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Chemical Reactions

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oxidation and reduction

thermal decomposition

exothermic and endothermic

neutralisation

Types of chemical change

displacement reactions: metals

precipitation

reversible reactions

displacement reactions: non-metals


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Thermal decomposition
A thermal decomposition is when heat causes a chemical to break down to simpler substances. Compounds but not elements - undergo thermal decomposition. For compounds that contain metals we usually find: the more reactive the metal, the harder it is to decompose its compounds. For example:
Gets harder

Potassium carbonate is not thermally decomposed. Calcium carbonate decomposes on strong heating Silver carbonate decomposes on gentle heating

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Thermal decomposition
Generally, the more reactive the metal, the more difficult it is to decompose its compounds. Fill in the last column: easy, medium or hard. Compound Mercury oxide How easy to decompose
easy hard medium easy medium Potassium sodium calcium magnesium aluminium zinc iron copper mercury silver gold

Sodium oxide
Iron oxide Silver oxide

Zinc oxide

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Increasing reactivity

Thermal decomposition of carbonates


When carbonates are heated they release carbon dioxide. This reaction is performed industrially to make calcium oxide (quicklime) from calcium carbonate (limestone). Quicklime is used to make concrete and to make calcium hydroxide (slaked lime).
Calcium Carbonate limestone waste air and carbon dioxide

Hot air

1500C

Calcium oxide

Carbon dioxide calcium oxide (lime)


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Thermal decomposition of metal oxides


Most metal oxides are thermally stable (i.e. do not decompose when heated). Oxides of the least reactive metals can be thermally decomposed more easily. For example, silver oxide begins to break up at about 160oC and mercury oxide decomposes when heated strongly.
mercury metal and oxygen formed

O O Hg Hg

O O Hg
Hg

Heat
Hg O Hg O O Hg O Hg Hg O Hg O
O Hg O Hg Hg O Hg O O Hg O Hg Hg O Hg O O Hg O Hg mercury oxide decomposes

Mercury Oxide

Mercury

oxygen

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Exothermic and endothermic reactions


Ex = out (as in exit) En = in (as in entrance)

Exothermic reactions give out heat (gets hot). Endothermic reactions take in heat (gets cold). Many chemical reactions need some energy to get them started (activation energy) but then the majority of chemical reactions are exothermic.
Shuttle fuel burninghighly exothermic

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Exothermic and endothermic reactions


It is hard to think of examples of endothermic reactions but there are lots of exothermic ones that occur in the laboratory and in everyday life. List 8 exothermic reactions. Some examples of exothermic reactions

Burning wood on a fire Burning petrol in a car Burning butane in a cigarette lighter Burning gas in a gas hob Reacting an acid and alkali together Burning magnesium Rotting compost etc etc
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Displacement reactions: metals


These are reactions where two metals are competing to be combined with a non-metal. The more reactive metal wins the competition and becomes part of a compound. The less reactive metal is displaced and so is present as the metal at the end of the reaction.
Potassium sodium calcium magnesium aluminium zinc iron copper silver gold

A more reactive metal (higher in the reactivity series) will displace a less reactive metal from its compound.
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Increasing reactivity

Displacement reactions: metals


Copper is quite low in the activity series. Several metals will displace it from its compounds.

magnesium

copper sulphate solution

magnesium sulphate solution


copper metal

K Na Ca Mg Al Zn Fe Cu Ag Au

Magnesium

Copper sulphate

Magnesium sulphate

Copper

more reactive

less reactive

Magnesium wins the competition. Copper is displaced.


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Displacement reactions: metals


Here are some actual photos. The colour changes from blue to red/black as copper metal is displaced.
photograph at start of reaction photograph at end of reaction

K Na Ca Mg Al Zn Fe Cu Ag Au

Magnesium +

Copper sulphate less reactive

Magnesium sulphate

Copper

more reactive

Magnesium wins the competition. Copper is displaced

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Displacement reactions: metals


The thermit reaction takes place between aluminium and iron oxide. It is so exothermic that molten iron is produced and the reaction is used to repair broken railway tracks.
K Na Ca Mg Al Zn Fe Cu Ag Au magnesium fuse

iron oxide + aluminium powder

Aluminium

Iron Oxide

Aluminium Oxide

Iron

more reactive

less reactive

Aluminium wins the competition. Iron is displaced and melts at the high temperatures produced.
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Displacement reactions: metals


Here is a photo of the thermit reaction being carried out in a laboratory.

magnesium fuse

iron oxide + aluminium powder

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Predict which mixtures will result in a reaction.

