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Overview

Introducing the Tutorial, 3 Creating and Running an Experiment, 13 Working with Results, 27

The information in this document is furnished for informational use only, may be revised from time to time, and should not be construed as a commitment by MSC.Software Corporation. MSC.Software Corporation assumes no responsibility or liability for any errors or inaccuracies that may appear in this document. Copyright Information This document contains proprietary and copyrighted information. MSC.Software Corporation permits licensees of MSC.ADAMS

software products to print out or copy this document or portions thereof solely for internal use in

## Introducing the Tutorial

Overview
This chapter introduces you to the tutorial and gets you started. The tutorial guides you through the process of using ADAMS/Insight with ADAMS/Car to investigate transient dynamic response of a vehicle front-suspension model. The sections in this tutorial are:

## This tutorial takes about one hour to complete.

In this tutorial, you design an experiment and analyze results for a front suspension assembly. Youll run the assembly through a number of simulations that you set up in an experiment; fit your data to a polynomial to determine which factors most affect performance of the assembly; and publish results to an HTML page that you can view with a Web browser. Well begin by importing the suspension from the ADAMS/Car shared database. The suspension assembly contains a Short Long Arm (SLA) independent front suspension that you will exercise through its range of motion while steering input is held constant in the straight-ahead position. Youll monitor aspects of the assembly while you make modifications to it. Table 1 describes the model modifications used.
Table 1. Modifying and Monitoring Your Model Geometric locations youll modify: Performance attributes youll monitor:

Description of event:

## Outer tie-rod location

Youll track the changes in toe angle as the suspension moves through its range of motion from jounce to rebound. Toe angle is the projected angle the wheel plane makes with the ground when viewed from above the vehicle. Toe-in is considered positive, and toe-out is considered negative.

Youll determine how modifying the geometric location of the outer tie-rod affects toe angle. A real-world application for this event includes: Determining if exaggerated changes in toe angle result in aggressive tire wear. Assessing your model against a manufacturing variation. Assessing packaging requirements for your model.

The section provides instructions on how to start ADAMS/Car on UNIX and Windows.
Note: On Windows, you may need to set the permissions to Full Control to edit the

tutorial files.
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## Create a new working directory, acar.

Note: You can skip this step if you previously used the HelpCopy Examples To

feature to copy all of the tutorials for ADAMS/Insight. Your working directory is ain_examples/acar.
2 3

Change to your working directory. Type the command to start the ADAMS Toolbar at the command prompt and press Enter. Select the ADAMS/Car tool .

## The ADAMS/Car main window appears.

1 2 3 4

From the Start menu, point to Programs, point to MSC.Software, point to MSC.ADAMS 2005 r2, point to ACar, and then select ADAMS - Car. Select OK in the ADAMS/Car welcome window. From the File menu, select Select Directory to display the Select Directory dialog box. Navigate to the drive and directory that you want to use as your working directory. If you need to create a new directory, select New Folder, enter acar, and then press Enter. Then, double-click the new acar.
Note: If you previously used the HelpCopy Examples To feature to copy all of the tutorials for ADAMS/Insight, your working directory is ain_examples/acar.

Select OK.

## Creating the Model

In this section, you create the suspension assembly used in this tutorial.
To create the suspension assembly:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

From the File menu, point to New and then select Suspension Assembly to display the New Suspension Assembly dialog box. In the Assembly Name text box, type ainsight_susp. Right-click in the Suspension Subsystem text box, point to Search, and then select the <acar_shared>subsystems.tbl database. From the Select a File dialog box, select TR_Front_Suspension.sub, and then select Open. Select the Steering Subsystem check box and right-click in the Steering Subsystem text box, point to Search, and then select the <acar_shared>subsystems.tbl database. From the Select a File dialog box, select TR_Steering.sub, and then select Open. Select OK in the New Suspension Assembly dialog box. When the assembly completes loading, close the Message Window. The main window should look like the image in Figure 1 on page 7.

