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ROMAN DOCUMENTS FROM THE

GREEK EAST
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S,E}/,4TtlS COA/SL]LTA AND EPISTULAE TO THE AGE OF AUGUSTUS


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ROBERT

K. SHERK

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THE JOHNS HOPKINS PRESS, BALTIMORE, MARYLAND

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BIBLIOGRAPHY-. C. Dunant andJ. Pouilloux,
altes de Thasos,rr Etudes thasiennes,

EPISTULA L. CORNELII SULLAE CUM SENATUS CONSULTO DE THASIIS

Rome, Papers and Monographs

pp-r9ig), Bousquet,_!.C.H.,83 (1959): 4oz (cf.,,S.E G., XVII, l+g); l7-!S;J. L. R. Taylor, The yyi,w Distrias of the Roman Republiic, American'Academy in
no. rr4(plate vI),

v (paris,

Recherches sur

l'histoire et les '

XX (Rome,

rgOo), pp. z6g_69.

fourteen fragme_nts,-engraved on blocks of gray .These marble, originally formed-part_of somi ofiicial btiildrng in the agora o?ihrror. The stones were later used in the construction of ,n oli Christian basilica. section A: Inv. 7rs These are three fragments that join together. !, F, over-all dimensions of the rhree stones together: *frth, o.4s mi; heigh"r, o.r5 m.; thickness, o.o7 m.; height of letters, o.or4 Lines r 3'p.oi.r r*o letter spaces out into the left margin of the text.

DESCRIPTION.

or.

m.

*d

Section B: Not preserved. section c: Inv. 7r5. contains the end of the first column and a part of the last lines of the second. Largestof the fragments: width, r.zg m.ih.ighr, o.rj m.; rhickness, o.13 m.; height of letters, o.orr m.

m.
a

the end

Thickness: o.o9 Height of the letters: o.oro m. Section E: Inv. 7r5 (right side; for dimensions, see above, under sec. c) to

Section

D: Inv. 7rs . ''width: o;{J m. Height: o.rg m.

IV). Broken on all sides. 'widrh: o.oa5 Height: -. o.ojo m. Thickness: o.oro m. Height of letters: o.orr nr. . Section G: Inv- 5o7 and 5zo. Found in rgzz and published in B.c.H., 5o (rg?6),no..!, p. 234. its publicarion rhe ,rorr.^wm broken ioro ,*o-f"rrr, .After and several letters (underlined in our text) were obliterated. over-all dimensions: width, o.r9 m.; height, m.; thickness, o.o3o m.; height of
Section

margin on the width: o.3g Heighr: o.rg Thickness:-oi.o7 Height of letters: o.or2 ^,. The first two lelters of line a (col. II) and oflirr. (Col. Ifl)-project out into the margin. The ends of lines qlrr (Cot. III) are contained on a small.fragrnent (Inv. 7r5 )) which shows ,L. .-pry ,pr.. 'width: between cols. III and-IV. o.r4 Height: o.ogJ Thickness: o.o5j Heighr of letters: o-or2 m. (Col. III), ooo8 m. (bol.

of col. II, line &_followed by Inv. lrs y of col.

left.

m.

m.

IIL m.

Inv. 7r5 y rho*,


13

m.

m.

m.

F: Inv. 7rs

0.

-o.o9o two pieies form the texr up ro lin.l of Sectio'n G,1ut 'width: with line 6 begins Inv. 7r5 6. o.r9 m. Height: o.rr m. Thickness: m. The enls of lines 6-15 of Se*ion l.oii T. Heighr of letters: o.oo9-o.oro 'width: letters, o.oro

m.

These

G are found

o.o7

on Inv. zrs T. o.rg m. Heighr: o.ro -. Tl";k".f.f;--Height of letters: o.oro m. Section H: lnv. 7r5 ) (right edge). This small fragment carries on irs left side

m.

'115

ROMAN DOCUMENTS FROM THE GREEK EAST


':-. .i I r.:i .-:-

the ends of lines 9-rr (col. III) (dimensions given above, Sec. E). section I: Inv. zrs L. small sliver of martle broken on all siies. width: o.lo rrr. Height: o.ots Height of letters: o.or2 m. T+ Thickness: o.or5 SectionJ: Inv- 2ry.(. ?iny frag-ent broken on all lid., .*..pt the right. 'width: o.r4 m. Heighr: o.rgJ m. Thickness: o.o7j m. Heigilt of leti.rs: o.or5-o.or3 m.

m.

Col.I

rd }eirepfofv yo,i,pew ),iyeft @aotav &,pyouor, poutAfit,}fiy.al iyd rpeopeurais ip"erpots [rd zfs ouvrc\ritrou 66yp,a _,t 66yp,u ro0ro yeyovds iorw npd ",op6-*o. ,,)]t ".i)-? iv r6,tf lfip.ept;tv ,,1,."^.': l. lpn",tpi.,,,' rry6oy(v9r[, n]q,pfioav Ttiftos Ercprpcivtos -l'oiou ufds] ,. ,..,ii,'t' i

Aenfrc]tos Koprf[)]cos Aeurctou [ufr]s Xrjllos,Ena$p66r:os {zrarosf

..

