalsHigherHeatingValue thetotalfuelinputenergy.Inthisformula, m ofthefuel. [SlideVisualBoilerBlowdownLossBoilerCalculation] L blowdown =m blowdown (h blowdown h feedwater )/x(100) m fuel xHHV fuel Theblowdownlossisequalthemassflowrateoftheblowdown;multipliedbythedifferenceoftheenthalpyoftheblowdown{minus}the enthalpyofthefeedwater);dividedbythemassflowrateofthefuelmultipliedbytheHighHeatingValueofthefuel;allmultipliedby100.

h feedwater at242oFis210.42Btu/lbm

Theenthalpyofthefeedwaterat242degreesFahrenheitis210.42Btu/lbm. L blowdown =(6,400lbm/hr)x(428.04Btu/lbm210.42Btu/lbm)x(100) (6,407lbm/hr)x(23,311Btu/lbm) Theblowdownlossisequalthe6,400lbm/hr;multipliedbythedifferenceofthe428.04Btu/lbm{minus}210.42Btu/lbm);dividedbythe 6,407lbm/hrmultipliedby23,311Btu/lbm;allmultipliedby100. L blowdown =0.9% energy SteamEndUserTraining SteamGenerationModule BlowdownLosses7

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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

Theblowdownlossisequalto0.9%energy. Abbreviations L blowdown m blowdown m feedwater m fuel h HHV =Lossduetoblowdown(%) = massflowrateofblowdown(lbm/lbm) = massflowrateoffeedwater(lbm/lbm) =massflowrateofsteamgeneratedperpoundoffuelburned(lbm/lbm) =Enthalpyisheatcontentorusefulenergyofasubstance(Btu/lbmorkJ/kg) =HigherHeatingValueoffuel(Btu/lbm)

Slide12BlowdownLossEstimate However,aspointedoutpreviouslytheimpactonthesteamsystemisevengreaterthanthisboilerfocusblowdownenergyanalysis.Thisis becauseblowdowndischargedfromthesystemhastobereplacedwithcoldmakeupwater.Thesystembasedblowdownenergyimpactisabout 1.7percentofthefuelinputenergy.Thismaybearelativelysmallfractionoffuelinputenergy;however,ittranslatesintomorethan$200,000/yr offuelcost.Additionally,andmoreimportantly,therearecosteffectivemeasureswecanemploytovirtuallyeliminatethisloss. Twoprimaryavenuesareusedtoreducethelossassociatedwithblowdown.First,providingcleanerfeedwatercandramaticallyreducethe requiredblowdown.Theprimarymethodsusedtoimprovefeedwaterqualityaretoutilizetechnologiestoprovidecleanermakeupwater demineralization,dealkalization,reverseosmosis.Increasingcondensaterecoveryisanexcellentstrategytoimprovefeedwaterquality;because, condensateistypicallythecleanestwateravailableanditcontainsvaluablethermalenergy. Second,thethermalenergyintheblowdownstreamcanberecovered.Infact,almostallofthethermalenergyoftheblowdownstreamcanbe recoveredwithtimeprovencosteffectivemeasures. [SlideVisualBoilerBlowdownLossSystemCalculation] L blowdown =m blowdown (h blowdown h makeup )/x(100) m fuel xHHV fuel Theblowdownlossisequalthemassflowrateoftheblowdown;multipliedbythedifferenceoftheenthalpyoftheblowdown{minus}the enthalpyofthemakeupwater);dividedbythemassflowrateofthefuelmultipliedbytheHighHeatingValueofthefuel;allmultipliedby100.

h makeup at75oFis43.04Btu/lbm

Theenthalpyofthemakeupwaterat75degreesFahrenheitis43.04Btu/lbm. SteamEndUserTraining SteamGenerationModule BlowdownLosses8

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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

L blowdown =(6,400lbm/hr)x(428.04Btu/lbm43.04Btu/lbm)x(100) (6,407lbm/hr)x(23,311Btu/lbm) Theblowdownlossisequalthe6,400lbm/hr;multipliedbythedifferenceofthe428.04Btu/lbm{minus}43.04Btu/lbm);dividedbythe6,407 lbm/hrmultipliedby23,311Btu/lbm;allmultipliedby100. L blowdown =1.7% energy Theblowdownlossisequalto1%energy. Abbreviations L blowdown m blowdown m makeup m fuel h HHV =Lossduetoblowdown(%) = massflowrateofblowdown(lbm/lbm) = massflowrateofmakeupwater(lbm/lbm) =massflowrateofsteamgeneratedperpoundoffuelburned(lbm/lbm) =Enthalpyisheatcontentorusefulenergyofasubstance(Btu/lbmorkJ/kg) =HigherHeatingValueoffuel(Btu/lbm)

