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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS 1.1 Understanding Physics PHYSICS

Mechanical Energy

Mechanical Energy

Study of the natural phenomena and the properties of matter. Matter states Energy forms

Heat Energy Light Energy Wave Energy


Electrical Energy

Solid Liquid Gas

Nuclear Energy Chemical Energy

Properties of Matter

Relationship with energy

Relationship with matter

Properties of Energy

in the fields of

Mechanics

Heat

Wave

Electronics

Properties of matter

Light

Electricity & Electromagnetism

Atomic Physics & Nuclear

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

1.2 1 2 3 4

PHYSICAL QUANTITIES any quantity that can be measured by a scientific instrument. A physical quantity is .. stopwatch, metre rule balance,thermometer,ammeter Examples of scientific instruments etc. : A base quantity is a physical quantity which cannot be defined in terms of other physical quantities. Study the following picture and list the physical quantities that can be measured. The list of physical quantities : Height, 1. . mass, 2. . size, 3. . age, 4. . temperature, 5. . current 6. . Power, 7. . Thermal energy 8. .

Base quantity

battery

List of 5 basic physical quantities and their units. Base quantity Length Mass Time Current Temperature Symbol l m t I T S.I. Unit meter kilogram second Amppere Kelvin Symbol for S.I. Unit m kg s A K

Two quantities that have also identified as basic quantity. There are :

i) ..unit .. ii) . unit Light intensity candela Amount of substance mol ..

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

Standard Form 1 2 3 expression of= very large and small numbers Standard form = A x 10n ,simplify 1the <A < 10 and n integer Standard form is used to ... Some physical quantities have extremely small magnitudes. Write the following quantities in standard form : 6.37 x 106 m
-4

1.673 x 10-27 kg a. Radius of the earth = 6 370 000 m =. 3.0 000 x 10000 m 000 000 000 000 911 kg =... b. Mass of an electron = 0.000 000 000 000 7.2 x 10 m c. Size of a particle = 0.000 03 m = 5.5 x 10 b. Diameter of an atom = 0.000 000 072 m = ... c. Wavelength of light = 0.000 000 55 m = .. represent a large physical quantity or extremely small quantity in S.I units. before the as a multiplying factor. 1. Prefixes are usually used to unit ... Prefixes 2. It will be written 3. The list of prefixes :
10
12

-8

-7

Eg :

Tera (T) Giga (G) Mega (M) kilo (k) Hekto (ha) Deka (da) desi (d) centi (s) mili (m) micro () nano (n) pico (p)

109 106
10 3 10 1
2

1 x 1012 m 1 Tm = . 3.6 x 10-3A 3.6 mA = . How to change the unit ; Eg : 6 1. Mega to nano1.33 MA = 1.33 x 10 A = 1.33 x 10 6-(-9) nA = 1.33 x 10 -15 nA 2. Tera to micro1.23 Tm to unit m unit 1.23 Tm = 1.23 x 10 12m = 1.23 x 10 12 (-6)m = 1.23 x 10 18m 3. piko to Mega 5456 pA to MA unit 5456 pA = 5.456 x 10 3 + (-12) pA

10 10-1 0 10 10-2

10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12

= 5.456 x 10 -9pA 4. Some physical quantities have extremely large magnitudes. These extremely large and -9 (6) small values can be written in standard form or using standard prefixes. Write the = 5.456 x 10 MA quantities in standard prefixes: 9.1 x 10 1MHz = 5.456 x 10 -15 MA a. Frequency of radio wave = 91 000 000 Hz = . 12.8 Mm = 1.28 x 10 1 Mm b. Diameter of the earth = 12 800 000 m = 383 Mm = 3.83 x 10 2 Mm
3

6.0 x 10 12 Tm

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

c. Distance between the moon and the earth = 383 000 000 m = d. Mass of the earth = 6 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kg = Derived quantities 1 2 a physical quantity which combines several basic quantities A derived quantity is . through multiplication, division or both Determine the derived unit for the following derived quantities. Derived quantity area volume density velocity momentum Acceleration Force pressure weight work power
kinetic energy potential energy charge voltage

Formula
area = length x width volume = length x width x height density = velocity = mass volume

Derived unit
m x m = m2 m x m x m = m3 kg m
3

Name of derived unit


Newton (N)

= kg m 3

displacement time

m = m s 1 s

momentum = mass x velocity acceleration = change in velocity time

kg m s-1
m s 1 = m s -1 s 1 s = m s 2

force = mass x acceleration pressure = force area

kg m s-2

kg m s-2 / m2 kg ms -2 Nm J s -1 Kg ms-2 Kg ms-2


Ampere second (As)

weight = mass x gravitational acceleration work = force x displacement power = work time

kg m-1 s-2 (Nm-2) Newton (N) Joule (J) Watt (W) Joule (J)
Joule (J)

1 K.E = mass velocity 2 2


P.E = mass x gravitational acceleration x height

charge = current x time


voltage = work charge

Coulomb (C) Volt (v)

