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EDX Software Reference Manual Network Design Module: Positive Train Control Systems

EDX Wireless NDM: PTC Systems Reference Manual Table of Contents

Reference Manual Network Design Module: Positive Train Control Systems Table of Contents
1. Positive Train Control (PTC) Systems
1.1. What is the PTC Section of the Network Design Module? ................................................. NDM-PTC 1 1.2. Installing the Network Design: PTC Systems Module ......................................................... NDM-PTC 2 1.3. Starting a PTC System Design .................................................................................................. NDM-PTC 2 1.4. Accessing the Network Design Module: PTC Systems Functions ..................................... NDM-PTC 2 1.5. System Details / Service Area ................................................................................................... NDM-PTC 4 1.6. Neighbor List Prediction ........................................................................................................... NDM-PTC 5 1.7. Automatic Frequency Planning................................................................................................. NDM-PTC 7 1.7.1. Frequency Planning Parameters ........................................................................................... NDM-PTC 8 1.7.2. Automatic Frequency Planning (AFP) ................................................................................ NDM-PTC 9 1.8. PTC Studies................................................................................................................................ NDM-PTC 13 1.8.1. Handoff regions for PTC systems ..................................................................................... NDM-PTC 13 1.8.2. Worst channel C/(I+N) for multiple-channel systems .................................................. NDM-PTC 14 1.8.3. Maximum available Downlink data rate for PTC systems............................................. NDM-PTC 14 1.8.4. Maximum available Uplink data rate for PTC systems ................................................. NDM-PTC 15

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1. Positive Train Control (PTC) Systems


1.1. What is the PTC Section of the Network Design Module?
The Network Design Module is an optional EDX software module connected to EDX SignalPro. The Positive Train Control (PTC) Systems Section of the Network Design Module (NDM-LTE) gives you the advanced, specialized system engineering capabilities needed to design, re-configure, and optimize PTC wireless networks using route study methods. The NDM-PTC contains special data entry dialog boxes in which you can specify the particular PTC system profile in use along with other details pertaining to that system as well as allowing access to special area studies for those system types. In performing its tasks, this module makes use of many basic signal level calculation techniques that are accessed through EDX SignalPro. A cell site sector (whether omnidirectional or sectorized), is analogous to a transmitter site in EDX SignalPro. When you run an PTC study, the program will extract terrain and land-use (clutter) data, calculate signal levels along a user-defined study route, and build a composite route study in the same way it does in the main program for a transmitter site (see Section 8.5 for the main Reference Manual). It will create .rte files for each cell sector just as it did for each transmitter site. It is helpful to review Section 8.4 for more background on this process. This module also relies on the database settings that are made in the main EDX SignalPro program. Setting up terrain, land use (clutter), traffic, and demographic databases that are used by the NDM- PTC is done on the Databases menu from the Main Map menu. You can also use the extensive mapping and drawing capabilities in EDX SignalPro to create very detailed and informative base maps for your PTC system studies. Detailed base maps are an important tool for determining where cell sites may be located, judging where system capacity may be insufficient (or under-utilized), and gauging how your system needs to evolve to accommodate changing traffic patterns. Drawing maps of traffic (data rate or call density) is a fundamental part of what EDX SignalPros mapping capabilities can do (see Chapter 7 in the Reference Manual).

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EDX Wireless NDM: PTC Systems Because the NDM- PTC offers specialized add-on capabilities, it is important to be fluent with the basic operation and functions of EDX SignalPro before attempting to use this module.

1.2. Installing the Network Design: PTC Systems Module


The capabilities of this module are automatically installed when you install EDX SignalPro with the Network Design Module or when you install EDX SignalRail, as described in Chapter 1 of the Reference Manual. There is no separate installation to be done. The module code is built into the program and the hardware key you receive contains the proper authorization codes to activate the Network Design Module: PTC Systems. To verify that the module is properly installed, select Help/About on the EDX SignalPro main menu. It will indicate whether or not the module is installed.

1.3. Starting a PTC System Design


The standard EDX SignalPro program stores information for a study in the project directory. This directory contains all the parameters and other information needed to completely reproduce a study map on your screen when you open a selected project. The project includes the specific parameters for each of your transmitter sites/sectors, or links, as well as information about the databases, propagation models, and base map features. Projects are explained in Chapter 3 of the Reference Manual. The material in this NDM-PTC reference manual is presented assuming you have already read the Users Guide and the Reference Manual that are included with your software. If you have not done so, please review these materials before moving on to the functions described in the following chapters.