## Figure 1. Suspension Assembly

Running a Simulation
Before you create your experiment, youll simulate the suspension model in ADAMS/Car to run a baseline parallel travel analysis. There are three important reasons to run a simulation before beginning your DOE analysis. They are:

Running a simulation sets up the assembly for the type of analysis you will perform in ADAMS/Insight. This is important because the topology of the assembly can change slightly depending on the type of analysis performed. Running the simulation creates a simulation script that you use in the ADAMS/Insight experiment. You need to determine whether or not you can analyze the assembly in its current configuration.

## To simulate the model:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

From the Simulate menu, point to Suspension Analysis and then select the Parallel Wheel Travel. This displays the Suspension Analysis: Parallel Travel dialog box. The Suspension Assembly text box should say ainsight_susp. In the Output Prefix text box, enter baseline. In the Number of Steps text box, enter 30. Set Mode of Simulation to interactive. In the Bump Travel text box, enter 50. In the Rebound Travel text box, enter -50. Select OK to close the dialog box and begin the analysis. When the analysis has completed, close the Message Window.

## Creating a Design Objective in ADAMS/Car

To create a design objective based on a request component:
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From the main menu in ADAMS/Car, point to Simulate, point to DOE Interface, point to Design Objective, and then select New to display the Create Design Objective dialog box. Modify the Name text box to: .ainsight_susp.toe_angle_objective. Use the Definition by drop-down to select Existing Result Set Component (Request). Right-click the Result Set Comp text box, select Result_Set_Component, and then select Browse to display the Database Navigator. In the Database Navigator, expand baseline_parallel_travel, expand testrig, expand toe_angle, select left, and then select OK.
Note: ADAMS/Car places the full object hierarchy as part of the name in the

2 3 4

## Result Set Comp. text box.

5

Set Design Objectives value is the to maximum absolute value during simulation. You are interested in the maximum value of the toe because this is the value that you want to minimize as a result of your experiments.

Select OK.

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In this section, youll open ADAMS/Insight from ADAMS/Car and begin creating an experiment to measure the performance of a suspension model.
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From the main menu in ADAMS/Car, point to Simulate, point to DOE Interface, point to ADAMS/Insight, and then select Export. The Export Assembly to ADAMS/Insight dialog box appears.

2 3 4

Set Assembly to ainsight_susp, the assembly you want to export to ADAMS/Insight. In the Experiment text box, enter a name for your experiment or use the default. The simulation Simulation Script text box should already contain, .ainsight_susp.simulation_script. You can also browse for the script name in the Database Navigator by right-clicking in the text field, pointing to Simulation_Script, and then selecting Browse. Select simulation_script in the Database Navigator. Select OK. ADAMS/Car launches ADAMS/Insight and the ADAMS/Insight main window appears.
Note: On Windows, ADAMS/Car opens a command prompt window to launch

ADAMS/Insight. This window stays open until you close ADAMS/Insight. Do not manually close the command prompt window.

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This section describes what you see when ADAMS/Insight first opens. Figure 2 shows the main window as it appears when you first launch ADAMS/Insight. It includes the following items:

Menu bar - Contains pull-down menus for File, Edit, Define, Simulation, Tools,

and Help.

Toolbars - Contain commonly used tools for accessing files, and creating and

## modifying designed experiments.

Treeview - Displays a hierarchical list of objects that you can include in an experiment. The tree is especially useful for selecting and identifying objects when you are creating a design matrix. Viewport - The area of the window that displays parameters for modifying the

## objects you select from the treeview.

session.

Treeview

Viewport

Status bar

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The ADAMS/Insight main window has four toolbars:

Main (Experiments) toolbar - Lets you execute basic commands. Design Assistant (Experiments Contents) toolbar - Helps you build and execute your experiment. Work Space toolbar - Lets you execute commands on the work space. Report toolbar - Lets you generate and export a report.

