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# Operational Amplifiers and Filters

## Purpose and Overview

Operational Amplifier Abstraction. Op Amp Circuits. Impedance Approach for Linear Circuits Linear Filter Circuits. Putting it all together.

## MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

MOSFET Abstraction
Flow of Liquid from Source to Drain
Source
Depletion Region

Drain

Gate

Gate

+ G Input

Current Flow

D Output

Supply

Drain

+
Source

vs
vs vi vi vo

vo vi

vo

## MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

Op Amp - Abstraction

Power Port

Input v i Port

+ -

Output vo Port

+ + -

Input v i Port

+ -

vo Port

Output

## Op Amp Under the hood

vo

v+ i+ = 0 vi Ri i =0

+ -

Ro

Av = A(v + v )

1. 2. 3. 4.

Input current = 0 Input resistance is infinity Output resistance is zero A is infinity (very large)

vo (Volts)

vo
Saturation Region

Saturation Region

vi ( Volts )
Active Region

vo

## MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

Non-inverting Amplifier
v+
+ -

+ -

vo
R1
+ -

i+ = 0 i = 0

A(v + v )

v+
v

R1

i=0
R2
R2

R2 )] R1 + R2

## MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

Non-inverting Amplifier
v+
+ +

R1 = 9R

v0 = vin (

10 R1 + R2 ) = vin ( ) = 10vin R2 1

R2 = R

## Feedback (or negative feedback)

vo (Volts)

vo
Saturation Region

v+

Saturation Region

vi ( Volts)
Active Region

+ -

+ -

vo
R1

vo

R2

## MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

Inverting Amplifier
R2 R1 vin
+ -

vo R2
vo

i = 0 i+ = 0

vin R1

vin vo R + = 0 vo = vin 2 R1 R2 R1

+ R1=1k + AC Voltage Source 0.1V + Op -Amp R2=10 f(x)=0 Solver Configuration + Voltage Sensor PS -Simulink Converter Voltage V PS S

## Inverting Op-Amp Circuit

This model shows a inverting op -amp circuit .

## MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

Rf v1

vo Rf

R1
R2

i = 0

v2

+ 3+2=5

vo

vi Ri

2 vi v2 vo vi + + = 0 v = R o f R R R i =1 Ri 1 2 f

R1=10 + + V + R2=10.0 f(x)=0 Solver Configuration 1 + Rf=1 Op-Amp1 + Voltage Sensor1 PS-Simulink Converter 1 Voltage 1 PS S

3V

2V

## MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

Differentiator
i
v in

+ -

d dt

vo

vin + -

i =C

dvin dt

Rf

vo Rf

i = 0
vin +
-

vo

in C dv dt

dvin vo dv + = 0 vo = C in dt R f dt

## Linear Filters The Frequency Response

Main Assumption Linear Elements with Sinusoidal Input
Linear Element
ir
R vr = R.ir

Sinusoidal
v = V est i = I est

Impedance Models
I Rest
R VR e st VR est = R.I Re st VR = R.I R

vr
C

ic vc
L

ic = C.

dvc dt

IC e

st

## I C est = sC.VC est VR = 1 .I R sC

VC est
L

il vl
Z

di vl = L. l dt

VLe st = sL.I Le st
st

I Lest

VL = sL.I R

VLe

I V

V = Z .I

Z R = R; ZC =

I ; Z L = sL sC

## Linear Circuit The Impedance Approach

R1

vi

R2

vr

R1 R R2 v R2 = 2 vr = vi r = vi v r vr R1 + R 2 vi R1 + R 2
ZR

vi

vc

VI

ZC

VC

H ( s)

Transfer Function

1 ZC VC ZC 1 sC VC = VI = = = 1 ZC + Z R VI ZC + Z R + R 1 + sRC sC
MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

R

H ( j )
C

## Low Pass Filter 1

vc

1 + i RC 0 , H ( ) 1

H ( j ) =

1/ 2
Allows Low Freq Blocks High Freq

vi

, H ( ) 1 / RC
R=10000 C=0.00001 1/RC=10
M a g n i t u d e( d B )

= 1 / RC
Bode Diagram 0 -5 -10

## Blocks High Freq

P h a s e( d e g )

0.2 0

-45

0.4

0.6
-90 10
-1

= 1 / RC
10
0

10 Frequency

10

10

## Frequency Characteristic of Impedance

ZR = R ZC = 1 / sC = 1 / jC Z L = sL = jL
Low Frequency

H ( j )
1

R
L L
C 1 / C

High Frequency

R : Allows all frequencies to pass through. C: Allows low frequencies to pass and blocks high frequencies. Acts as short circuit at low frequencies and open circuit at high frequencies. L: Allows high frequencies to pass and blocks low frequencies. Acts as open circuit at low frequencies and short circuit at high frequencies.

H ( j ) = 1, 0 ,

H ( j ) = , 0, H ( j ) = 0,

H ( j ) = 0, 0, H ( j ) = ,

## High Pass Filter

ZC
ZR VR = VI ZC + Z R

H ( j )
1 j RC 1 / 2

## High Pass Filter

Block Low Freq

VI

ZR

VR

VR ZR R = = = 1 VI ZC + Z R + R 1 + j RC sC

## Allow Low Freq

0, H ( ) RC , H ( ) RC / RC 1
Step Response 1

= 1 / RC
Bode Diagram 0

-20

Amplitude

## 0.9 0.8 0.7

-30

-40
0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

90

Phase (deg)

45

0.1

0.2

0.4

0.5

0.6

0 10
0

= 1 / RC
1

10

## Band Pass Filter

ZL

ZC
VR = ZR VI (Z L + ZC ) + Z R

H ( j )
1
Block Low Freq

## Band Pass Filter

Block High Freq Allow Res. Freq Resonance Condition

VI

ZR

VR

VR R j RC = = 2 1 VI sL + + R 1 LC + j RC sC

0, H ( ) RC , H ( ) R / L + R
Magnitude (dB) 0

= 1 / LC
Bode Diagram

1 / LC , H ( ) 1
R=10000 C=0.00001 L=1000 1/sqrt(LC)=10

-10

-20

-30

-40 90

Phase (deg)

80

70

10
-1

= 1 / LC
10
0

10

10

10

## Signal Conditioning Overview

Physical Phenomenon

Transducer

Signal

Amplification

Filter

Digitization

Processing / Control

## Signal Conditioning = Filter + Op Amp

LP Filter Non-Inverting Amp v+
+ -

## Signal Conditioning Unit

v+
R

vi

+ -

R1

vo
vi

+ -

R1

vo

H ( j ) =

1 1 + i RC

v 0 = v in (

R1 + R 2 ) R2

R2

R2

+ + 1k R3 Op -Amp R2=9k
+ +

V + Voltage Sensor

2V p -p 0.1 uF

C1
+

R1=1k
-

## LP Filter and Noninverting Op -Amp Circuit

This model shows a low pass filter and noninverting op -amp circuit .

## MECH 207 Advanced Mechatronics I: C. Kitts, Santa Clara University

Summary
Non-Inverting Amp
v+

+ -

+ -

R1

vo

C
vi

vc

R2

R2

R1

= 1 / RC
vo

Inverting Amp

vin

i =0

i+ = 0

VI

ZR

VR

1/

= 1 / RC

Rf

v1
v2

R1 R2

i = 0

+
Rf

vo

ZL

ZC

1
ZR V R

## Block High Freq

Differentiating Amp

V I

i =0
vin

+ -

vo

= 1 / LC