,,1. [___)94-y?t---__---.--_B

'

[...feilvusKouptfavllap,evrirg--

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-__]

I--l.)66r<,w

[izrei

lnep|

rilv of.rpeoBeutai.\dyous irotrioavro

-----]

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lav t. . .. .]ry['. .l ouvop.ifouollac aurois r(xva ritv no),ep.lo\v) Drrilrrory nopordioo\at rcg(l rd, nveip'dra i7tp rdv }rly.ooiav rrpayp.d.rav i1p.erpuv iv rfit ypetu &roBa),etu p(iLlov ff v rwt rcatpdt' drrd rfis ro0 6rjp.ou ro0'Paltol-, $r[ios dneorarrlrclvat 66{,aow' u rainlv re o,irois oorqpiav 6piwres ,ffs noA,,"opKlas yeysvlvuc,6d, re ratlrrlv r\v airtav rcrcp|repov uirois r6tv noAey,t.,, yprloolrdr*, lrryiof",o),ey.f

rtiv

ouvpi,ous dveAeiv Kai ratg

rats ouy.$opo,is

Col.II

l------l

rco,i pfuipaLs r.pLrroeiv

u zro).trorjs ,u *rr6rjro,rs dra6r6y0or,

t---------1
E
t---l
tt6

t---

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lp.uytuv d,vuvetioq,o0ar, rois rrpeopeurds d.v6pus) *oioJ, *oi ilyoer;r1 lx,,i $iAous oult p,d,yous: z i1p'erpous rrapd, a,rr."1 rc..lol *oL iyol/,rli lx,,i $tAou oulty.d,you re fiy.erlpou npoo.,yop.1oor- tlEofez. uacat Irept re tiv oirot" ot rpeoBeure,i Aiyous zrpds] 7i, irir*lrpov ivlrrilfoavr o, Aeu rci,ou Ko pvq),tou ziAlAa' En a$ po6tr ou ind.rou r o0 i, frou, oa)

lrrepl roirou ro0 rrpdyp.uros o{r<l,s dEo$ez. rpeopeuratfs @uoiav lrc6,r;;l frrp'oarrov 2v rfic ouvxAfirut $cAuvlpcinas d.norcprlqrar. yd)pna $rN,o1, ' Iloupl-

- oup.pepouAeurc?ldros xar r6tv rpeopeurf*v r6v

----l rHNrEl

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SEN/TUS CONSULTA

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Fi

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1

ravrG;vrjy.erpqfv iTru

[.)EfE trpeoBeyt- - -

ttitv }rly,ootow rrpayp,il-

----

-1

1:,
i:i::,::

re Aeircrcs Kopvfi).ros X[i,tr]os 'Etra$p66nog, Kdwtos Ko;rci[ros Mdretr]os

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i.:1,,

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ir: i:l

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yy.ivair'air6.tvEyKATAIt------1 &s ,, npoo66ous rfs roirav &pferfis rcuL xuraAoyfis vexev dnd oultBo.r,),iou yv<iy,r1s] Aeixtos Kopvfi),to5 lri]],trcrs arizoxpf,i.rap rois airo?s - ouv)eydpqoev u rr6),le,,s yttpfic xo,lrd.ilndpgovrrrairoes?- - - - - -] i,rybus rcuL rl- - c. 8 -)nql - - -l

Jnaror,idveiro?sgatvlraer -!:":B):1 ------1 trpooq),crtltivos fiv. iy 6t ritr, [pvfpoo|ev ypdvat"? - - - - - -] tttt iv rcfu vq,tir, rGtt rfis flbreas r[- 7uotav re 2v rtic Kanef ru\.tar, i&v notfioar, Boi),<ovrafi airots 2{fu - - &plorcew?) aird, rfic re ouvx).frjru rcal rdx 6fiy.c,tt, rdt 'Pcr.tltatav - - dprlord re-et vat, rcal, toeolac raira Dr<) pc] y4pns "e l,Zyew t{er,vre }cioew re ef; - - - - -7.ftrpa!a

[*g]iroirat---

l---------l
t- - - - - -l

----I

l--- ---nploo66ou[s--z]dler.syolpla t---

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t--l--t--t---

roNnn'f'

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- - - - -l

---]

l:lrir
.

