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WIND TURBINE CONSTRUCTION AND HOW IT WORKS Wind turbines convert wind energy to electricity for distribution.

Conventional horizontal axis turbines can be divided into three components: The rotor component, which is approximately 20% of the wind turbine cost, includes the blades for converting wind energy to low speed rotational energy. The generator component, which is approximately 34% of the wind turbine cost, includes the electrical generator, the control electronics, and most likely a gearbox (e.g. planetary gearbox, adjustable-speed driveor continuously variable transmission) component for converting the low speed incoming rotation to high speed rotation suitable for generating electricity. The structural support component, which is approximately 15% of the wind turbine cost, includes the tower and rotor yaw mechanism. INSTALLATION (COEMI WIND TURBINE) There are four basic ways of explaining the question, "How do wind turbines work?" Our turbines typically consist of two or three blades, which spin as the wind comes into contact with them. These turn a shaft, which is connected to a generator, which then makes electricity. 1. Speed How does a wind turbine work? It goes without saying that wind speed is vital in determining how much electricity your Coemi wind turbine can produce. Measuring wind speed is achieved through a built-in wind speed anemometer. This carries information to a Siemans S7-200 controller (which starts up the turbine). At the minimum of 2.5 m/s, the turbine starts converting a light breeze into power. The turbine can still keep generating even at maximum wind speeds of up to 55 mph. 2. Blade Design Fixed Pitch Stall Regulated Blades (FPSRB) ensure that the generator will operate even in strong gusty wind conditions.Because the blades are fixed with no moving parts, they are more robust and lighter than variable pitch turbines with the additional benefit of a lower start up generating wind speed from 2.5 m/s. Innovative blade design makes the Coemi 55/15 Wind Turbine ideal for UK and Europe's strong gusty wind conditions, keeping Coemi turbines generating in both light and strong winds. 3. Direction Wind direction, also measured by the Siemans S7-200 controller automatically operates a hydraulic motor in the head to move the turbine into the wind once the wind speed reaches 2.5 m/s or 5.5 mph. Once the generator reaches maximum output, the blades will spill extra wind to enable the turbine to keep generating in winds up to 25m/s (55mph). Unlike other small wind turbines which use a dump to burn off excess generation, 100% of generated power is passed to the grid with the ABB M2QA asynchronous generator.

4. Revs The Coemi 55/15 wind turbines have a fixed rotation speed with its 50Hz generator. The local grid voltage is matched automatically through the generators Electro magnets. Unlike other permanent magnet small wind turbines which are usually variable voltage and require rectification to DC before conversion to AC through an inverter wasting 20% of the energy generated. 5. Power As the wind strength builds the torque is converted through the gearbox to the generator and load is automatically increased producing amps. These amps are directly transmitted to the grid through a total generation meter registering the total kWhs generated. This total is used for the payment of your FIT (feed in Tariff). Your system will absorb this power lowering your energy usage and any excess that escapes will register on your export meter earning you valuable income from your supplier. 6. Safety The Coemi has a double safety system to protect against over speed from high winds and loss of grid. Through the Siemans controller a Fail safe normally on double hydraulic disc brake is applied and the head is turned away from the wind by tandum electric yaw motors. Not only is the generator protected for the life of the turbines and blade life increased, but maintenance costs are also reduced. HOW IT WORKS For centuries wind turbines have harnessed the force of wind to pump water and grind grain. Around 1910, the first wind turbines were built in Europe to produce electricity. Today, advances in technology and the need for renewable energy sources has made wind a fast growing source of electricity. Click on the video for an animation showing how wind turbines generate electricity. On top of each wind turbine is a box known as a nacelle. Attached to the nacelle are three propeller-like blades that connect to a rotor. Also on the nacelle is an anemometer to measure wind speed and direction. The wind direction rotates the nacelle to face into the wind. The energy in the wind (called kinetic energy) turns the turbine blades around the rotor (creating mechanical energy). The rotor connects to the main shaft, which turns inside the generator housing. Here, a magnetic rotor spins inside loops of cooper wire. This causes electrons inside the cooper to flow; creating electrical energy (what we call electricity in our daily lives). The electricity generated then travels down large cables from the nacelle, through the tower, and into an underground cable. At wind farms, cables from different turbines take the electricity generated to a substation. Here, a step-up transformer again increases the electrical output. A transmission line connects the electricity output at the substation to the electrical grid serving communities throughout the region.

REFERENCES: http://www2.eere.energy.gov/wind/inside_a_wind_turbine.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=cYkzH90-gj8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LH_Zs7vIVTw http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LNXTm7aHvWc http://fwee.org/nw-hydro-tours/how-wind-turbines-generate-electricity/ http://www.coemiwindturbines.co.uk/coemi-wind-turbines-general-information/how-do-coemiwind-turbines-work http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_turbine