Slide13BoilerBlowdown Blowdownthermalenergyrecoverytypicallyfocusesonsurfaceblowdown,becauseitisthelargestportionoftheblowdownflowandcanbea relativelyconstantstream.Themostcommon(andsuccessful)blowdownthermalenergyrecoverysystemsincludetwostagesofrecovery. [SlideVisualBlowdownTypes] Thisschematicdepictsawatertubeboiler.Fuelandairentersatthelowerleftofthecombustionzone,feedwaterentersatthetopintothe steamdrumwhichconnectstothemuddrumthroughmanytubes.Themuddrumisatthebottomoftheboiler.Steamexitstheboilerfromthe steamdrumintothesuperheatersection,whichisshownatthetopoftheboiler.Thecombustiongasesleavingtheboilerthroughtheducting attheupperright.Thebottomblowdown(intermittent)isshownatthebottommuddrumoftheboilerschematic.Thesurfaceblowdown (continuous)isshownatthetopsteamdrum. Slide14BlowdownEnergyRecovery First,webringthehighpressureblowdownstreamintoapressurevessel(flashtank)operatingatlowpressure.Thisallowsthesaturatedhigh pressureliquidtogenerateflashsteamasitcomestoequilibriumintheflashtank.Partoftheblowdownliquidflashestosteamandtherest remainsliquid.Theflashsteamisclean,sowecandirectitrightintothelowpressuresteamsystem.Theliquidthatremainsintheflashvesselis SteamEndUserTraining SteamGenerationModule BlowdownLosses9

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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

hot,sowecanstillusethiswaterinaheatexchangertopreheatmakeupwaterTheblowdownwaterwilleventuallybedischargedfromthesystem becauseitcontainstheboilerwatercontaminants.Wecancapturealmostalloftheblowdownthermalenergywiththeinstallationofasimple flashtankandaheatexchanger.Theblowdownlosscanbevirtuallyeliminatedwithverysimple,robustequipment! [SlideVisualBlowdownEnergyRecovery] Thisschematicdepictsawatertubeboiler.Fuelandairentersatthelowerleftofthecombustionzone,feedwaterentersatthetopintothe steamdrumwhichconnectstothemuddrumthroughmanytubes.Themuddrumisatthebottomoftheboiler.Steamexitstheboilerfromthe steamdrumintothesuperheatersection,whichisshownatthetopoftheboiler.Thecombustiongasesleavingtheboilerthroughtheducting attheupperright.Thesurfaceblowdownisshownleavingthetopsteamdrumandpassingthroughaconductivitysensorwhichoperatesa controlvalve.Blowdownisdischargedthroughthecontrolvalveintothelowpressureflashvessel,orflashtank.Thesaturatedhighpressure liquidgeneratesflashsteamintheflashtank.Theflashtanknowcontainslowpressureflashsteamandsaturatedliquid.Thelowpressure flashsteamcanbeconnectedtothelowpressuresteamdistributionsystemoroftendirectlytothedeaerator.Theremaininghotliquidcanbe utilizedinaheatexchangertopreheatmakeupwater,butisultimatelydischargedfromthesystemforwaterqualitycontrol. Slide15BoilerBlowdownRecovery Intheexamplesteamsystemablowdownthermalenergyrecoverysystemwasinstalledandthefuelconsumptiondecreasedby$215,000/yr.The equipmentrequiredfortheexamplesystemcostlessthan50,000dollars! However,youneedtobecarefulwhenselectingaheatexchangerforthisservice.Theheatexchangerappliedinthisservicemustbecapableof beingcleanedbecausetheblowdownstreamcanfowltheheatexchangesurface. Temperaturesensorsineachofthestreamsenteringandleavingtheheatexchangerallowtheheatexchangereffectivenesstobedeterminedand thefrequencyofcleaningevaluated. Twotypesofheatexchangersoffergoodresultsinthisapplication.Ashellandtubestraighttubeheatexchangercanbespecifiedwiththe blowdownstreamonthetubeside.Inthisarrangementtheheatexchangerendsmustberemovabletoallowthetubeinternalstobecleaned periodically.Alternately,aplateandframeheatexchangercanbeused,whichallowsboththeblowdownsideandthemakeupwatersidetobe cleaned. [SlideVisualBlowdownEnergyRecoveryEquipment] Boilerblowdownhasexitedtheboilerathighpressure,passedthroughtheblowdowncontrolvalve,andentersflashvesselat20psig.Low Pressureflashsteamdischargesfromthetopoftheflashvesseltothelowpressuresteamsystem. Liquidisdischargedfromthebottomoftheflashvesseltoaheatexchangerthatexchangedenergywithmakeupwater.Thetemperatureofthe blowdownliquidenteringtheheatexchangerismeasuredbyatemperaturesensor,T1;theleavingtemperaturebysensorT2.Makeupwater enterstheheatexchangerfromthetopanditstemperatureismeasuredbysensorT3.Makeupwatertemperatureleavestheheatexchanger andismeasuredbysensorT4. SteamEndUserTraining SteamGenerationModule BlowdownLosses10

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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