Azl' t-------l9t--l --

-lo,0rutat,ro),neiyb-----I roi?lravrl6tvnilr-ryf<r,ptar, ----I --]or}t"urcaroyovl---] --lrgroesrdrr[ocs---i ------l t--- --l t*""rxl.6rl,Dsrairao{ror,s t[-- - --d] Bfpos 6,i-pai,-lv) t--@dJorcc rcuprri(eolatDi1.,ftllrro,, - - - - - -] uacat l- - - - -]v fi laoi air6v E t- - -'Pocy,lryo,),rco5 fi Trcura;) t- - -] \wrcurdyouow fi t- - rf.t-n,,),y.ac rip.eryrp.rl t----d.lnfiyayov. Srras -]E,$s dy irapyela t- - -l Tlt-)IAB[ouroplsi

it. ;:l ;t!,, IJ


+:'

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uff
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il:r

I--{iy['"?--117

t---

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----

----] uacdt - -A|lf,ounopt t- - - - - - -l ---l ravl----I

- - - -] ru)oav xai OEI- - - - - -i

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RoM._AN.lgcuurNrs
"FROM

THE GREEK EAST

M[--

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t- - -lr Yil- - -l t- - -l rHAt- _ _1


cf

r---ltt----I

I [----] tryl I--------l -

I- : ouvlglrjrou 66[yp" - i -] t f- -drroo?]rer,\i- - - - - - -]

A 5 fTc]ptltrlpiutt(?), Taylor, but [rolle] prrqptcor,Bousquer. A s-6 Taylor restored rhename, E. Badian, Athenaeu?:!*:, ao (rsa=), ira.Jii. ;;-*;qi?l6rl,pr",rr, poui,oux, bur the photograph

,;;:r;#;r;:ffhrt

shows

"rd and pouiroux l{A';.e s.c-'ar-iarritlNJ i2, r. s..2. G 6 Dunant e)vra,L, but an examinarion ;i ;t,.'pnoJoffi seems ro show

tt8

,,4

ZL
EPISTULA CN. CORNELII DOLABELLAE

sEsssssssssEsssssEssEgESESSSESESSEgSSSSSSSEEq
,C.-Dunant andJ. Pouilloux, Rechercltes sur l'Histoire et les Thasos,II: Etudes thasiennes, V(paris,.rgig), no. r7i, pp. 4i_ii, plate VII, r ; E. Badian, " The Dolabellae of the Republic,,, popirc oJ ,t , ilririr'h schoot at Rome,3: (1905): 48-5r.
Cultes de

BIBLIOGRAPHY'

DESCRIPTION. Block of marble carrying the presenr letter and also one of L' Sestius Quirinalis (No. s6). Much has been loit because of the holes boreJ into it for fittings. width: r.34 m. Height: o.48 m. Thickness: o.r9 m.
Inscriprion is
letters: o.oro

in two columns, with

o.o35

*. b.r*..n

each

m.

corumn.

ri.igl,

"r

fol.l
iliti

,::.'
::::

[lvut]os

KopvriArcs fforAtou lutis loAapiA[as dvhirqr)os yatpew Ayet &pyouot

ii'
ii,

,v.

Mw&s Mrx&, utds, Eat- -

u::1,';t';::;)',";;;"u,vr6ou,
-

il:
';i'
)ia._: .11,,.
:1.':

gioet 6t Aufirou,
nap&,irjp.ourcc]io6 re rcar dya;o1 xai

i1t'lrepot, dvbpesrccr[)oi .*L


rdpou,

dyr0:{::!r'{;t,
$tlov

:,il

!:' ilti:
:11

iv @ eooa[o fvi.xr1t

oult p.dyou

dvruy6wes p.ol

---

re fip.e-

-] ov

r\v

oiyrclr1rov

::
:i.:
:1.. t:,.,
1,,
'
.

irip

'Pup,ulav rfis iy.er{pfos 66ypa rrepi rfis eis ".6L,,s

rol

Lfip.ou ro0

rd

6rrp,6otJa

rpdyp.ara rc.,r,,[oyfis

upciw ioyqrctvut,

,i:.

i;,
'ij i:

roird re rd 66y[p.a
rou irrtyv@v Tt- - dv

i.,
':l;

i;:

ri:t

ro).dp.ut

L''
ii,
irl
.a::I0

t- - --

-l -l -l

,ol'
-l -l

lama,ptatsrepLfneoer,v?
il.rnepdropds
a a

, l, \, ^ ^ iy"6w i1t"iv yd,ptru f$Aiuv oullp.axtav dvavedtoao\ac

,, t- - -

-----1
-

&rep $p.8s &reyvtrcrcs

- - - - - -lyov rots npeoBeuruts 'Ap}rlpcriw ,$t rp6rruc Aei{rc}Dcd]

Ko pwjAcos .8/,i [icre

Kplvev xui i1 oiyxlr1ros 6ir.ofw

6t(Ao,Bev,,,

Ei-

119

ROMAN DOCUMENTS EROM TIIE

GP"EEK EAST

., .. ,:: ri
p.6s

-:

-]ryO . .OEN.4. X2TEETOYEENATTOETEAE . . ifi_ rcooc $p,iv ,how r&,s r 1.rl- -lJEN. i!i,U.EI opoodEous ri oiyrcAqros [ri 'Pco]y,aicrw ouveyciiprloev tvq, Xpagl7 - - - r)oiroq rois TO. .INA ytvlrat v. -... -' 6p,rcd|[euoey
olicr,s

re 'Pa:p,al,av

--

re rcal lferrapq0l,o6 xui lDxrulto,,sl ypd,p,p.ara


tow
tc

dr,orer)ra i.va tJy,iv irrjrcoot,

rpdnat

zo & 6i repl rfis Xdpos ffv dy.opo1oav "fop,apov (?) 1..)ENE.AIE r\v ycipav ty,t
ora?fTvla' NTOI- -1

rclr1ros rjp"erdpu

i1l(lr1oev.

uacat

"dy-

$p.iv oyo\d,{ououv, tupa6o0vcl Ei


tlar a dn or e tta tva r e pi

rwa

oyo\d{ouoafv - - c. rg Q

-)AIQIII4a
: E .i:

xai

ra$rqs":;:

EN AM H BI H TINEE ENUAKH n H I dncyot ilt"iv re oyold,(ouoav Trd,po,}fiow rcal..is .J2t- - c. rr - -]/N[- - c.q - -] lpJfiouocv

t; :, ; p?i{ fr-, N o.:i

[u?]i re e!, rwa'Potp,.qru),rcus fi Ap\ounopr.s i)

TOIIOI. . .ANEIN etvirro K. .zET.l{A.o..pr..


-

2s

lolcv ra'ra i1,.tv oyo\&{owa

;{:;{:,:*;ff;::Y!onr-

r+ -rj - -l
t)rrtp rodruv
r6w

r...
Col.II

TAIHN .AEINQTIAII $p,tepa ruira $p.?v &troxaraoraLffro, l.Jv $porrloo, t- - npayp.&rav ip.ferlfipav] }qy,ooiac fi i6tat, tvu rrpds ip,t TA.E[- - ,.g - ]yfl

-]

::::t-l
-----I

._.r
l-

ITepi 6t rci'z rcara\ecnop,vav, idy eis d,pc$c\oyiav

ro0 trpdyp,qros rpeoleurq,l r.pds ip,t d\\rctoav atrwes

iv rfit $t\tu

ro0 6{y,ou ro0 ,Pup.ataw

-----1

I t- - y,ecvafv

-----I

--

Tvaios fKopv$),rosf

lTozr\tor.r ufds Ao\apA\as

dv\inuros lyatpecv llyec &,pyouot

lav l--' t-'t'--

t- -

---

--"] "l"ppldXerrd,io*prrt--- ----___] Spatium ersuuttt quinque ---1 t$p.&sl!\cogpovrios,l,-] -:-----l ----] cootvinfircoocfireoijrast--- -----i ----] oucrrcirevavrtovrourt-------l
u

BouLfic 6rjp.at @aofi-

-]

q airil

Ercwllo..a..

120

SEN/TUS CONSULTA

u-r4AEYKIKIOE. ry\MO. .OEN.A (or O) rz,\. III- -lJ (or Y) rcil,.; Dunant and Pouilloux suggest rds re EloAneias y-piu ,\c]piy[crs rcciy,o,ls Te lxlai npoodSous rzl. 17 Dunant and Pouilloux suggest with great reservation rloiro,,s rois iQfeo]w &, ylvr1rac xr\. zo EMAPON. .E (or X) .lfE (or II or J-) rz,\. zt flllaroy!}g? suggested by Dunant and Pouilloux. zz In the middle Dunant and Pouilloux suggest the possibility of nlvfefs)dv' Apqptn , nvts iv flurclmyc (or IIaxrTt zfr); but the place names are unknown. 4 . . .ANE (or O)/lf rcrl. za K(or E). 25 AYI (or.4/VN/ or AIII), and, later, AZIN (or A). COMMENTARY. In the first year of the first Mithridatic 'War the Pontic king had
and Italians

fi

overrun Bithynia, seized control of Asia, instigated the murders of thousands of Romans in the province, and started the siege of Rhodes. But his ambitions did not end there. They took in an even broader horizon, for in the late auturnn of gg s.c. he forces

Archelaus to Greece with an army to secure allies or to take possession. Soon the of Mithridates were well entrenched in Athens, the Peloponnese, ali Boeotia except Thespiae, and Euboea.r A second Mithridatic army then entered Thrace and Macedonia without, apparently, meeting very serious opposition. This was a strategy presumably calculated to obtain a strong foothold in Europe as an anchor to secure Mithridates' new Asian possessions and eventually as a base io ,*.* all the Balkans.z The Pontic king had planned well. The legate of the governor of Macedonia, Q. Braetius Sura, gathered together his numerically weaker troops and marched south to oppose Archelaus, but he was forced to retreat. Then Sulla arrived, early in 87 n.c. The Pontic army in Thrace and Macedonia overran the whole area and advanced southward against Sulla, but the son of Mithridates, who shared the command of this norrhern army with a general Taxiles, died on the way. Taxiles turned his troops over to the retreating Archelaus. The combined armies then fell before Sulla at Chaeroneia in 86 n.c. in complete disorder. The following spring Sulla marched north into the borderland of Macedonia and Thrace for a punitive expedition against the Eneti, Dardani, and Sinti, who had been plundering Macedonia after the collapse of the Roman forces in that area during the previous year.3 Then, in the autumn of S5 n.c., the war
sent ended.