If you hold your mouse pointer over any tool, tip text appears giving a short description of the tool. Tools in toolbars are arranged in the order that youll use them in the process of creating and executing your designed experiment. Depending on where you are in the process of creating an experiment, ADAMS/Insight enables or disables the tools (you can always display and undisplay them if you need to). This feature alerts you to the correct order of procedures to follow. For example, the Run simulations tool is disabled until you define required elements for a design matrix. For more information on the toolbars, see the ADAMS/Insight online help.

## Creating and Running an Experiment

Overview
In this chapter, youll create a design matrix and run a model through a number of simulations that you set up in the experiment. The sections in this tutorial are:

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## Creating a Design Matrix

This section provides instructions on how to create a design matrix to evaluate the effect that modification of the outer tie rod location has on toe angle.

## Automatically Created Factors

Hardpoint ac_bushing

Rotational Damping

## Translational Stiffness Rotational Stiffness

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Attribute Affected

ac_linear_bushing

## Translational Damping Rotational Damping Translational Stiffness Rotational Stiffness

t_damping_x, t_damping_y, t_damping_z r_damping_x, r_damping_y, r_damping_z fx_scaling_factor, fy_scaling_factor, fz_scaling_factor tx_scaling_factor, ty_scaling_factor, tz_scaling_factor scale_factor stiffness scale_factor damping scale_factor scale_factor

## Stiffness Stiffness Damping Damping Force Force

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Promoting Candidates
The first step required to creating your designed experiment is to select the factors that you want to include in your design matrix. You select factors from the Candidates list in the treeview, and then promote them to the Inclusions list. Promoting candidates to inclusions causes them to become part of your design matrix.
To promote factors from candidates to inclusions:
1 2

In the treeview, click the + in front of Factors. Factors expands to reveal Inclusions and Candidates. Continue by expanding Candidates, ainsight_susp, TR_Front_Suspension, ground, and hpl_tierod_outer. Under hpl_tierod_outer, youll see a list of factors that you can include in your design matrix.
Note: The treeview displays the full object hierarchy for each factor. This tutorial

will only refer to the variable name. For example, the variable hpl_tierod_outer.x appears as TR_front_Suspension.ground.hpl_tierod_outer.x in the treeview.
3

Select the candidate, hpl_tierod_outer.x, and then move your cursor to the Design Assistant toolbar and select the Promote to inclusion tool .

The candidate hpl_tierod_outer.x moves to the Inclusion list under Factors in the treeview.
Tip: To select more than one factor, hold the Ctrl key as you click. To promote the factors directly from the treeview, press the shortcut key F5. 4

## Continue promoting the following factors:

hpl_tierod_outer.y hpl_tierod_outer.z

The factors move from the Candidates to the Inclusions list. The factors appear in your treeview as shown in Figure 3 on page 17.

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## Factors you promoted from Candidates to Inclusions

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After you promote your factors, you define parameters for them in the Factor form. To learn more about factor parameters, press the F1 key from the Factor form.
1

In the treeview, find the factors in the Inclusions list. Select the factor hpl_tierod_outer.x. The Factor form appears in the viewport as shown next.
Figure 4. Factor Form

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In the Factor form, set Abbreviation to tierod_x. The default Abbreviation text string is automatically generated. Because ADAMS/Insight uses this abbreviation for table column headings, it is a good idea to change the generated text string to something short and meaningful to you.

Select the Settings tab, and then enter or verify the following:

## Continuous Relative -5, 5

Select the Description tab, and then set Units to mm. The Units parameter is for annotation purposes. The units entered do not affect factor values.

5 6

Use the defaults for all remaining fields. Select Apply. ADAMS/Insight saves your factor modifications.

Modify the parameters for the remaining factors, hpl_tierod_outer.y and hpl_tierod_outer.z, as you did in Step 2, above, using appropriate abbreviations.