1.4. Accessing the Network Design Module: PTC Systems Functions


If you have started a new project, or opened an existing one, the Network Design Module: PTC Systems functions will be available to you. To access Network Design Module: PTC Systems, select the Network Design/Analysis item on the main EDX SignalPro menu, then select PTC Systems. A sub-menu will appear showing the various elements provided by the module for this system type. There will also be an additional category of studies available when a new area study is added to a project.

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TherearethreePTCNDMmenus: SystemDetailsandServiceArea NeighborListprediction AutomaticFrequencyPlanning

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EDX Wireless NDM: PTC Systems

1.5. System Details / Service Area


The PTC NDM System Details dialog box is shown below:

There are three PTC system Technology Types that the user can choose: PTC NXDN PTC GSM-R PTC - TDMA/CSMA

Handoff criteria can also be specified. The user has the option of specifying whether the handoffs are to be modeled using absolute levels or power ratio (better server). The user also can specify the thresholds used to determine handoffs.

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In the other Network Design Modules, the user specifies a Service Area Boundary polygon file. For route based planning, the user has the option to either select the same study route that is defined for their route studies or to select a unique study route for Neighbor List predictions and Automatic Frequency Planning. Defining Study Routes is explained in section 8.4 of the Reference Manual. A CPT (Channel Plan Template) file needs to be specified. It is used to select available channels, either manually by the user or through Automatic Frequency Planning.

1.6. Neighbor List Prediction


Neighbors in a cell system are other cell base stations or sectors that have signals of sufficient strength in the service area of another cell base station or sector where they are candidates for call handoff. Normally neighbor lists are part of the information that is stored at the cell site and may be downloaded to the mobile unit to facilitate handoff from the currently serving base station to another base station. The neighbor list calculation in the Network Design Module: PTC Systems module is intended as a simple means of determining which sectors are neighbors, and thereby, handoff candidates. In the dialog box you can set the maximum number of neighbors you want listed, and whether to include the 2nd and 3rd best servers in the list. You can also select the transmitter group and the mobile/remote unit for which you want the neighbor list study done. The user also has the option to copy the predicted neighbors into the actual neighbor list for all transmitters in the user-specified group. The NDM Neighbor list generation will use the study route defined in the PTC NDM System Details dialog box for generating neighbors for sites. The dialog box for the PTC NDM Neighbor List looks like this:

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EDX Wireless NDM: PTC Systems

When these parameters are set the way you want them, click on the Calculate neighbor lists for all sectors button and the calculation process will begin. Fundamentally, the program assesses the service area of each sector, and for the analysis study route points, determines which other transmitter sectors can be considered to be the neighbor cell base stations or sectors to which handoffs are likely In the dialog box set the minimum percent area of the primary server that needs to be covered by another server in order for the other server to be considered a neighbor. You can optionally include the 2nd and 3rd best servers in the list and not include co-channel neighbors (same channel or frequency). Select the transmitter group for which you want the neighbor list study done. There is also a selection as to how to select and rank sectors for determination of them as a server or neighbor. Power Received ranks them based on power at the Remote unit whereas C/(I+N) Best Channel looks for the best possible C/(I+N) of a server using one of its assigned channel plan channels. The signal thresholds at which a server can be considered a neighbor is set by the Remote/Mobile Unit Required Server Threshold or Required Service C/(I+N). When the analysis is complete, the neighbor list is applied to the information for each cell base station or sector. It can be viewed by selecting the Neighbor List button on the Transmitter Details dialog box as described in Chapter 9 of the Reference Manual.

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There are more complicated ways to calculate predicted neighbor lists, however the simple method used here is largely as effective as other methods and provides for a very rapid calculation time.

1.7. Automatic Frequency Planning


If your system is large or complicated, the automatic frequency planning capabilities of the Network Design Module: PTC Systems can be used. This process is described in the following sections. The PTC NDM AFP dialog box is as shown below:

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1.7.1. Frequency Planning Parameters


Several parameters are required to do a successful frequency plan. These are explained below:

1.7.1.1. C/I Ratio Objective


This parameter is only used for the Internal and External frequency planning options below. In doing a frequency plan, the first step is to determine which sectors have strong enough signal levels to potentially cause interference to one another. The threshold of determining what constitutes interference for this purpose is set here.