It is this northern campaign in Thrace that is of special interest, for the presenr documents are all directly connected with the Thracian situation that arose during and after the invasion of the country by the Pontic army. The Thracian tribes seem to have taken advantage of the opportunity to attack and plunder the territory of their neighbors. With the Roman troops of Macedonia out of action and the army of Mithridates
I For the fullest account (Paris, r89o),

pp.

r2r-2rr.

of the first Mithridatic'W'ar see Th. Reinach, Mithridate Eupator, Roi de Pont Newer material and the results of later scholarship wili be found in D.

Magie, Roman Rule in Asia Minor (Princeton, rg5o), chap.

IX, with

notes.

2That the plans of Mithridates did not end with the conquesr of Asia may be surmised from what Sulla said at Dardanus in 85 r.c. (Appian Mthr. 57): tcai roirou rercpfipeov, 6rc xa'i. @pQrco,s xui Xxi1as xc,i Zaupo1.,drag, rcvl ro),ep,6w, ds ou1t,p,o,y/av [trrjyou, rcoi ds rois dyyoi puor,Adus rept,repcrresrvafis re itror,oi, xui rpEpias xai rcuBepvrjras ouvexd,x&s. Sulla accuied Mithridates of planning the.war for a long time and of aiming at world domination.

oiru

Appian Mithr. 55.

121

ROMAN DOCUMENTS FROM THE GREEK EAST


.:

securely in control of Asia they had little to fear, and, if we can believe the accusations uttered by Sulla against Mithridates in 85 n.c. at Dardanus, rhe Thracians *ny h*r. advance preparatioru with the connivance of the Porrti. king for the devastation "Y{t of the area.4 .Eetails, however, are lacking.

and to die fighting on behalf of the Republic ra4rer than prove disloyal in Rome's hour of need. Because of their r.rirt.nc.ihey had suffered terribly at the hands of the enemy. The Roman Senate therefore d."r..i that "friendship ani alliance" bewveen Rome and Thasos would be renewed; that the Thasirr, .rrrrJy, ,o Rome would be allowed to make a sacrifice and an offering in the Capitol; that *h*t.r., revenues Sulla had previously assigned them would be confirmed;^and that whatever cities, Ports, and territories they had previously possessed would be restored to them. Later sections of the decree (F and G) seem to refer to rhe restorarion of specific lands and possessions of Thasos occupied by the Thracian chieftains Rhoe*.trllrr, Ablouporis, and Tiuta. The customary gifts (secs. H-) for the Thasian envoys while in Rome probably formed the conclusion of the decree. The letter of Cn. Cornelius P. f, Dolabella, governor of Macedonia from go to 7g n.c., is also addressed to the Thasians and recounts how Thasian envoys had met him in Thessalonike and had made known to him the newly passed senatus ,onrultunr.s Dolabella outlines in some detail the contents of that decree and lists the various measures he has adopted or will adopt in order to carry out its provisions. He states that he has sent letters to the islands of Peparethos and Skiathos informing thern that henceforth they will be under the control of Thasos, and that he also has ient letters ordering the restoration of the land formerly owned by Thasos. The mention of the Thracianlhieftains would suggest that they had seized those lands in the course ofthe war and that they were situated on the mainland just opposite the island: the Thasian Peraea. A second. letter of Dolabella (Col. II, 11. a-9) apparently reGrs to instructions of some kind issued to Thasos
concerning the nature and the extent of its control over Peparethos and Skiathos. Such, in brie{ is the information contained in these important documents. It would

kill their families-

The letter of Sulla, dated 8o s.c. by the mention of his second consulship, cornmunicates the text of a senatorial decree to the magisrrates and people of ThasJs. It is at once clear that the Thasians had resisted the enemy forces ,"i n.a sworn an oath
to

aPPear that when the Pontic army under the son


+ See s

of Mithridates entered Thrace and

the passage from Appian quoted above (n. z). Dunant and Pouilloux, op: cil, PP. 48-49, suggest that the two Thasian envoys who met Dolabella may have been the men who had gone to Rome for the decree. They had carried a copy of the decree back with them to Thasos then had met the Macedorri"r, gorre.nor to inform him of its "nd provisions. Such was, almost certainly, the sequence of events. Envoys would normally ,.** with a copy ofa decree passed in their favor: cf, the S.C. de Serapco(No. sj, ll.4-7,where it is specifically stated-that a [.oPy of a] decree 'was carried from Rome. But it is not certain wherher the envoys are the same men in both documents, before the Senate in Rome and before the Macedonian governor' Their titles, however, would lead to that conclusion, as Dunant and pouilloux state. For Cn' Comelius P. f. Dolabella see T. R, S. Brought on, The Magistratesof-th-u ponron Republic,II (New York, r95z), 8o. The present letter is importlnr for tris filiation; cf. Badian, loc. cit.