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Promoting Responses
Now that you have finished promoting and modifying your factors, the next step is to promote your responses for the experiment.
To promote responses from candidates to inclusions:
1

In the treeview, click the + in front of Responses. The levels nested under Responses expand to reveal Inclusions and Candidates.
Hint: You can click the minus (-) sign in front of Factors to collapse that section

## of the treeview and save screen space.

2 3

Continue expanding the levels under Candidates and ainsight_susp. Select and promote the toe_angle_objective just as you promoted the factors in Step 3 on page 16. The response moves from the Candidates to the Inclusions list.

Modifying Responses
The modifications youll make to the responses are minor. Youll add units and change one of the parameters. To learn more about response parameters, press the F1 key from the Response form.
To modify responses:
1

In the treeview, under Responses, in the Inclusions list, select the response, toe_angle_objective. The Response form appears, shown next, in the viewport.

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## Use the defaults for all remaining fields.

Note: Output characteristics are grayed out when you use ADAMS/Insight with

ADAMS/View and other MSC.ADAMS applications. The output characteristic is set by the originating CAE application, and is displayed in the Response form for information only.
3

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## Setting Design Specifications

In this section, youll set the design objective and design type for your experiment. To learn more about setting design specifications, press the F1 key from the Design Specification form.
1

In the toolbar, select the Set design specification tool , or in the treeview, expand the levels under Design, and then select Specification. You can also select the Define menu, point to Experiment Design, and select Set Design Specification. The Design Specification form appears in the viewport as shown in Figure 6.
Figure 6. Design Specification Form

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## In the Design Specification form, make or verify the following selections:

Investigation Strategy: DOE Screening (2 Level) Model: DOE Design Type: Linear Fractional Factorial

## Use defaults for all remaining options.

3 4 5

Select Apply. Select the Define menu, point to Experiment Design, and then select Create Design Space. Select the Define menu, point to Experiment Design, and then select Create Work Space. in the Design Assistant toolbar performs

## Note: Clicking the Generate Work Space tool Steps 4 and 5.

The Work Space appears in the viewport as shown in Figure 7. This table displays the work space matrix for the fractional-factorial experiment that you defined earlier in the tutorial. ADAMS/Car will run a simulation for each trial defined in this matrix. The column headings are sortable and sizeable. You can also select Work Space Review to view summary information for each factor and response in your experiment. In the treeview, at the Design level, the letters D:W appear to indicate that the Design contains a successfully generated design work space.

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## Figure 7. Work Space Matrix Before Running Trials in ADAMS/Car

Runs Factors Response

Note: Columns appear in the work space matrix in the order that you promote

## factors for inclusion.

Tip:

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Once youve verified the information in the Work Space, youre ready to run the simulations.
To run the simulation:
1

In the Design Assistant toolbar, select the Run simulations tool . You can also select the Simulation menu, point to Build-Run-Load, and then select All. In the information window that appears after the simulations are run, select OK. ADAMS/Car opens and runs the simulations defined by your experiment. The Message window appears and displays standard ADAMS/Solver messages, which you can ignore for this tutorial.

Note: This procedure builds, runs, and postprocesses all of the simulations within the

ADAMS/Car session. We recommend that you break up the process flow into its separate phases using the MDI INSIGHT BUILD and MDI INSIGHT LOAD commands. This is especially important when you have more than 30 trials.

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## Working with Results

Overview
This chapter guides you through reviewing the results of your analysis; fitting your data to a polynomial to determine which factors most affect model performance; and publishing results to an HTML or SYLK file. The sections in this tutorial are:

## Reviewing Results, 28 Fitting Results, 29 Publishing Results, 31

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Reviewing Results
1

From the main menu in ADAMS/Car, point to Simulate, point to DOE Interface, point to ADAMS/Insight, and then select Display. The ADAMS/Insight Display dialog box appears.

Verify the name of your experiment, and then select OK. ADAMS/Car undisplays and the ADAMS/Insight window opens.

