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The Darcy-Weisbach equation

Weisbach first proposed the equation we now know as the Darcy-Weisbach formula or
Darcy-Weisbach equation:

hf = f (L/D) x (V^2/2g)
where:
hf = head loss (m)
f = friction factor
L = length of pipe work (m)
D = inner diameter of pipe work (m)
v = velocity of fluid (m/s)
g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s)

Determination of the friction factor used in the Darcy -Weishbach equation


A) Smooth pipe / laminar flow
f =64/Re

B)

Re <2100

Friction factor determination ( for turbulent flow )

Numerical resolutions:
B-1

1)
using

Colebrook's equation

Newton Raphson's method

1/f^1/2= -2 *log10(eps/3.7/D+2.51 /Re/f^1/2)


fn+1=fn-F(fn)/F'(fn)
equations :
F(f)= 1/f^1/2+2* log10(eps/3.7/D+2.51 /Re/f^1/2) =0
a)

F(f)=f^-1/2+2 *ln(eps/3.7/D+2.51 /Re*f^-1/2)/ ln(10)=0

b)

F'(f)=-1/2*f^-3/2 *( 1+2 *2.51/ Re/ln(10)/(eps/3.7/D+2.51 /Re*f^-1/2))

initialization : f=

Input Data

data
pipe diameter D
rugosity
flow rate
density

eps

mm

4.00E-05

mm

m3/h

1000

kg/m3

cpo

Velocity

4.39

m/s

111395

> 4000

turbulent

Output Data
f

B-2

1.7591E-02

Swamee& Jain's equation


f= 0.25/(log10(eps/3.7/D+5.74 /Re^0.9))^2
Input Data

data
pipe diameter D
rugosity

eps

calculation
25.4

mm

4.00E-05

mm

flow rate

m3/h

density

1000

kg/m3

Viscosity

cpo

Velocity

4.39

m/s

Re

111395

> 4000

turbulent

Output Data
f

C)

1.7467E-02

Churchill's equation

(full range from laminar to turbulent)

f=8*((8/Re)^12+((37530/Re)^16+B)^-1.5)^1/12
with
B=(-2.457*ln((7/Re)^0.9+0.27*(eps/D)))^16

Input Data

data
pipe diameter D
rugosity

eps

calculation
25.4

mm

4.00E-05

mm

flow rate

m3/h

density

1000

kg/m3

Viscosity

cpo

Velocity

4.39

m/s

Re
B

111395
1.91723E+21

Output Data
f

fn

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

0.01
1.50E-02
1.73E-02
1.76E-02
1.76E-02
1.76E-02
1.76E-02
1.76E-02
1.76E-02
1.76E-02
1.76E-02
1.76E-02
1.76E-02
1.76E-02
1.76E-02

0.01 f=
F(fn)

1.7591170583E-02
F'(fn)

fn+1

initialization X=

calculation
25.4

Viscosity

Re

Iteration
Number

1.7489E-02

2100 >
laminar

Re

>4000
turbulent

2.71E+00
7.01E-01
7.00E-02
8.28E-04
1.18E-07
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00

Colebrook's equation
2)
using
Alternative Method
iterative calculation
X=F(X)
with
X = 1/(f^1/2)
F(X)= -2 *log10(eps/3.7/D+2.51 /Re*X)

-543.43
-301.74
-244.81
-239.06
-238.99
-238.99
-238.99
-238.99
-238.99
-238.99
-238.99
-238.99
-238.99
-238.99
-238.99

1.50E-02
1.73E-02
1.76E-02
1.76E-02
1.76E-02
1.76E-02
1.76E-02
1.76E-02
1.76E-02
1.76E-02
1.76E-02
1.76E-02
1.76E-02
1.76E-02
1.76E-02

0.004979
0.002323
0.000286
3.46E-06
4.94E-10
0.00E+00
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

iteration
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

X
3
8.33E+00
7.45E+00
7.55E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00

3 f = 1/X^2
F(X)
8.33E+00
7.45E+00
7.55E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00
7.54E+00

X-F(X)
-5.33E+00
8.84E-01
-9.72E-02
1.12E-02
-1.29E-03
1.48E-04
-1.70E-05
1.96E-06
-2.25E-07
2.59E-08
-2.97E-09
3.42E-10
-3.93E-11
4.52E-12
-5.20E-13
6.04E-14
-7.11E-15

1.760027025475E-02

PVC, CPVC Pipe Same I.D. as Steel Pipe of Comparable Schedule.


Pipe Type
Lined Pipe

FRP

Steel

Liner
PTFE

N/A

N/A

D, Nom.
1
1.5
2
3
4
6
8
10
12

1
1.5
2
3
4
6
8
10
12
14

D, Nom.
1
1.5
2
3
4
6
8
10
12
14

DOW
ID
0.78
1.31
1.82
2.8
3.76
5.61
7.46
9.73
11.69

Crane
ID
0.78
1.27
1.78
2.76
3.76
5.51
7.48
9.49
11.29

Matl. Spec. for lined Pipe: ASTM F 1545-95


19.81
19.81
33.27
32.26
46.23
45.21
71.12
70.10
95.50
95.50
142.49
139.95
189.48
189.99
247.14
241.05
296.93
286.77

Fibercast Fibercast
RB-2530 CC-II-EP
ID
ID
CC-II-EP limit to 225 F
0.935
X
23.75
1.48
1.62
37.59
41.15
1.875
2.135
47.63
54.23
2.98
3.26
75.69
82.80
3.92
4.26
99.57
108.20
6.025
6.345
153.04
161.16
8.025
8.285
203.84
210.44
10.15
10.37
257.81
263.40
12.45
12.37
316.23
314.20
13.4
13.56
340.36
344.42
Sch-40
ID
1.049
1.61
2.067
3.068
4.026
6.065
7.981
10.02
11.938
13.124

Sch-80
ID
0.957
1.5
1.939
2.9
3.826
5.761
7.625
9.562
11.374
12.5

Sch-40
ID mm
26.64
40.89
52.50
77.93
102.26
154.05
202.72
254.51
303.23
333.35

Sch-80
ID mm
24.31
38.10
49.25
73.66
97.18
146.33
193.68
242.87
288.90
317.50

RB-2530 limit to 250 F.

absolute rugosity
PTFE limit to -20 to 500 F

glass
lead
copper
laiton

mm

0.0015
0.0015
0.0015
0.0015

steel
new
very old
rusty
v.much rusty
galvanized

0.04
0.2
0.4
3.35
0.15

Concrete
0.025-0.250
cast iron
new
dirty
rusty
v. much rusty

0.5
0.2
1.5
3

PTFE lined

0.0015

Fiber glass

0.005