122

SEM{TUS CONSULTA

of the;area seized the Thasian possessions on the mainthe "enemy" mentioned in the Senatorial decree and the letter are the Thracians or the Pontic army cannot be decided, but perhaps the word is meant to cover both of them. And since Dolabella (his letter, Col. I, ll. ztff.) apparently has to write a letter to effect the restoration of that land, one might assume that the land was held or controlled by the Thracians, perhaps intermittently, down to 8o n.c. This is possible, but the fragmentary nature of the present documents makes it impossible to establish certainty. At any rete, at the conclusion of the first Mithridatic'War Sulla was aware of the island's resistance and assigned it certain revenues to compensate to some degree for its suffering and consequent poverfy. From the letter of Dolabella it is possible to see that the senatorial decree also had
Macedonia the native chieftains

land.

'Whether

assigned

certainly corruected

Peparethos and Skiathos to the control of Thasos. The reason for this is almost with the fact that in the course of the war the island of Skiathos had been attacked by Q. Braetius Sura because it was being used as a storehouse for the barbarians.6 Hence, both islands may have been involved in the war on rhe side of the

might expect, Thasos is to be allowed to use its own customs, i.e., it to and] is be autonomous (letter of Dolabella, Col. 1, U). It flaws becomes a, ciuitas libera-small enough reward. Rhoemetalcas may be related to the Rhoemetalcas of about 12 B.c.-A.D. 14 who was the first king of a united Thrace, although they are two generations apaft.l Ablouporis is a Thracian name found only once in our sources.8 Tiuta or Tuta is also a Thracian name, but nothing whatever is known about a king or chieftain bearing such a name; it
Thracians.
may be feminine.s
6

In addition,

as 'we

Appian Mithr.

on coins see
7

zg. For the name of this legate of the Macedonian governor see LG., lX, z, 6t3; Dunant and Pouillosx, op. cit., p. 6.

Dunant and Pouilloux, op. cit., pp. sr-s2.

p. 52, referring to'W, Tomascheck, Sitzungsberichte Wien, r3r (1894): 3; P. Kretschmer, Einleinngin die Geschichte der griechischen Sprache (Giittingen, 1896), pp. 184-85; and D. Derschew, Die thraleischen Sprachresle (Vienna, gS7), p: 3.
g

llbid.,

Dunant and Pouilloux, op. cit,,

century
spell

p. 52. They draw attention to the lllyrian queen Teuta of the third The variant forms of her name in our documents merely reflect the Roman attempt to her name in Latin and Greek.

B.c.

':i

,23

+3
EPISTULA A. FABII MAXIMI AD DYMAEOS
[StoneJ

rrJ

B.c.

SSESESSSEESSSSESESSESSSSSSSSSSEEEEgsssESSSSS;
ISrs), pp. 393 and 4o5ff ; A. Boeckh, b./.G., I (r828), rs$; E.L. Hicks, z{ Manual of Greek H,t*:::! Inscrip_tions (Oxforj, ,A8r;,'rro.", oz; p. Viereck, Sermo

BIBLIoGRAPHY' H. J. Rose,'Inscriptiones

Graecae Vctustissimae (Cambridge,

'w. 3t6; T.

Craear (Grittingen, ,198),.rg.tV, pp. 3_S;-W.. Ditienberger, S.LG.z, I (r898),


Beasley, classical

Ancient Roman Stdtutes, no. 40.

jrice.de zoo i t46 auantJ.-C. (paris, ,9o5), pp. as+.tr.ril. Holl. eux, Hernrcs,49 (tqt+): j83, n.4; F. Hiller von Gaerrri"g.", i" !r. Dittenberg.r, s.ie;, il' Ggrz),68+; Abbott-Johnson, Mr,tnicipalZd*inirt rri* i. it , Forro,rin,pin" (Princeton, ry26), tro-. 9, p. 2gr; A. O. Larsen, ,,Roman J. Greece,,, in T. Frank, An Econoruic suruiy of Aniient Ronre,Iv (Balti,rore, r93g), 3o7; s. Accame, Il dominio roffiano in Grecia dalla guerra'ocaira ai=Arrgusto(Rome, 1946), PP. 9-ro' 33-34' r49-s3; Lewis-Reinhold, Roman ciuilizaion t (New yoik, p.319; T. R..S. Broug.hton, Th, irg;;;:tes of the Rornatr P5'):.1o:_, ?7, Republk, II (New york, rg Sz), 6++ ; Jo'hrrron, Col.,nirr-Norrorr, Bourne,

Reviii,

14 (igoo)

: fiz-64;G. colin,

Rome et Ia

o.J3 m. widi and has a maximum thickness of o.r4 In lines r-z the lerters are o.orj m. high, but elsewh... orrly o.oog There is a srnall molding ar the top, o.6r very often, bur rrot consisrently, the horizontal cenrral bar-oi the cpsironis separated fro,r the vertical bar. The letters are very carefully inscribed.