Metal Solution Iron chloride Magnesium nitrate Zinc nitrate Copper sulphate

Iron

Magnesium

Zinc

Copper

Yes

Yes No

No
No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

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Displacement reactions: halogens


These are displacement reactions where two halogens are competing to be combined with a metal. It is the more reactive halogen that will win and become part of a compound. The less reactive halogen remains (or becomes) the element.

Fluorine

Chlorine
Bromine Iodine

We can often tell which halogen is present from the colour of the solution.
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Increasing reactivity

Displacement reactions: halogens


For example, if chlorine solution is added to sodium bromide.
F Cl Br I At

chlorine solution sodium bromide solution

sodium chloride solution


bromine

Chlorine

Sodium Bromide

Sodium Chloride

Bromine

more reactive

less reactive

Chlorine wins the competition. Bromine (red) is displaced.


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Predict what colour these will be after mixing.


The compounds of the halogens with Group 1 metals are all colourless.
Halogen Halide Potassium chloride Potassium bromide Potassium Iodide
Br2

Chlorine solution

Bromine solution
Br2

Iodine Solution
I2

I2

I2

I2

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Displacement reactions: halogens


When writing equations for halogen displacement reactions you must remember that when in the form of the element halogens exist in pairs.
F Cl Br I At

For chlorine and sodium bromide: Sodium sodium bromide chloride

Chlorine +

+ bromine

Cl2(aq) + 2NaBr(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + Br2(aq)


Cl More reactive
Br Less reactive Solution goes yellow/brown as bromine is produced.

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Predict whether or not a chemical reaction will occur.


If no reaction - not write no reaction. Where there is a reaction write the names of the products and then write a chemical equation underneath.
1) iodine + sodium bromide solution
F Cl Br I At

No reaction
No reaction

2) bromine + sodium chloride solution

3) chlorine + sodium iodide solution sodium chloride + iodine Cl2(g) + 2NaI(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + I2(aq)

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Reversible and irreversible reaction


Most chemical reactions are considered irreversible in that the new products are not readily changed back into reactants. For example, once you have reacted magnesium with hydrochloric acid it is very hard to get the magnesium back. In the equations for irreversible reactions reactants and products are joined by a one-way arrow.
magnesium + hydrochloric magnesium + hydrogen acid chloride

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Reversible reactions
Although most chemical reactions are difficult to reverse it is possible to find reactions ranging from irreversible through to the fully reversible.

One of the best known reversible processes is heating copper sulphate. Note the double arrow symbol in the chemical equation Heat
hydrated copper sulphate anhydrous copper sulphate steam

CuSO4.5H20
these decompose

CuSO4

5H2O

these combine
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Equilibrium reactions
There are some reactions in which both the forward and backward reactions occur to a substantial extent under the same conditions.

These lead to equilibrium mixtures of reactants and products.


One of the most important of these reactions occurs in the Haber Process.

N2(g) + 3H2(g)

2 NH3(g)

However long you leave the reaction going you still get a mixture of nitrogen, hydrogen and ammonia.

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Getting more product at equilibrium


There are some simple rules that can be used to move the position of an equilibrium towards reactants or products: 1. Exothermic reactions give more product at lower temperatures. (Endothermic the opposite) 2. Increasing the pressure in gas reactions favours whichever side of the chemical equation has least gas molecules. What conditions will favour formation of more ammonia?

3H2(g) + N2 (g)
Low temperature

2NH3 (g) (exothermic)


High pressure
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Precipitation reactions
A precipitation reaction is any reaction that produces an insoluble compound when two aqueous solutions are mixed. It is impossible to predict whether or not we will get precipitation reactions unless we know something about the physical states (especially solubility) of the various reactants and products. Here are the symbols that we use in chemical equations to say what the physical state is:
(s) (l) (g) (aq) solid liquid gas aqueous (dissolved in water)

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Precipitation reactions first example


A precipitation reaction that is often used to measure reaction rates occurs between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid.
Sodium + thiosulphate aqueous hydrochloric acid aqueous sodium + sulphur + water + sulphur chloride dioxide
solid aqueous solid

liquid

gas

Both reactants are colourless and dissolved (aq)

Sulphur is insoluble and precipitates. This makes the solution go cloudy.

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Precipitation reactions second example


Most metal hydroxides (except sodium, potassium and calcium) are insoluble. Reactions leading to their formation give precipitates.
Copper + sulphate aqueous ammonium hydroxide aqueous copper hydroxide
solid solid

ammonium sulphate aqueous

Both reactants are dissolved (aq). Copper sulphate is blue.

