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Circuit Theory

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March 16, 2013

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Contents

1 Preface

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2 Introduction

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3 Basic Terminology

 

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3.1 Basic Terminology

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3.2 Summary

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8

4 Variables and Standard Units

 

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4.1 Electric Charge (Coulombs)

 

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4.2 Voltage (Volts)

 

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4.3 Current (Amperes)

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4.4 Energy and Power

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5 Electric Circuit Basics

 

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5.1 Circuits

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5.2 Ideal Wires

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5.3 Ideal Junctions or Nodes .

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5.4 Measuring instruments

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5.5 Active Passive & ReActive

 

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5.6 Open and Short Circuits .

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6 Resistors and Resistance

 

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7 Resistive Circuit Analysis Techniques

 

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8 Source Transformations

 

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8.1 Source Transformations

 

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8.2 Black Boxes

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23

8.3 Thevenin's Theorem

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23

8.4 Norton's Theorem

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25

8.5 Circuit Transforms

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8.6 Open Circuit Voltage and Short Circuit Current

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8.7 Why Transform Circuits?

 

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9 Maximum Power Transfer

 

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9.1

Maximum Power Transfer

 

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10 Resistive Circuit Analysis Methods

 

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10.1 Analysis Methods

 

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33

10.2 Superposition

 

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33

Contents

10.3 Impulse Response .

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34

10.4 Convolution

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35

11 Energy Storage Elements

 

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12 First-Order Circuits

 

39

12.1 First Order Circuits

 

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39

12.2 RL Circuits

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39

12.3 RC Circuits

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40

12.4 First Order Solution

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41

13 RLC Circuits

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13.1 Series RLC Circuit

 

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43

13.2 Resonance

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46

13.3 Conclusion .

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14 The Second-Order Circuit Solution

 

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14.1 Second-Order Solution

 

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49

14.2 Finding Differential Equations .

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49

14.3 Zero-Input Response

 

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50

14.4 Characteristic Equation

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50

14.5 Damping .

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51

14.6 Series RLC

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14.7 Parallel RLC

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14.8 Circuit Response

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15 Mutual Inductance

 

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15.1 Magnetic Fields .

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15.2 Mutual Inductance

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15.3 Ideal Transformers

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60

15.4 Modern Inductors .

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61

15.5 Step Up and Step Down

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62

15.6 further reading

 

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16 State-Variable Approach

 

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16.1 State Variables

 

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16.2 Aim of State Variables

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16.3 State Variable Selection

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16.4 System of Equations

 

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16.5 Further Reading

 

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17 Sinusoidal Sources

 

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17.1 Steady State

 

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67

17.2 Sinusoidal Forcing Functions

 

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17.3 Other Terms .

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17.4 Lead and Lag

 

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68

17.5 Sinusoidal Response

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17.6 Sinusoidal Conventions .

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69

17.7 Sinusoidal Sources

 

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69

Contents

18 Phasor Representation

 

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19 Phasors

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19.1 Variables

 

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73

19.2 Passive circuit output is similar to input

 

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19.3 Phasor Transform

 

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74

19.4 Euler's Equation

 

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75

19.5 Phasor Symbols .