Aliquidlevelcontrolsensorisattachedtothesideoftheflashvesselwhichcontrolstheflowthroughtheexitoftheheatexchangerthrougha controlvalve. Slide16SteamSystemImpact Theinstallationofablowdownthermalenergyrecoverysystemwillhavemultipleimpactsonacogenerationsystem.Flashsteamwillbedirected tothelowpressureheader,whichwillreducetheamountofsteamthatcanpassthroughthebackpressureturbines.Additionally,themakeup waterwillbehighertemperature,whichwillreducethedeaeratorsteamdemandfurtherreducingtheturbinesteamflow.Finally,becausethe flashsteamgeneratedfromtheblowdownisdirectedbackintothesteamsystemtheamountofmakeupwaterrequireddiminishes.Asaresult,the analysisofblowdownenergyrecoverybecomesmuchmorecomplicatedwhencogenerationsystemsareconsidered.ThisiswheretheSteam SystemAssessmentToolcomesinhandy! [SteamSystemImpactSchematicVisualDescription] Thisschematicrepresentsatwoheadersteamsystemwithtwoboilersandallofthesystemcomponents.Feedwaterispreheatedbysteam injectionfromthelowpressuresteamdistributionheader,aswellaspreheatedmakeupwaterutilizingboilerblowdownheatrecovery. ThetopoftheschematicshowstheBoilerFeedwaterenteringthetwoboilers.Thetwoboilersareconnectedtothehighpressuresteam distributionheader. Thesteamexitstwoboilersandentersthehighpressuresteamsystemdistributionheader,indicatedbyalinebelowtheboilers. Underthehighpressuresteamdistributionline,youwillseethreeconeshapedgraphics,thatrepresentthesteamturbines.Theonenearestto theleftisahighpressuretocondensingturbine.Thisturbinedischargestothecondenserrepresentedbythebluecirclebelowtheturbine.The rectangulargraphictotherightoftheconeshapedgraphicindicatestheelectricalgenerationcomponentofthesteamturbine.Theturbinein themiddlereceiveshighpressuresteamandexhaustslowpressuresteamtothelowpressuresteamdistributionsystem,aswellasgenerates electricity.Thisturbineisdenotedasredconeandrectanglecombination.Thesteamturbinetothemostrightreceiveshighpressuresteam, drivesapump(denotedasacircle/squarecombination)andisalsocalledasteamdrivenpump,thendischargestothelowpressuresteam distributionsystemheader. Betweenthecondensingturbineandthehightolowpressureturbine,alightbluetriangulargraphicthatrepresentsapressurereducing station,whichdischargestothelowpressuresteamdistributionheader,identifiedbyaredlinebelowtheturbines. Atthefarrightofthehighpressuresteamdistributionsystem,thehighpressureendusercomponentloadsareidentifiedthrougha rectangulargraphicandarrowsenteringandleavingtherectangle,indicatingheatexchangewiththecomponents.Theendusecomponents dischargecondensatethroughasteamtrap,representedbyarectangulargraphic.Schematically,condensatepassesthroughthebottomofthe trapandrecoveredinacondensingtankwhichisalsoconnectedtothelowpressuresteamdistributionsystem. SteamEndUserTraining SteamGenerationModule BlowdownLosses11

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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

Underthelowpressuresteamdistributionline,youwillseethelowpressureendusercomponentloadsidentifiedasarectangulargraphic andarrowsenteringandleavingtherectangle,indicatingheatexchangewiththecomponents.Theendusecomponentsdischargecondensate throughasteamtrap,representedbyanotherrectangulargraphic.Schematically,condensatepassesthroughthebottomofthetrapand recoveredinacondensatetank,inwhichsteamisventedrepresentedbyaverticalarrowleavingthetopofthetank. Thelowpressureendusercondensatetankusesapump,whichisdenotedbyacircle/squarecombination,todeliverthecondensatetothe maincondensatereceiver,whichisalargerectanglewiththreeinputsdenotedbythreearrowsatthetopoftherectangle.Thecondensate entersthismaincondensatereceivertank,afteritpassesthroughacontrolvalve,denotedasanhourglassshapewithadomeontop.The thirdcondensateinputcomesfromthecondensatefromtheheatexchangerthatutilizesthehighpressuresteamturbine.Thecondensate leavesthisheatexchangerandisdeliveredviaapump(denotedasacircle/squarecombination)tothemaincondensatereceiver. Themaincondensatereceiverthenpumps(denotedbyacircle/squarecombination)thehighpressurecondensate,lowpressurecondensate, andthecondensingsteamturbinecondensatetothedeaeratortankasdenotedbytworedrectangles,withthesmalleroneonthetop.Thetop rectanglealsoshowstwotriangles,eachpointedawayfromeachother,longestendsnearlytouching.Thebottomtriangleisconnectedtoa controlvalverepresentedbyaredhourglassfigurewithadomeontheside,whichprovideslowpressuresteamtothedeaeratorfromthe lowpressuresteamdistributionsystemtopreheatthecollectedcondensateandmakeupwater.Preheatedmakeupwateralsoschematically entersatthetopofthedeaeratorwiththecollectedcondensate. Themakeupwaterispreheatedfromtheboilerblowdownandlowpressuresteam.Boilerblowdownfromeachboilerisnotedasreddashed linesleadingtoablowdownreceivertankdenotedasaredrectangleontherightofthescreen.Flashsteamisdivertedfromtheblowdown flashvesseltothelowpressuresteamdistributionline,alsodenotedinreddashedlines.Liquidfromtheblowdownflashtankthen schematicallyentersthetopofaheatexchanger(representedasawhiteandgreenstripedrectangle).Makeupwaterisshownenteringthe heatexchangerfromtheright,afteritpassesthroughthewatertreatmentequipment,denotedastworedrectanglesfurtherontheright.The liquidexitingtheheatexchangerissenttothedeaerator. Theheatedboilerfeedwaterschematicallyexitsthedeaeratorfromthebottomandispumped(denotedasacircle/squarecombination)tothe feedwaterinletsofeachboiler,nearthetoptheschematic. Slide17SteamSystemAssessmentTool TheSteamSystemAssessmentTool,alsoknownasSSAT,wasdevelopedbytheUnitedStatesDepartmentofEnergytoaidinevaluatingthe complexinteractionsofsteamsystemmodifications.SSATisasoftwaretoolbasedinExcel.KBCLinnhoffMarchsProsteamsoftwareservesasthe foundationofthetool.Thistoolallowstheusertobuildamodeloftheirsteamsystem.Thismodelcanbeusedtoevaluatetheimpactsofsystem changes.