Copper hydroxide is insoluble and precipitates. A pale blue solid settles at the bottom of the test tube.

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Precipitation reactions third example


Another metal hydroxide that precipitates is iron(III) hydroxide. Like many transition metals its compounds are coloured.
Iron + sodium chloride hydroxide
aqueous aqueous

iron hydroxide
solid solid

sodium chloride
aqueous

Both reactants are dissolved (aq) (iron chloride is yellow).

Iron hydroxide is insoluble and precipitates. A deep brown solid settles at the bottom of the test tube.

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Precipitation and solubility


To work out whether a precipitate will be formed we need to know the solubility of the compounds that may be formed. Here are a few general guidelines:
Soluble All sodium, potassium and ammonium salts All nitrates Most chlorides, bromides and iodides. (halides) Most sulphates Sodium, potassium and ammonium carbonates Sodium, potassium, ammonium and calcium hydroxide Silver and lead halides Lead, barium and calcium sulphates Most carbonates Most hydroxides Insoluble

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Precipitation and solubility


To work out whether a precipitate will be formed when many ionic compounds react there are four stages:
1 Write down the names of the reactants. Sodium chloride & lead nitrate Na+ ClPb2+ ClPb2+ NO3Na+ NO3-

2
3 4

Write down the ions in the reactants. (Ignore numbers)


Swap over the + and ions. Are the products going to be soluble or insoluble?

Lead chloride is insoluble so there will be a precipitate

Sodium + chloride

lead nitrate

lead chloride
solid solid

sodium nitrate

aqueous

aqueous

aqueous

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Will there be a precipitate if I mix sodium sulphate and magnesium nitrate?


1 2 3 4 Write down the names of the reactants. Write down the ions in the reactants. Swap over the + and ions. Are the products going to be soluble or insoluble? Sodium nitrate Na+ SO42Mg2+ SO42& Magnesium sulphate Mg2+ NO3Na+ NO3-

Both the products are soluble there will be no precipitate.

Sodium + sulphate aqueous

magnesium nitrate aqueous

magnesium sulphate aqueous

+ sodium nitrate aqueous

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Will there be a precipitate if I mix sodium sulphate and barium nitrate?


1 2 3 4 Write down the names of the reactants. Write down the ions in the reactants. Swap over the + and ions. Are the products going to be soluble or insoluble? Sodium sulphate & barium nitrate Na+ SO42Ba2+ SO42Ba2+ NO3Na+ NO3-

Barium sulphate is insoluble so there will be a precipitate.

Sodium + sulphate aqueous

barium nitrate aqueous

barium sulphate
solid solid

sodium nitrate aqueous

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Separating Precipitates reminder!

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Neutralisation reactions
Acids are substances that: Turn litmus red. Turn universal indicator yellow, orange or red. Have a pH below 7. Form solutions containing H+ ions. Bases are substances that: Turn litmus blue. Turn universal indicator dark green, blue or purple. React with the H+ ions in acids. Are called alkalis if they dissolve in water. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Increasingly acid

Increasingly alkali

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Neutralisation reactions: acids


Common Acids are
Name of acid Sulphuric Hydrochloric Nitric Ethanoic (vinegar) Formula
H2SO4

Strong or Weak?
strong strong strong weak

HCl
HNO3 CH3COOH

Salts
Sulphuric acid Nitric acid Hydrochloric acid

Sulphates

Nitrates

Chlorides

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Neutralisation reactions: bases


Common alkalis are
Name of alkali
Sodium Hydroxide

Formula
NaOH

Strong or Weak?
strong strong strong weak

Potassium Hydroxide
Calcium Hydroxide Ammonium Hydroxide

KOH
Ca(OH)2 NH4OH

Common bases (neutralise acids but dont dissolve) are


Type of compound Metal Hydroxides Metal Oxides Metal Carbonates Contain React with acids to give
OH-

water + a salt water + a salt water + a salt + CO2


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O2CO32-

Neutralisation reactions: acid + base


A neutralisation reaction is where an acid reacts with a base to produce a neutral solution of a salt and water.

sodium hydroxide pH 14 neutralisation hydrochloric acid pH 1 sodium chloride pH 7

10 11 12 13 14

Increasingly acid

Increasingly alkali

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Neutralisation - naming salts To name the salt formed in a neutralisation: 1 The first part of the name of the salt comes from the first name of the base
So Ammonium hydroxide gives ammonium Magnesium oxide gives magnesium ...