1.7.1.2. Percent Interference Acceptance


When a frequency plan is done, it cannot perfectly assign the channels so that all the interference conflicts are resolved and all the traffic is accommodated. This parameter tells the program that the maximum percentage of a sectors service area (i.e. the area where it is the strongest signal) which can be lost to interference is this percentage value. A typical value here is 5 or 10 %.

1.7.1.3. Traffic Source


When using the Internal planning option as described below, the traffic source that determines system loading can be specified. For PTC the Data traffic options are used. Either predicted or measured traffic can be selected. These traffic figures are drawn from the appropriate entry found in each transmitter sectors Channel Grid window. The traffic value used for planning can be scaled up or down by entering a number other than 100% in the Percent of total traffic for planning box.

1.7.1.4. Deny Co/Adj channels at site


These two options allow you to restrict the assignment of adjacent channels and/or cochannels to sectors at the same base site. Typically co-channels are never assigned to different sectors at a site unless the channel re-use is one.

1.7.1.5. Minimum Channel Separation at Site


In some systems, even adjacent channels do not provide sufficient isolation between sectors. This value allows you to set the minimum channel spacing between channels assigned to sectors at the same base site. Zero is the default.

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1.7.1.6. Assign Fixed Number of Channels


Normally the number of channels per sector is determined by the estimated traffic load at the sector. If this information is not available this option allows you assign a fixed number of channels at each sector.

1.7.2. Automatic Frequency Planning (AFP)


There are two methods of automatic frequency planning (AFP) available in the Network Design PTC Systems, Internal and External. These three methods are discussed below.

1.7.2.1. Internal
When you select Internal, you will invoke EDXs method for AFP. This method provides for interference conflict resolution as well as balancing channels assigned to sectors to match traffic demand. When using Internal (or External), the first step the program performs is to calculate a sector compatibility matrix. This is done only for the study route points that are specified in the Define Study Route dialog in the PTC System Details dialog box. For the user-specified study route points, the program will calculate and define the service areas for each sector as those study route points where that sector provides the strongest signal. Only those sectors whose signal exceeds the Required Service Threshold found for the specified Remote/Mobile Unit will be considered. Next it will look at the signal levels for the study route points in each sectors service area and determine those which are strong enough that the C/(I+N) ratio objective is violated. It will track all those study route points where this ratio is violated for each sector and the sectors that cause the interference. It will then calculate the degree of interference each other sector causes by calculating the percent of interference locations as a function of the total service area for the victim sector. Finally, based on the service area of each sector, it will determine the traffic load from the areas served by that sector and using for packet-switched traffic, the number of channels based on data/channel. The results of this processing are written to an ASCII data file called cellcmpx.dat. This is the basic data that the AFP optimization will use to do its work. The format of the cellcmpx.dat file is as follows:

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EDX Wireless NDM: PTC Systems

num_sectors cinr accept_intrf minutes_per_call blocking_prob siteid_serv serv_area calls traffic num_chan_req num_chan_assigned ky_lock nchan(1) nchan(2) nchan(3) . . . . . . . nchan(num_chan_assigned) siteid_intrf(1) prcnt_intrf(1) siteid_intrf(2) prcnt_intrf(2) siteid_intrf(3) prcnt_intrf(3) . . . siteid_intrf(num_sectors-1) prcnt_intrf(num_sectors-1)

where:

EDX . . . - header line to identify the file

num_sectors the number of sector with information in this file

cinr the objective C/(I+N) ratio

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accept_intrf the percent of interference which can be accepted in a sector service area

minutes_per_call the average call duration in minutes

Blocking_prob the percent blocking probability

Siteid_serv the ID of the serving sector

Serv_area the total area for this serving site square kilometers

calls - the number of calls per hour for this sector

traffic the required traffic load for this sector

num_chan_req the number of channels required to accommodate the traffic given the GOS.

num_chan_assigned the number of channels currently assigned to this sector.

ky_lock this equals 1 if the channel lock checkbox is checked on the channel plan screen for this sector. These means the current assignments for this sector are to remain unchanged.

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EDX Wireless NDM: PTC Systems

nchan(1), nchan(2) . . . the channel numbers currently assigned to this sector. If the channel assignments on this sector are locked, then the AFP algorithm must preserve this channel assignment list and protect it from interference during the AFP process.

siteid_intrf the ID of the interfering sector

prcnt_intrf the percent of the total serving sector service area that is interfered with by this interfering sector. This number is a relative indication of degree of conflict between the serving sector and this interfering sector.