June28,2010

SteamEndUserTraining SteamGenerationModule BlowdownLosses12

DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

[SlideVisualSteamSystemAssessmentTool(SSAT)] ThefirstscreenoftheSSATisshown.ItsaysIndustrialTechnologiesProgramToolsSuiteSteamSystemAssessmentTool,andhasapictureof asteamsiteinthebackground. Slide18SSATModel TheSSATmodelcontainsthecommonsteamsystemcomponentsincludingtheboiler,steamturbines,enduseequipment,condensaterecovery, feedwaterconditioningcomponents,andtheinterconnectionsofthesystem.Thisschematicdemonstratesthegeneralconnectivityofthemodel. Highpressuresteamisgeneratedintheboiler.Thissteamcanpasstoenduseequipment,throughsteamturbines,orthroughpressurereducing valves.Themediumandlowpressuresteamsystemsaresimilarlyarranged.Usershaveflexibilityinarrangingthemodeltoreflecttheirsteam systems. [SlideVisualModelTabSchematic] Thetopcenterwillcontainthedescriptivetitleprovidedbytheuser,theinitialtemplatereadsSSATDefault3HeaderModelorasimilartitle forwhatevermodelyouchose.Belowit,youwillseetheModelStatus,whichshouldreadOK.Themodelstatusprovidesanindicationofthe calculationconditionofthemodel. TotheleftoftheModelStatus,youwillseeachartinlightblue,whichindicatestheemissionsperyearforcarbondioxide,sulfuroxide,and nitrogenoxide. Atthetopright,itwillsayCurrentOperationifyouareontheModeltab,orOperationAfterProjectsifyouareontheProjectsModeltab. Theredgraphicnearthetopleftrepresentstheboiler.Fromtheleft,thereisadottedlineenteringit,whichrepresentstheamountof feedwaterenteringtheboilerfromthedeaerator. Alsototheleftoftheboiler,weseethefollowinginformationhighlightedinorange:thetypeoffuelbeingusedintheboiler,thefuelinput energy,thefuelflowrate,andtheboilerefficiency. Totherightoftheboiler,weseeadottedlinepointingtotherightandthendown,withanumbernexttoit,indicatingtheamountofboiler blowdown. Belowtheboiler,weseetheamountofsteamthatisenteringthehighpressureheader,thetemperatureofit,andthethermodynamicquality ofthesteam. Thesteamexitstheboilerandentersthehighpressureheader,representedbyadarkblueline.Undertheline,tothefarleft,youwillseea lightbluetriangulargraphicthatrepresentsapressurereducingstation.Thepressurereducingstationisalsoequippedwithadesuperheating station.Thenumberatthetopindicatestheamountofsteamenteringthepressurereducingvalve.Thenumberatthecenterleftofthevalve SteamEndUserTraining SteamGenerationModule BlowdownLosses13

June28,2010

DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

indicatestheamountofdesuperheatingwaterenteringtheunit.Thenumberbelowindicatestheamountofdesuperheatedsteamenteringthe mediumpressureheader;aswellasthetemperatureofthesteam. Totherightofthepressurereducingstation,youwillseelightblue,coneshapedgraphics,thatrepresentthesteamturbines.Theonenearest totheleftisahighpressuretocondensingturbine.Thisturbinedischargestothecondenserrepresentedbythebluecirclebelowtheturbine. Theturbineexhaustpressureisnotedasthecondenserpressure.Theturbineinthemiddlereceiveshighpressuresteamandexhaustslow pressuresteam.Theonetotherightreceiveshighpressuresteamandexhaustsmediumpressuresteam.Aboveeachturbineisanindication oftheamountofsteamcomingintotheturbinefromtheheader.Totheright,indarkblue,youseethepowergenerationoftheturbine. Inthecenterofthemediumpressureandlowpressureheaders,weseeanarrowpointingdownward,whichindicatestheamountofflash enteringtheheaderfromthecondensatecollectionflashvesselsthatarelocatedatthefarrightoftheschematic. Abovetheheader,totheright,theamountofheatlossisexpressedinorange.Below,thereisayellowboxthatindicatesthepressure, temperature,andthermodynamicqualityofthesteam. Thearrowtotherightoftheheaderpointstoadarkbluecirclewithalinethroughit,indicatingthesteamendusecomponents.Belowthis symbolisanindicationofthethermalenergysuppliedtotheendusecomponentsfromthesteam.Theendusecomponentsdischarge condensatethroughasteamtrap,representedbyabluecirclewithaTinit.Schematically,condensatepassestotherightthroughthetrap. Failedsteamtrapsthatareblowingsteamtotheatmospherearerepresentedwiththeredarrowexitingthetopofthetrapsymbol.The condensateappropriatelypassingthroughtraps,againrepresentedasexitingtotherightofthetrap,canberecoveredorlost.Lostcondensate isrepresentedastheunrecoveredcondensatedischargingdownfromthetrapsandrecoveredcondensateentersthecondensatecollection systemfurthertotheright. Thegreenfigurestothefarrightoftheschematicrepresentcondensateflashvessels.Thetopflashvesselreceivescondensatefromthehigh pressureendusers.Flashsteamisformedbecausetheflashvesseloperatesatmediumpressurebutitreceivessaturatedliquidcondensateat highpressure.Asequilibriumisreachedflashsteamisformed.Thisflashsteamexitsthevesselthroughthetopandisdirectedtothemedium pressuresteamheader,whichisshowninthecenterofthediagram.Condensateexitstheflashvesselandentersthemediumpressure condensatecollectionsystem.Themediumpressurecondensatesystemisequippedwithsimilarequipmentasthehighpressuresystem. Allofthecollectedcondensateentersthemaincondensatereceiverlocatedinthelowercenteroftheschematic.Processcondensateismixed withturbinecondensateandmakeupwaterpriortoenteringthedeaerator. Thesteamsystemdeaeratorisrepresentedatthelowerleftoftheschematic.Thedeaeratorreceiveslowpressuresteamtopreheatthe collectedcondensateandmakeupwaterrepresentedasenteringfromthebottomofthevessel.Boilerfeedwaterdischargesfromthedeaerator totheleftanduptotheboiler.Thelinepointingoutfromthetopofthedeaeratorandleadingtotherightshowstheamountofsteamescaping fromthevent.