It is o.59

srab broken in four pieces, discovered by I. Hawkins in t7g7 in the ruins of Dyrne in Achaea.^ It is now in the Fitzwillianr Museum, Cambridge, where I examined

DESCRIPTION. A marble

lr. hglr,

ir

i'

september

of

*. *id..

m.

rn.

ry67.

246

EPISTULAE

'EA,

?eoxdAou

Aiavos, ypay,y,ar{-

os ro0 ouveEplou 2rparox),l.os.

Kdwros Qd,p,.os Koivrou Mti{t'y.os d'v?iruros' Pc,t1.,,ak tv /u1t uiuv rois &pyouot xcr,L ouvtbpoc rui rfit r.6Aec yalpew' ritv rep| Kul\dvrcv ouvi\pov ip,$av,,od.vrav poL repl' ritv ouvrele' o\brav rrap' iytiv dlrxr1piluv, ),iya Ei dzrtp rfis iy.npfioetrs ral $\op&s rdtv d.py(ei)otv xal rdv }rly.ootav ypu1tp"dlav, tw

iye'

ydvet dpyrlyds rffs 6Lqs ouyyioeas Eitoos Taupop'dveos d xai" rois vdp'ous ypdtftas $rrevavrlous rfit, dtro6o0e('oqc tots l'A)yatois ir|'Pap.alav rro),r,rfelalt, nep| d,v r&' xard, pipos 6cri[,\]0"p,ev

fll)&,rpats y.erd, roi ralpl6r[zo]s oup"BouAtou' inei oiv of,6wnpoItd)pero, tuAra i$utvovr6 y.ot, rfis yet,ptortls xafruofrd,oeas lxa)i rapayfis rcufraoxeu\vf rorcip.evolc rois "EAlr,ot n&,of tv' oi y'6vlov y&.pl rffs ttpld]s ,ilri,\ou[s] d,ouva\),[d]f [ials rcai ypeluxortus oi-f "El)trylow i'l fxeia,f d,\,\& xai [r]fs ciuro8eEop,.dvrls xurd, lxfowdv rots

iv

\eule pias dt).lorpia xo,i


paoyop,Lv

rfilsl i1pr"i[p"]t rpoatptoeas' iy[i, na-l

xarqy 6 pav d.)v1?,.v&,s d.zo6 e i{ e r's 2 6,' oov ltiv rdv yeyovdru d,pyrlydz [r] 6tv npay?tvruv rcai vo' y,oypa$rjoavru inl xaruAdoet rfis d.rro6o0etoqs noAneta]s xpi.vas tvoyov etvar. 7avd.rot nalp)eytipt'ou, 6p"otas 5t rai, @opfp"toxov' Eyeo1tveos r6tv 6c,y't opyitv r6v ouy.npd,(avra

uv

r Csv

ro?]s ipnrprioaor,

d,

d,pyeCo rcul 6qy'6o,.u ypdy.ptara, inel. rco,l

arirds] 6p.ddyrloev' Try'60eov El Mrcia rdy. y.erd ro0 26oou yeyovdfra voy.oypd$ov, inel ZAaooov Z$atvero i16cxr1xcis, irc!\euouf npo&.yew eis'Pr.ipr.r1v ipxioas, e6' l6lt, rfft voult'r1vi,ut' ro0 ivd.rou y-erlvdfs ioru[r,] irei xai |y.$avtoas rl6:c i)rrl ritv {vav oaPdrq-

