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Operational Amplifiers and Filters

Dr. Ghulam Mustafa Adjunct Professor, Santa Clara University

Purpose and Overview

Operational Amplifier Abstraction. Op Amp Circuits. Impedance Approach for Linear Circuits Linear Filter Circuits. Putting it all together.

MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

Putting it all together

Resistances, Capacitances, Inductance Element Laws Circuit Laws

N-P type semiconductors NP Junction Diodes NPN Junctions BJT MOSFET

MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

MOSFET Abstraction
Flow of Liquid from Source to Drain
Source
Depletion Region

Current from Source to Drain


Drain

MOSFET Common Source

Gate

Gate

+ G Input

Current Flow

D Output

Supply

Drain

+
Source

vs
vs vi vi vo

vo vi

vo

MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

Op Amp - Abstraction

Power Port

Input v i Port

+ -

Output vo Port

+ + -

Input v i Port

+ -

vo Port

Output

MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

Op Amp Under the hood


vo

v+ i+ = 0 vi Ri i =0

+ -

Ro

Av = A(v + v )

1. 2. 3. 4.

Input current = 0 Input resistance is infinity Output resistance is zero A is infinity (very large)

vo (Volts)

vo
Saturation Region

Saturation Region

vi ( Volts )
Active Region

vo

MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

Non-inverting Amplifier
v+
+ -

+ -

vo
R1
+ -

i+ = 0 i = 0

A(v + v )

v+
v

R1

i=0
R2
R2

v0 = A(v + v ) = A[vin v0 ( v0 [1 + A( v0 = R2 )] = Avin R1 + R2

R2 )] R1 + R2

Avin Avin R + R2 vin ( 1 ) R2 R2 R 2 [1 + A( )] A( ) R1 + R2 R1 + R2

MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

Non-inverting Amplifier
v+
+ +

R1 = 9R

v0 = vin (

10 R1 + R2 ) = vin ( ) = 10vin R2 1

R2 = R

MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

Feedback (or negative feedback)


vo (Volts)

vo
Saturation Region

v+

Saturation Region

vi ( Volts)
Active Region

+ -

+ -

vo
R1

vo

R2

Small change in A can cause large variations in vo

Negative feedback guarantees stability

MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

Inverting Amplifier
R2 R1 vin
+ -

vo R2
vo

i = 0 i+ = 0

vin R1

vin vo R + = 0 vo = vin 2 R1 R2 R1

+ R1=1k + AC Voltage Source 0.1V + Op -Amp R2=10 f(x)=0 Solver Configuration + Voltage Sensor PS -Simulink Converter Voltage V PS S

Inverting Op-Amp Circuit


This model shows a inverting op -amp circuit .

MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

Adder
Rf v1

vo Rf

R1
R2

i = 0

v2

+ 3+2=5

vo

vi Ri

2 vi v2 vo vi + + = 0 v = R o f R R R i =1 Ri 1 2 f

R1=10 + + V + R2=10.0 f(x)=0 Solver Configuration 1 + Rf=1 Op-Amp1 + Voltage Sensor1 PS-Simulink Converter 1 Voltage 1 PS S

3V

2V

Adding Op-Amp Circuit

V1=3V V2=2V R1,R2,Rf=10Ohm Vo=-10*(3/10+2/10)= -5v

MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

Differentiator
i
v in

+ -

d dt

vo

vin + -

i =C

dvin dt

Rf

vo Rf

i = 0
vin +
-

vo

in C dv dt

dvin vo dv + = 0 vo = C in dt R f dt

MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

Linear Filters The Frequency Response


Main Assumption Linear Elements with Sinusoidal Input
Linear Element
ir
R vr = R.ir

Sinusoidal
v = V est i = I est

Impedance Models
I Rest
R VR e st VR est = R.I Re st VR = R.I R

vr
C

ic vc
L

ic = C.

dvc dt

IC e

st

I C est = sC.VC est VR = 1 .I R sC

VC est
L

il vl
Z

di vl = L. l dt

VLe st = sL.I Le st
st

I Lest

VL = sL.I R

VLe

I V

V = Z .I

Z R = R; ZC =

I ; Z L = sL sC

MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

Linear Circuit The Impedance Approach


R1

vi

R2

vr

R1 R R2 v R2 = 2 vr = vi r = vi v r vr R1 + R 2 vi R1 + R 2
ZR

vi

vc

VI

ZC

VC

H ( s)

Transfer Function

1 ZC VC ZC 1 sC VC = VI = = = 1 ZC + Z R VI ZC + Z R + R 1 + sRC sC
MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