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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

Slide19BasicModelData ThepowerofSSATisinthefactthatitcompletesmass,energy,andeconomicbalancesonthesteamsystemthatisbuiltbytheuser.Theusercan makemodificationstothesteamsystemandobserveasidebysidecomparisonofthesystembeforeandafterthechanges.Thisallowstheimpact tomass,energy,andeconomicstobeidentified. Inthemodel,economicimpactsareonlyassociatedwithfuel,electricity,andwaterpurchases.Ofcourse,theboilerconsumesfuelinthegeneration ofsteam.Theturbinescanimpacttheamountofelectricitypurchasedfromtheelectricalsupplier.Andmakeupwaterissuppliedtothesystemas required. Themodelisthermodynamicallyrigorousandallowstheverycomplexinteractionsinsteamsystemstobeaccuratelyidentifiedandevaluated. Thetoolhasgreatflexibilityallowingvariousfueltypesandcosttobecoupledwithelectricalimpactcostsaswellassteamconditions.Thisslide showsasmallportionoftheinputdatathatcanbearrangedbytheuser. [SlideVisualBasicModelData] GeneralSiteData SitePowerImport(+forimport,forexport) SitePowerCost Operatinghoursperyear SiteMakeUpWaterCost MakeUpWaterTemperature InputData 15000 0.0700 8760 0.0025 70 kW $/kWh hrs $/gallon F Notes/Warnings Powerimport+sitegeneratedpower=site electricaldemand Typical2003value:$0.05/kWh Typical2003value:$0.0025/gallon

Note:Enteraveragevaluesfortheoperatingperiodbeingmodeled BoilerfuelChoosefromthisdropdownlist SiteFuelCostper1000s.cu.ft 10.00 $ NaturalGas Typical2003value:$5.78/(1,000scu.ft)

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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

SteamDistribution HighPressure(HP) MediumPressure(MP) LowPressure(LP) HPSteamUsebyProcesses MPSteamUsebyProcesses LPSteamUsebyProcesses 400 150 20 5.00 15 63 InputData psig psig psig klb/h klb/h klb/h Warnings

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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

Slide20BoilerCharacteristics Thecharacteristicsoftheboilersaremodeledbythetool.Thisallowsaccuratesystemimpactstobeidentified. [SlideVisualOperatingCharacteristics] Boiler Methodforspecifyingboilerefficiency Option2EnterUserDefinedValue

Note:ModeldefaultefficienciesrepresentBestPracticevaluesassuminggoodoperationandtheinstallationofaneconomizer Option2Enterefficiency(%) 78.73 %

Note:Boilerefficiencyisdefinedas100%StackLoss(%)ShellLoss(%).The"StackLoss"sheetgivesmoreinformationonheat losses Note:EfficiencyisbasedonHigherHeatingValue.Economizersareincludedintheboilerefficiency.Boilerblowdownlossesare excluded BlowdownRate(%offeedwaterflow) DoyouhaveblowdownflashsteamrecoverytotheLPsystem? 6 % No

PleaseselecthowyouwishtodefineyourHPgenerationconditionandthenprovidesupplementaryinformationbelowifrequired: MethodforspecifyingHPgenerationcondition Option2Userdefinedsuperheated Conditions

Note:Asadefault,themodelwilluseHPsteamwith100Fofsuperheat.AtHPpressure(600psig),thiscorrespondstoa temperatureof589F Option2Entertemperature Option3Enterthermodynamicquality SteamEndUserTraining SteamGenerationModule BlowdownLosses17 700 99 F %dry

June28,2010

DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

Slide21SteamTurbines Thecomplexityofanalyzingcogenerationsystemsissignificant.Theinteractionbetweencomponentscanmakeevaluationstediousandtime consuming.SSATallowsthecharacteristicsofsteamturbinestobeincorporatedinthemodel.Thetoolaccuratelyevaluatestheinteractions betweenthesecomplexcomponents. [SlideVisualOperatingCharacteristics] HPtoLPSteamTurbine(s) Isentropicefficiency InputData 65 % Notes/Warnings