2 The acid gives the last part of the name of the salt.
So Sulphuric acid make sulphates Nitric acid makes nitrates Hydrochloric acid makes chlorides
Sodium nitrate
calcium sulphate

Eg. Sodium hydroxide + nitric acid forms:


Calcium carbonate + sulphuric acid forms:

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Name the salt formed in these neutralisations:

+
Base Calcium hydroxide Magnesium oxide Calcium carbonate Aluminium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Acid

Salt?
Calcium chloride Magnesium nitrate Calcium sulphate Aluminium nitrate Potassium sulphate

Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Sulphuric acid Nitric acid Sulphuric acid

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Neutralisation reactions: hydroxides


Each OH- ion reacts with one H+ ion.

Reaction with hydroxides:

H+ + OH- H2O
potassium chloride

Eg. Potassium +hydrochloric water + hydroxide acid

KOH

HCl

H2O

+ KCl
calcium sulphate CaSO4

Eg. Calcium + sulphuric water + hydroxide acid Ca(OH)2 + H2SO4

2H2O +

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Neutralisation Reactions: oxides


Neutralisation reactions usually lead to water being formed.

Reaction with oxides:

2H+ + O2- H2O


calcium chloride + CaCl2

Eg. Calcium + hydrochloric water + oxide acid CaO + 2HCl H2O

Eg. Sodium + sulphuric water + oxide acid


Na2O + H2SO4 H2O

sodium sulphate
+ Na2SO4

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Neutralisation Reactions: carbonates


Each carbonate ion provides one oxygen to join with two H+ ions. At the same time carbon dioxide is released.

Carbonates:

2H+ + CO32- H2O + CO2

Eg. Potassium + hydrochloric water + carbon + potassium carbonate acid dioxide chloride

K2CO3
Eg. calcium + carbonate

+ 2HCl
nitric acid

H2O + CO2

2KCl

water + carbon + calcium dioxide nitrate

CaCO3

+ 2HNO3

H2O

+ CO2

+Ca(NO3)2

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Neutralisation equations
Complete the word equation
Eg. Potassium + hydrochloric hydroxide acid

water

Potassium chloride

Replace the words with the correct formula


Eg.

KOH

+ HCl

H2O

KCl

Check that it balances (same number of each type of atom each side).
Eg.

KOH

+ HCl
Reactants 1*O 2*H

H2O + KCl
Products 1*O 1*K

1*Cl

1*K

1*Cl

2*H

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Neutralisation equations
Complete the word equation
Eg. Magnesium + nitric oxide acid water + Magnesium nitrate

Replace the words with the correct formula


Eg.

MgO

+ HNO3

H2O

Mg(NO3)2

Check that it balances (Same number of each type of atom each side.
Eg.

MgO

2 HNO3

2 H 2O

Mg(NO3)2 Products 1*O 1*Mg

1*Mg

Reactants 1*O 1*H

1*NO3

2*H

2*NO3

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Write balanced equations going through the same stages as the previous examples. 1. word equation 2. formulae 3. balance
a) sodium hydroxide + hydrochloric acid

b) magnesium oxide + hydrochloric acid


c) sodium hydroxide + sulphuric acid d) ammonium hydroxide + hydrochloric acid e) calcium hydroxide + nitric acid

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Insoluble salts can be separated by filtering. Soluble salts are obtained by evaporating.
Put these in the correct order.

A. Check the pH frequently by testing drops of the solution.


B. Add the acid slowly to the alkali. C. When neutral pour into the evaporating basin. D. Put on safety specs. E. Allow to cool F. Heat.

vapour
gauze tripod heat-proof mat bunsen burner evaporating basin

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Redox Reactions
Redox is a short way of saying: Early on in chemistry these words had very straightforward meanings.
Oxidation meant adding oxygen to a substance.
Rusting (iron becoming iron oxide) is an example of oxidation.
Reduction and oxidation

Reduction meant taking oxygen away. Extracting iron from iron oxide in the blast furnace is reduction.

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Redox reactions: oxidation and ions


Many redox reactions involve metals and their oxides. Whenever metals react with oxygen they form ionic compounds and the metal loses electrons to form positively charged ions. Eg. When magnesium burns to form magnesium oxide magnesium atoms (no charge) become magnesium ions (2+ charge) by losing 2 electrons to oxygen atoms.

Mg

2 e-

to give

Mg2+

O2-

Oxidation involves loss of electrons.

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Redox reactions: electron loss


Think about what has happened to the magnesium when it reacts with oxygen. It has been oxidised.

It has lost electrons by changing from Mg Mg2+


Magnesium can also lose electrons to things other than oxygen (e.g. to chlorine or sulphur) and since these also involve Mg Mg2+ these too must be oxidation.
O2Mg2+

O
Mg2+

Mg

S
S2-

Cl
Cl- Mg2+ Cl-

Oxidation is the loss of electrons.