Low Pass Filter


R

H ( j )
C

Low Pass Filter 1

vc

1 + i RC 0 , H ( ) 1

H ( j ) =

1/ 2
Allows Low Freq Blocks High Freq

vi

, H ( ) 1 / RC
R=10000 C=0.00001 1/RC=10
M a g n i t u d e( d B )

= 1 / RC
Bode Diagram 0 -5 -10

Step Response 1 0.8 Amplitude 0.6 0.4

-15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 0

Allows Low Freq

Blocks High Freq

P h a s e( d e g )

0.2 0

-45

0.2 Time (sec)

0.4

0.6
-90 10
-1

= 1 / RC
10
0

10 Frequency

10

10

(rad/sec)

MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

Frequency Characteristic of Impedance


ZR = R ZC = 1 / sC = 1 / jC Z L = sL = jL
Low Frequency

H ( j )
1

R
L L
C 1 / C

High Frequency

R : Allows all frequencies to pass through. C: Allows low frequencies to pass and blocks high frequencies. Acts as short circuit at low frequencies and open circuit at high frequencies. L: Allows high frequencies to pass and blocks low frequencies. Acts as open circuit at low frequencies and short circuit at high frequencies.

H ( j ) = 1, 0 ,

H ( j ) = , 0, H ( j ) = 0,

H ( j ) = 0, 0, H ( j ) = ,

MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

High Pass Filter


ZC
ZR VR = VI ZC + Z R

H ( j )
1 j RC 1 / 2

High Pass Filter


Block Low Freq

VI

ZR

VR

VR ZR R = = = 1 VI ZC + Z R + R 1 + j RC sC

Allow Low Freq

0, H ( ) RC , H ( ) RC / RC 1
Step Response 1

= 1 / RC
Bode Diagram 0

-10 Magnitude (dB)

Block High Freq Allows High Freq

-20

Amplitude

R=10000 C=0.00001 1/RC=10

0.9 0.8 0.7

-30

-40
0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

90

Phase (deg)

45

0.1

0.2

0.3 Time (sec)

0.4

0.5

0.6

0 10
0

= 1 / RC
10 Frequency (rad/sec)
1

10

MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

Band Pass Filter


ZL

ZC
VR = ZR VI (Z L + ZC ) + Z R

H ( j )
1
Block Low Freq

Band Pass Filter


Block High Freq Allow Res. Freq Resonance Condition

VI

ZR

VR

VR R j RC = = 2 1 VI sL + + R 1 LC + j RC sC

0, H ( ) RC , H ( ) R / L + R
Magnitude (dB) 0

= 1 / LC
Bode Diagram

1 / LC , H ( ) 1
R=10000 C=0.00001 L=1000 1/sqrt(LC)=10

-10

Block Low Freq

-20

Allow Res. Freq

Block High Freq

-30

-40 90

Phase (deg)

80

70

MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University60


10
-1

= 1 / LC
10
0

10

10

10

Frequency (rad/sec)

Signal Conditioning Overview

Physical Phenomenon

Transducer

Signal

Amplification

Filter

Digitization

Processing / Control

What are your phenomena?

What are your signals?

Know thy filter

What is your frequency?

MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

Signal Conditioning = Filter + Op Amp


LP Filter Non-Inverting Amp v+
+ -

Signal Conditioning Unit


v+
R

vi

+ -

R1

vo
vi

+ -

R1

vo

H ( j ) =

1 1 + i RC

v 0 = v in (

R1 + R 2 ) R2

R2

R2

+ + 1k R3 Op -Amp R2=9k
+ +

V + Voltage Sensor

PS S PS -Simulink Converter Voltage

2V p -p 0.1 uF

C1
+

R1=1k
-

f(x)=0 Solver Configuration

LP Filter and Noninverting Op -Amp Circuit


This model shows a low pass filter and noninverting op -amp circuit .

MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

Summary
Non-Inverting Amp
v+

+ -

+ -

R1

Low Pass Filter

vo

C
vi

vc

R2

Allows Low Freq

Blocks High Freq

R2

R1

= 1 / RC
vo

Inverting Amp

vin

i =0

i+ = 0

High Pass Filter

VI

ZR

VR

1/

Block Low Freq Allow Low Freq


= 1 / RC

Rf

Adding Amp

v1
v2

R1 R2

i = 0

+
Rf

vo

ZL

ZC

1
ZR V R

Band Pass Filter

Block Low Freq Allow Res. Freq Resonance Condition

Block High Freq

Differentiating Amp

V I

i =0
vin

+ -

vo

= 1 / LC

MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University