Note:Ifmultipleturbinesareinstalled,theoperationoftheimpactturbine(theturbineaffectedbychangestothesystem)should bemodeled Note:Ageneratorelectricalefficiencyof100%isassumedbythemodel Selecttheappropriateturbineoperatingmode Option1BalancesLPheader(Model defaultoption)

June28,2010

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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

Slide22SSATInvestigations BuiltintoSSATaremanyprojects(orsystemmodifications)thatarecommontorealworldssteamsystems.Forexample,thetoolissetuptomodel theimpactassociatedwithreducingsteamdemand,changingthefuelsuppliedtotheboiler,orimprovingboilerefficiency. Again,thesoftwareprovidesasidebysidecomparisonofthebeforeandafteroperatingcharacteristics.Thetoolidentifiesthechangeinfuel consumption,electricalconsumption,andwaterconsumptionresultingfromthechangeinsystemoperation. [SlideVisualProject1] Project1SteamDemandSavings(Changingtheprocesssteamrequirements) CurrentuseHP:5klb/h(4.66MMBtu/h)MP:8klb/h(8.16MMBtu/h)LP:58.4klb/h(65.99MMBtu/h) Doyouwishtospecifysteamdemandsavings? Ifyes,enterHPsteamsaving Ifyes,enterMPsteamsaving Ifyes,enterLPsteamsaving 0 1 0 klb/h klb/h klb/h Yes

June28,2010

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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

Slide23Projects Therearemanyprojectsthatarebuiltintothetool.Projectsareincludedthatallowtheusertomodifyblowdowncharacteristicsorcondensate recovery.Onlyasmallsamplingofprojectsisshownhere. [SlideVisualProjects4and13] Project4ChangeBoilerBlowdownRate ExistingBlowdownRate:6% Doyouwishtospecifyanewboilerblowdownrate? Ifyes,enternewrate(%offeedwaterflow) 1 % Yes

Project13CondensateRecovery Currentlyrecover50%ofHP,50%ofMPand50%ofLPat180F Doyouwishtospecifynewcondensaterecoveryrates? Ifyes,enternewHPcondensaterecovery Ifyes,enternewMPcondensaterecovery Ifyes,enternewLPcondensaterecovery 50 60 50 % % % Yes

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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

Slide24SteamTurbineProjects Turbineoperationscanalsobemodified. [SlideVisualProject7] Project7HPtoLPSteamTurbine(s) NotInstalled DoyouwishtomodifytheHPtoLPturbineoperation? Ifyes,selecttheappropriateturbineoperatingmode Yes,installanewturbine Option1BalancesLPheader

Note:IfOption1ischosen,themodelwillpreferentiallyusetheHPtoLPturbinetobalancetheLPdemand Specifyanewisentropicefficiency(%) 70 %

Note:Ageneratorelectricalefficiencyof100%isassumedbythemodel Note:Isentropicefficiencyofexistingturbineis65% Option2Howdowishtodefinethefixedturbineoperation? Option2Fixedsteamflow Option2Fixedpowergeneration 100 2000 klb/h kW SteamEndUserTraining SteamGenerationModule BlowdownLosses21 Option2Notselected

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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

Option3Howdowishtodefinetheoperatingrange? Option3Minimumsteamflow Option3Maximumsteamflow Option3Minimumpowergeneration Option3Maximumpowergeneration Slide25BlowdownThermalEnergyRecovery

Option3notselected

50 klb/h 150 klb/h 1500 kW 2500 kW

AsanintroductiontothetoolwewilluseSSATtoevaluatetheboilerblowdownthermalenergyrecoveryopportunity.Ihavedevelopedamodel thatreflectsthecharacteristicsofthesteamsystemwehavebeendealingwith.Initiallywewillassumethesteamsystemisnotequippedwith cogenerationcomponents.Inotherwords,therearenosteamturbinesinthissystemweinitiallyinvestigate. Wewillusethebuiltinprojectsassociatedwithboilerblowdownthermalenergyrecoverytoidentifytheeconomicimpactassociatedwiththe realworldproject. [SlideVisualProjects5and12] Project5BlowdownFlashtoLP Notcurrentlyinstalled Doyouwishtomodifytheblowdownflashsystem? Option1Installblowdownflash

Project12FeedwaterHeatRecoveryExchangerusingBoilerBlowdown Notcurrentlyinstalled

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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

Modifytheboilerblowdownheatrecoverysystem? Note:Anapproachtemperatureof20Fwillbeassumedforanewexchanger Slide26BeforeandAfterComparison