The above information is listed once in the cellcmpx.dat file for each sector in the system. With the information in this file, and the cell channel plan template showing the number of available channels, the EDX AFP algorithm is ready to do its work. Basically, it attempts to devise channel assignments for each sector so that the traffic demand is met while at the same time making channel assignments so that no same or adjacent channels are used between sectors that have conflicts. The basic technique it uses is called simulated annealing (SA), which is a combinatorial optimization process. With simulating annealing (SA), there are several parameters that are used to control the process. Typical values are:
number of cooling levels = 300 cooling level step multiplier = 0.85 number of iterations at each cooling level = 900 co-channel cost weighting coefficient = 1.00 adjacent channel cost weighting coefficient = 0.01 interference cost weighting coefficient = 1.00

demand cost weighting coefficient = 1.00

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You can adjust these parameters if desired for your particular optimization. Before doing so, however, it would be worthwhile to review references on Simulated Annealing to understand the significance of the parameters. Depending on the number of sectors, and the parameter settings, this process could take from several minutes to several hours to complete. When completed, the channel assignment results will be contained in an ASCII data file called chanplan.tmp. The chanplan.tmp file is read by EDX software and those channel assignments loaded into the channel plan dialog box data positions for each sector in the group selected for Automatic Frequency Planning. From that point forward you are ready to begin coverage and interference studies with your new optimized channel assignment plan.

1.7.2.2. External
External basically gives you access to an external dynamic link library (DLL) which

contains your own compiled and linked code for doing the AFP. Before calling this routine, the Network Design: PTC Systems performs all the calculations to create the cellcmpx.dat file as described above. It then passes this file name and the other relevant file names to the external AFP routine. When this routine is completed, the channel assignment results are written to an ASCII file called chanplan.tmp from which the channel assignments are imported back into EDX SignalPro. The details of how the parameters are passed to the external routine, and the required format for the resulting channel assignment file, are found in the comment statements in the sample ext_afp.for code included on the distribution CD. Appendix J also has for more information on using this and other external calculation DLLs with EDX SignalPro.

1.8. PTC Studies


In addition to the Basic Studies that are defined in Appendix F, the following studies are available for the PTC Network Design Module:

1.8.1. Handoff regions for PTC systems


The map of handoff regions is calculated in one of two ways. If you have selected Absolute level as the handoff type on the PTC System Details dialog box, then the handoff map will show areas where there are two or more signals that fall within the signal level range between the handoff level and the minimum useable level as set on the PTC System Details dialog box.

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EDX Wireless NDM: PTC Systems If you selected Power ratio as the handoff method, then the handoff map will show those areas where the ratio between the strongest and second strongest server is equal to or less than the power ratio value you enter on the PTC System Details dialog box.

1.8.2. Worst channel C/(I+N) for multiple-channel systems


This study calculates interference statistics for multi-channel systems. This study will evaluate each assigned channel for each transmitter in the group of transmitters that the study is run for. This study produces a C/(I+N) plot of the most interfered with channel for the serving sector in each grid square. This study also produces a report that describes the interference statistics for each assigned channel of each transmitter

1.8.3. Maximum available Downlink data rate for PTC systems


This study calculates the maximum available downlink data rate for PTC systems based on the predicted downlink C/(I+N) at each route point. This requires the use of an external data file named ptc_data_rate.dat that is installed in the EDX program files installation \Data subdirectory. This file format is explained below:

'TDMA CSMA' <first line is the PTC air-interface technology that must match what is used for the PTC Network Design Module Technology Type selection> 6 <second line is the number of lines of data that follow>

25.0 50.0 35.0 <each data line is the minimum C/(I+N), the downlink data rate and the uplink data rate that are achievable for that data rate> 20.0 45.0 31.0 15.0 35.0 25.0 12.0 25.0 15.0 8.0 12.0 8.0 5.0 5.0 1.0

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Note that each data line needs to be ordered from the highest minimum C/(I+N) to the lowest usable C(I+N).

1.8.4. Maximum available Uplink data rate for PTC systems


This study is similar to the Maximum available Downlink data rate for PTC systems study except that it calculates the maximum available uplink data rate for PTC systems based on the predicted uplink C/(I+N) at the strongest base station receiver from the user-selected mobile/remote unit at each route point and uses the ptc_data_rate.dat file described above to determine the uplink data rate.

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EDX Wireless NDM: PTC Systems

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