ytu rd 66[]av, lp]1 n)p*repov ird'lvfe,'ofw eils


r-z The letters here are larger than in the rest of the

o?.xov, eAV

di Ay

text. There is a very small epsilon before Beasley's reading of Ec{[f]0oly.r, ev lll)d,rpats. 13 rcufraoxeu\r], Colin, followed by Hiller and Viereck (notes), the latter previously having restored 'Wilarnowitz xalrapoAlyl; xufr<inapav), Dobree and Hicks. rotoi1.,.evo[r. rois "EAXqot, n&,ofw, (note$ xo\aoria d,or)tv,Dobree, and Viereck Hiller followed by of Viereck), ;fi (among tlre works fotto*.d by Boeckh and Hicks; oi y,6lfvov yd,p, 'W'ilamowitz, ris, Dobree; dre, Boeckh. 14 douzall[cr]f [ias], Beasiey, followed by Hiller and Viereck (notes) ; ypefurcoricrs], Foucart (among the works of Beasley) ; ypelt"s rffs xar' iEtavj, Dobree and Hicks. r4-r5 oircetof , Beasley, who sayshemadequtabarthatrnightbepartofthe alpha. 16Hickssawthe qdffiffiaof dy[d,]. 20 ,nalpleydp(rt)oo,Beasley, who could not see the rho; this is apparently the only occurence of the urrb .rd is equivalentto z.apt}otxo,. zr @opf p.iorcou, Boeckh. zz Beasley saw the sigma of ro0]s. z5-26 rco ivltirou y,r1vdfs, Dittenberger, followed by others. z7 Dobree restored Sroofs &rlpn r)pdrevov &r,i[v]ew[t rpd]s otrcov, edfv y,)]1; but Viereck objected to Snas dv with the furure 'Wilamowitz (among the works of Viereck) suggested zd 6<if]fu. indicative.

'Eri.

7 APXQN, stone. rz I follow

COMMENTARY. There are four consulars who could have been the Q.

Fabius

247

ROA,TAN DOCUMENTS.,.FROM THE GREEK EAST

Maximus mentioned in line 3 : the consul of r45 r.c. (Aemilianus), of 4z n.c. (Se n.c. (Allobrogicus), or of 116 a.c. (Eburnus).'Boeckh originalJ 1zr thought that it*was Aemilianus, the date of his consulship being to the formatic "lor", of Macedonia as a Roman province, but he did riot .".lod. the possibility rhat it migl be any of the others. However, since the first three of these men were conrul4 pic magistrates in Spain or Gaul. it has been thought most recenrly that Q. Fabius Maxi-mt Eburnus wrote the letter.I Dyme, situated on the southern coast of the Gulf of Patrae and at once the mor western of all Achaean cides, is known from Polybius (r. +t) to have been an earl member of the Achaean League in the third ..r,ory r.". Thar it was a, cityof no sma.

vilianus),.of

importance can be gathered from the fact that Polybius also tells us (+. Sg) ii took a ver active part in the military operations of the League. In addition, one of its cirizens, certain Miccus, became the $noorpdn\yos of the Achaeans.

Our letter gives us direct proof of a revolutionary movement in Dyme after the for mation of the province of Macedonia. Achaea *n, th.r, under the supervision of th, Macedonian governor, and such a movement would naturally have fallen into hi sphere of authority. A certain Sosus was the ringleader of the whole affair, described a a o$yyuoos, meaning here "confusiofr," " disorder," or perhaps "breach of the peace., That it was no small episode may be seen in the plans oi th. conspir"tors. They mus have established some sort of an organization, for they enacted'1aw, contrary to th( type of goYernment granted to the Achaeans by the Rornans." This implies rather grandiose plans. The movement had reached the point of violence-the city hall hac been burned down and the records destroyed-wfuen the Dym ean oive;poc senr e rePort to the governor. Q. Fabius, in Patrae with his advisory board, listened to rhe evidence and passed judgment on the men. Sosus and Phormiscus were found guilty and were condemned to death. A third conspirator was ordered. to Rome to stand trial. That ended rhe matter. It is important to note, as Accame has done, that here Dyme has its own magistrates and enjoys autonomy within the limits imposed by Rome in 146 r.c. One milht also suggest that Kyllanios was probably the leader of the pro-Rom anpafiy.z A Gwl.nerations after the conspiracy of Sosus we learn that Pompeius settleJmany pirates in Oyme because at that time it was underpopulated (Plurarch Pomp.38; cf appian Mithr. 96). Also, n ++ and z7 n.c., ir was the site of a Roman colony (pliny N.r{. 4. 4. 13: cf. E. Kornemann, R.E, s.u. " coloniae," col. 53o).
r F' Mi.inzer, R.E., s.u. "Fabius," col. 1794, believed that the writer of the letter was Aemilianus, but his belief rested hasically upon the assumption that he was identical with the e. Fabius who leda Roman embassy to Crete in connection with a dispute between Hierapytnia and itanus. Since that embassy is now known to have taken place at a laier date than he realized, his identification will no longerhold;see[hecommenrarytoNo.14,andcf.Accame, op.cit.,p.r4g. Broughton,loc.cit,,now believes that it was probably the consul of 116 a.c. who addressed the l.tt", to Dyme. 'Whether he was also the Q. Fabius who headed the embassy (ca. rr3 n.c.) is unknown. 2 Boeckh and Hicks thought that Kyllanion was the name of a city, Cyllene. For thephrase oircpi

with the accusative, see S. Dow, T.A.p.A.,gr

(196o)

3gz-4og, esp. 39j_4o9.

248