Yes,installanewheatexchanger

Theresultsindicatethatforasteamsystemthatisgeneratingapproximately100,000lb/hrof400psigsteamfrom10dollarspermillionBTU naturalgasimplementingblowdownthermalenergyrecoverycanreduceoperatingcostmorethan$260,000/yr. Themajorityofthesavingsisdevelopedfromthereductionoffuelconsumptionintheboilerapproximately$262,000/yr.Minimalsavingsis developedfromareductioninmakeupwaterconsumption$3,000/yr. [SlideVisualResultsSummary] SteamSystemAssessmentTool 3HeaderModel ResultsSummary SSATDefault3HeaderModel ModelStatus:OK CostSummary ($'000s/yr) PowerCost FuelCost MakeUpWaterCost TotalCost(in$'000s/yr) Slide27ProjectImplementation Itisinterestingtonotethatimplementingtheprojectinthissteamsystemwouldmostprobablyrequirelessthan$100,000.Asaresult,theproject isveryattractivefromaneconomicstandpoint. CurrentOperation 9,198 12,930 177 22,306 AfterProjects 9,198 12,669 174 22,041 Reduction 0 262 3 265 0.0% 2.0% 2.0% 1.2%

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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

Itisalsointerestingtonotethattheeconomicimpactisevengreaterthanthelossestimateidentifiedpreviously.Thisisbecausethemodel accuratelyidentifiestheboilerefficiencyimpactsandotherenergyrelatedinteractions. [SlideVisualProjectImplementation] Fortheexampleboilerimplementingblowdownenergyrecovery: Reducesfuelconsumptionmorethan$260,000/yr o Thesavingsisgreaterthanthesystemlossestimateprovidedpreviouslyof$215,000/yr

Theenergyrecoveredtothemakeupwaterisnotsubjectedtotheboilerinefficiency Steamgenerationandmakeupwaterrequirementsarereducedbecauseofflashsteam o Theprojectimplementationcostshouldbemuchlessthan$100,000

Slide28BlowdownEnergyRecovery Effectiveblowdownthermalenergyrecoverycanallowwaterqualitytobecontrolledtohigherlevelswithminimaleconomicimpactbecausethe blowdownenergyisbeingrecovered. Makeupwaterrequirementsarereducedprimarilybecausetheflashsteamgeneratedintheflashrecoveryvesselisreturnedtothesteamsystem. Oftentheblowdownstreammustbecooledbeforeitisintroducedtothesewersystem.Thiscanresultinalargeamountofpurchasedcooling watertobelosttothesewersystem.Effectiveboilerblowdownthermalenergyrecoverycanresultinlowtemperatureblowdownbeing dischargedtothesewerwithnocoolingwaterrequirements. Slide29SteamTurbineInfluences Nowwewillexaminethesystemimpactswhenblowdownthermalenergyrecoveryisaddedtoasteamsystemthatisequippedwithcogeneration components.Ihaveconstructedamodelthatincludessteamturbinesthatareconnectedtoelectricalpowergenerators.Atthispointwewillnot discusstheturbinecharacteristicsotherthantoindicatetheturbinesaretypicalofwhatwouldbefoundinanindustrialcomplex. [SlideVisualModelTabSchematic] Thetopcenterwillcontainthedescriptivetitleprovidedbytheuser,theinitialtemplatereadsSSATDefault3HeaderModelorasimilartitle forwhatevermodelyouchose.Belowit,youwillseetheModelStatus,whichshouldreadOK.Themodelstatusprovidesanindicationofthe calculationconditionofthemodel. SteamEndUserTraining SteamGenerationModule BlowdownLosses24

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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

TotheleftoftheModelStatus,youwillseeachartinlightblue,whichindicatestheemissionsperyearforcarbondioxide,sulfuroxide,and nitrogenoxide. Atthetopright,itwillsayCurrentOperationifyouareontheModeltab,orOperationAfterProjectsifyouareontheProjectsModeltab. Theredgraphicnearthetopleftrepresentstheboiler.Fromtheleft,thereisadottedlineenteringit,whichrepresentstheamountof feedwaterenteringtheboilerfromthedeaerator. Alsototheleftoftheboiler,weseethefollowinginformationhighlightedinorange:thetypeoffuelbeingusedintheboiler,thefuelinput energy,thefuelflowrate,andtheboilerefficiency. Totherightoftheboiler,weseeadottedlinepointingtotherightandthendown,withanumbernexttoit,indicatingtheamountofboiler blowdown. Belowtheboiler,weseetheamountofsteamthatisenteringthehighpressureheader,thetemperatureofit,andthethermodynamicquality ofthesteam. Thesteamexitstheboilerandentersthehighpressureheader,representedbyadarkblueline.Undertheline,tothefarleft,youwillseea lightbluetriangulargraphicthatrepresentsapressurereducingstation.Thepressurereducingstationisalsoequippedwithadesuperheating station.Thenumberatthetopindicatestheamountofsteamenteringthepressurereducingvalve.Thenumberatthecenterleftofthevalve indicatestheamountofdesuperheatingwaterenteringtheunit.Thenumberbelowindicatestheamountofdesuperheatedsteamenteringthe mediumpressureheader;aswellasthetemperatureofthesteam. Totherightofthepressurereducingstation,youwillseelightblue,coneshapedgraphics,thatrepresentthesteamturbines.Theonenearest totheleftisahighpressuretocondensingturbine.Thisturbinedischargestothecondenserrepresentedbythebluecirclebelowtheturbine. Theturbineexhaustpressureisnotedasthecondenserpressure.Theturbineinthemiddlereceiveshighpressuresteamandexhaustslow pressuresteam.Theonetotherightreceiveshighpressuresteamandexhaustsmediumpressuresteam.Aboveeachturbineisanindication oftheamountofsteamcomingintotheturbinefromtheheader.Totheright,indarkblue,youseethepowergenerationoftheturbine. Inthecenterofthemediumpressureandlowpressureheaders,weseeanarrowpointingdownward,whichindicatestheamountofflash enteringtheheaderfromthecondensatecollectionflashvesselsthatarelocatedatthefarrightoftheschematic.Thereisaredcirclearound themediumandlowpressureheaders. Abovetheheader,totheright,theamountofheatlossisexpressedinorange.Below,thereisayellowboxthatindicatesthepressure, temperature,andthermodynamicqualityofthesteam. Thearrowtotherightoftheheaderpointstoadarkbluecirclewithalinethroughit,indicatingthesteamendusecomponents.Belowthis symbolisanindicationofthethermalenergysuppliedtotheendusecomponentsfromthesteam.Theendusecomponentsdischarge condensatethroughasteamtrap,representedbyabluecirclewithaTinit.Schematically,condensatepassestotherightthroughthetrap. SteamEndUserTraining SteamGenerationModule BlowdownLosses25