## To view your simulation results:

In the treeview, under Design, select Work Space. Simulation results from ADAMS/Car appear in the design matrix as shown in Figure 8.
Figure 8. Work Space Matrix After Running Trials in ADAMS/Car
Runs Factors Response

In the treeview, under Design, select Work Space Review. The Work Space Review offers another means of reviewing the raw data found in the work space.

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Fitting Results
Now that ADAMS/Car has completed the trials defined in your work space matrix, you can use ADAMS/Insight to fit your results to a polynomial or a response surface. The purpose of fitting your results is to establish a relationship between the factors and responses that you selected for the work space matrix. Fitting results includes a multiple regression. You will be able to investigate the parts of the regression in the Summary, located in the treeview under Analysis, after completing the following steps. For more information on this topic, refer to the ADAMS/Insight online help.
1

From the Design Assistant toolbar, select the Fit results tool the Tools menu, and then select Fit New Model.

## . You can also select

The Model Properties Summary window appears. Here, you can enter information on your model.
2 3

In the Regression column, select the response, toe_angle_objective. In the Display column, select the type of results you want to view. For example, Figure 9 shows an example of the Fit table.

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## Figure 9. Results Table with Fit for Regression

For definitions of the items in the results table, see online help. The tables also provide you with a color code that indicates the soundness of your results: Green indicates that all fit criteria meet or exceed highest fitting thresholds Yellow indicates that the fit criterion may bear investigation Red indicates that the fit criterion should be investigated

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Publishing Results
ADAMS/Insight lets you save your findings as either HTML or SYLK files. Once saved, you can use either a browser or spreadsheet program, such as Excel, to modify factors and see the effect on responses without performing full simulations.
1

In the treeview, under Analysis, select Model_01, and then go to the Design Assistant toolbar, and select the Export to Web, SLK, etc. tool . You can also select the File menu, point to Export, and then select Model. In the window that opens, set the File Type to HTML File. The Save dialog box appears and prompts you to save your results as xxx.htm, where xxx is the name of your file.

Enter a name for your file and specify the path where you would like it to reside, and then select Save. ADAMS/Insight saves your file in the directory that you specified.

Continue with the next section, Modifying Values Using a Web Browser on page 31, to learn how to view and use the results in the HTML file.

## Modifying Values Using a Web Browser

Using the HTML page that you saved (see Step 1 through Step 3, above), you can modify the input factor values of your experiment and see the changes instantly reflected in the column that lists estimated responses. To learn more about making modifications to your experiment using an HTML or SYLK pages, refer to the ADAMS/Insight online help.
To modify your factors in an HTML page:
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In a Web browser, open the HTML page you created for your experiment. Make certain the browser you use is able to read JavaScript. The results of your experiment appear as shown in Figure 10 on page 32.

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## Figure 10. HTML Results Page

Change the value for the first factor hpl_tierod_outer.x from 417 to 420, and then select Update. The estimated responses adjust to reflect the new factor values. Notice that the value for the response, toe_angle_objective, reflects a change.

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## Additional Information on the Web Page

In addition to the basic factor and response information that appears when you first open the HTML file in your Web browser, you can view response statistics and response effects as a function of each factor. To view this information, use the check boxes below the list of factors.
Note: The check boxes only appear if you specified the corresponding data in your

experiment. For example, if you didnt specify tolerances for your factors, the Contributions check box will not display. The check boxes are:

Contributions - This check box appears if you specified tolerances for any factor. When present and selected, this check box displays the Tolerance Contributions table that provides the percent contribution of each factor to the tolerance of each response. Stats - Displays R2, R2 adjusted, P, and R/V statistics for each response. Effects - For each response, displays effects caused by varying each factor from its minimum to maximum value. Nonscalar - Displays composite responses in addition to the scalar responses. Plots- Opens a new window that displays a plot for each composite response (providing you specified composite responses). Info - This button displays a separate window that provides summary

information about the investigation parameters for the current page. It also provides Web environment information that is valuable if you need to contact MSC.ADAMS technical support. For more information on the controls and information provided by the HTML page, refer to the ADAMS/Insight online help.

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