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Redox reactions: electron gain


Exactly the same reasoning applies to reduction. Reduction can be the removal of oxygen (e.g. from iron oxide to form iron or from aluminium oxide in the electrolysis to extract aluminium.) When this happens the metal gets back its electrons. Aluminium has been reduced.

Aluminium has gained electrons


O2Al3+
O2Al3+ O2Al Al O

Oxygen removed

Reduction is the gain of electrons.

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Redox Reactions: oil rig


An easy way of remembering this is Oil Rig! of electrons

O oxidation I is

loss

R reduction I is

gain

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Redox Reactions:Two for one!


Whenever something is oxidised, something else is reduced.
This should be obvious if we use the oil rig definition. If something loses electrons then something else must have gained them. For example, when burning magnesium:
Magnesium loses electrons (Mg Mg2+ ..oxidation) Oxygen gains electrons

(O O2-

.reduction)

The overall reaction is both Reduction and Oxidation = Redox


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Say whether the substance in red type is oxidised or reduced.


Calcium + oxygen
oxidised

calcium oxide

Zinc oxide + hydrogen


reduced

zinc + water

Copper chloride
reduced

copper + chlorine

Aluminium + iron oxide


oxidised

iron + aluminium oxide

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If the first substance is oxidised, what has been reduced or vice versa (use whichever definition of oxidation and reduction seems easier to apply). Calcium + oxygen
oxidised

calcium oxide

Oxygen is reduced. Each oxygen atom gains 2 e-.

Zinc oxide + hydrogen


reduced

zinc + water

Hydrogen is oxidised. It gains oxygen.

Copper chloride
reduced

copper + chlorine

Chlorine is oxidised. It gains an electron Cl- Cl2

Aluminium + iron oxide


oxidised

iron + aluminium oxide

Iron is reduced. It loses oxygen.

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Across: 5 tells us whether acid or alkali 11 reaction of an acid with a base 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 Down a solid forms in a solution loss of electrons competition reaction gives solutions containing H+ ions to break down into smaller particles removal of oxygen state of balance soluble base ionic compound formed in neutralisations

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Match them up

Thermal decomposition

Dehydrating copper sulphate

Endothermic Metal displacement Reversible reaction Precipitation Neutralisation Oxidation Reduction Soluble base Equilibrium

A solid forms within a solution A salt and water is formed Alkali Reaction in a state of balance Thermit reaction Removal of oxygen Breaking up with heat Takes in energy gets cold Loss of electrons
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When heated the orange powder erupted like a volcano producing a huge pile of green powder that had less mass than the orange material. What type of reaction is this? 1. Neutralisation 2. Thermal decomposition 3. Displacement 4. Precipitation

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When the two colourless solutions mixed a yellow solid formed which sank to the bottom of the test tube. What type of reaction is this? 1. Neutralisation 2. Thermal decomposition 3. Displacement 4. Precipitation

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When the copper was placed in the silver nitrate solution snow-like crystals of silver seemed to grow out from the copper. What type of reaction is this?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Equilibrium Thermal decomposition Displacement Precipitation

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When the washing soda was added to the lemon juice it fizzed and the pH rose towards 7. What type of reaction is this? 1. 2. 3. 4. Neutralisation Thermal decomposition Displacement Oxidation

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Which of the oxides shown will thermally decompose most easily? 1. 2. 3. 4. Mercury oxide Potassium oxide Iron oxide Silver oxide

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Which of the salts below might be formed when nitric acid neutralises a metal hydroxide? 1. 2. 3. 4. Potassium hydroxide Potassium nitrate Ammonium nitrate Calcium sulphate

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Which of the mixtures below will result in a metal displacement reaction? 1.Potassium oxide and gold 2.Magnesium and sodium nitrate 3.Copper and silver nitrate 4.Aluminium and calcium sulphate

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Which of the mixtures below will result in a non-metal displacement reaction? 1.Potassium chloride and iodine 2.Potassium bromide and iodine 3.Potassium fluoride and chlorine 4.Potassium iodide and chlorine

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Which of the elements in red (below) is oxidised in the reaction? (Oil Rig!) 1.Ca + 2.2Li + 3.2Al + 4.HNO3 CuO CaO + Cu 2HCl 2LiCl + H2 Fe2O3 Al2O3 + 2Fe + CuO CuNO3 + H2O

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Which compound can you be sure is soluble in water? 1. 2. 3. 4. Manganese nitrate Osmium iodide Thallium chloride Palladium sulphate

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