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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

Failedsteamtrapsthatareblowingsteamtotheatmospherearerepresentedwiththeredarrowexitingthetopofthetrapsymbol.The condensateappropriatelypassingthroughtraps,againrepresentedasexitingtotherightofthetrap,canberecoveredorlost.Lostcondensate isrepresentedastheunrecoveredcondensatedischargingdownfromthetrapsandrecoveredcondensateentersthecondensatecollection systemfurthertotheright. Thegreenfigurestothefarrightoftheschematicrepresentcondensateflashvessels.Thetopflashvesselreceivescondensatefromthehigh pressureendusers.Flashsteamisformedbecausetheflashvesseloperatesatmediumpressurebutitreceivessaturatedliquidcondensateat highpressure.Asequilibriumisreachedflashsteamisformed.Thisflashsteamexitsthevesselthroughthetopandisdirectedtothemedium pressuresteamheader,whichisshowninthecenterofthediagram.Condensateexitstheflashvesselandentersthemediumpressure condensatecollectionsystem.Themediumpressurecondensatesystemisequippedwithsimilarequipmentasthehighpressuresystem. Allofthecollectedcondensateentersthemaincondensatereceiverlocatedinthelowercenteroftheschematic.Processcondensateismixed withturbinecondensateandmakeupwaterpriortoenteringthedeaerator. Thesteamsystemdeaeratorisrepresentedatthelowerleftoftheschematic.Thedeaeratorreceiveslowpressuresteamtopreheatthe collectedcondensateandmakeupwaterrepresentedasenteringfromthebottomofthevessel.Boilerfeedwaterdischargesfromthedeaerator totheleftanduptotheboiler.Thelinepointingoutfromthetopofthedeaeratorandleadingtotherightshowstheamountofsteamescaping fromthevent. Slide30SSATEvaluation Theresultsarenotdramaticallydifferentthatwhatwasobservedinthesystemwithoutcogenerationcomponents.Thecombinedeconomicimpact is$241,000/yr.Blowdownthermalenergyrecoveryisnotexpectedtodramaticallyimpactsteamturbineoperation;but,theimpactsonthe turbinesareaccuratelyreflectedinthemodelresults.Itisinterestingthatthefuelimpactissignificantlygreater.Themodelindicatesfuel consumptionwillreducemorethan$300,000/yr.Electricalpurchaseswillincreasemorethan$70,000/yr.Thesearenotinsignificantimpacts. ThepointisthatSSATisapowerfulandusefultoolthatcanbereliedupontoaccuratelyreflectthesysteminteractionsofcomplexsteamsystems.

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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

[SlideVisualResultsSummary] CostSummary ($'000s/yr) PowerCost FuelCost MakeUpWaterCost TotalCost(in$ '000s/yr) UtilityBalance PowerGeneration PowerImport TotalSiteElectrical Demand BoilerDuty FuelType FuelConsumption BoilerSteamFlow FuelCost(in$/MMBtu) PowerCost(as$/MMBtu) MakeUpWaterFlow 7961m3/h 10.00 20.51 7785m3/h CurrentOperation 3245kW 15000kW 18245kW 147kW NaturalGas 146820.3 scu.ft/h 143kW NaturalGas 143313.3 scu.ft/h 96.6klb/h 10.00 20.51 AfterProjects 3131kW 15115kW 18245kW 115kW 4kW 3507scu.ft/h 2.4klb/h 176m3/h 2.2% 2.4% 2.4% Reduction 0.8% 2.4% CurrentOperation 9,198 12,861 174 22,234 AfterProjects 9,268 12,554 170 21,993 70 307 4 241 Reduction 0.8% 2.4% 2.2% 1.1%

99.0klb/h

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DOEs BestPractices Steam End User Training

Slide31BlowdownLossReduction Insummary,withrespecttoboilerblowdown;wemustmeasureboilerwaterchemistryandtheblowdownratetoappropriatelymanageour resourcesinthisarea.Weshouldworktoimproveourboilerfeedwaterquality.Incorporatingthermalenergyrecoverycomponentscanalmost eliminatethelossassociatedwithblowdown. [SlideVisualBlowdownLossReductionSummary] Measureblowdownflow(chemicalanalysis) Controlblowdownflow(conductivityandchemistry) Controlwaterchemistry Improvefeedwaterquality Recoverflashsteamtolowpressuresystems

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