J C-1

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

Derived quantity
resistance

Formula
resistance = voltage current

Derived unit v A-1

Name of derived unit Ohm ()

Note that the physical quantities such as width, thickness, height, distance, displacement, perimeter, radius and diameter arewhich equivalent to length. Quantity has only magnitude or size 1.3 1 2 3 Mass, Speed, volume SCALAR AND Length, VECTOR QUANTITIES Quantity which has magnitude or size and direction. Scalar quantities are Velocity, Force, Displacement, Acceleration Examples : Vector quantities are... Examples : Study the following description of events carefully and then decide which events require magnitude, direction or both to specify them. Description of events Magnitude 0 1. The temperature in the room is 25 C 2. The location of Ayer Hitam is 60 km to the northwest of Johor Bahru 3. The power of the electric bulb is 80 W 4. A car is travelling at 80 km h-1 from Johor Bahru to Kuala Lumpur 1.4 MEASUREMENTS Direction

Using Appropriate Instruments to Measure measuring instrument with different measuring capabilities. 1 There are various types of. measure a particular quantity. 2 We must know how to choose the appropriate instrument to ..

Examples of instrument and its measuring ability. Measuring instrument Measuring tape Meter rule Vernier caliper Micrometer screw gauge
Range of measurement Smallest scale division

Up to a few meters 1m 10 cm

0.1 cm 0.1 cm (0.01 m) 0.01 cm 0.001 cm (0.01 mm)

less than Sample of measuring instruments : 2 cm (20 mm)


5 is use to measure electric current

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

4.1 Ammeter : .. incorret reading correct 1 2 3 is 1 2 3 use to determine the volume of liquid. 0 4 reading
0 4

pointer

mirror

pointer

mirror

Pointers image can be seen

Pointers image is behind the pointer

4.2 Measuring cylinder : .................... wrong position of eye Right position is use to determine the lengthof eye (eye are in a line perpendicular to the plane of the scale) wrong position of eye
water

4.3 Ruler :
wrong 10 11 12 right 13 wrong 14 15 Reading = cm

small object external diameter of a cylinder or pipe


4.4 Vernier calliper A venier calliper is used to measure :

depth of a hole internal diameter of a pipe or tube 0.1 cm

a. b. . c. d. . A vernier calliper gives readings to an accuracy of .... cm.

0.9
inside jaws 0.09 Vernier scale cm 0 1

outside jaws

4 Main scale SKALA 0.01UTAMA cm

10

Main scale in cm

Length of vernier scale = cm

0.2 cm

0 0 5 10

Vernier scale is divided into 10 divisions

0.06 cm 0.26 cm

Vernier scale

The differenct between the main scale and vernier scale is = . cm 6

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

Length of the divisions = . cm

cm

Main scale

= .

1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10

Vernier scale = .. Final reading = ..

Find the division of vernier scale which is coincides with any part of the main scale

The diagram below shows a vernier calliper with reading.


0 1

10

0.15 Vernier calliper reading = . cm

4.5 Micrometer screw gauge. A micrometer screw gauge is used to measure : objects that are small in size a. diameter of a wire b. . diameter of small spheres such as ball bearings c. One complete turn of the thimble (50 division) moves the spindle by 0.50 mm. Division of thimble 0.5 50 = .. 0.01 mm = .. A accuracy of micrometer 0.01 mm screw gauge = ..

4.5 mm Sleeve scale : 0.22 mm Thimble scale : . 4.62 mm Total reading : ..

Example : 2.0 mm Sleeve scale : 0.22 mm Thimble scale : . 2.22 mm Total reading : ... 4.6 Some others measuring instruments :

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

Analogue stopwatch digital stopwatch

thermometer miliammeter ..

Measuring tape . appropriate instruments.

measuring cylinder ..

beaker

Hands-on activity 1.1 on page 1 of the practical book to learn more about choosing Exercise: Vernier Callipers And Micrometer Screw Gauge 1. Write down the readings shown by the following (a) 7 8
Answer: 7.79 cm..

10

(b)

P 0

Q 10

Answer: 4.27 cm..

(c)

Answer: 6.28 cm..


0 5 1 1 0

(d)

Answer: 0.02 cm..

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

2. (a) The following diagram shows the scale of a vernier calliper when the jaws are closed.
0 1

10

Zero error = 0.02 cm (b). The following diagram shows the scale of the same vernier calliper when there are 40 pieces of cardboard between the jaws.
5 6

10

Reading shown

= 5.64.cm

Corrected reading = 5.62..cm


3. Write

(a)
0

down the readings shown by the following micrometer screw gauges. (b)
5 40
0 5 10 35

35

30

Answer: . (c)
0

Answer:.. (d)

25 20

20 15

Answer:

Answer:.

4. (a) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.


0

0 9

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

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Zero error = 0.02.. mm

Zero error = 0.03.. mm

(b) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.


0 20

5 0

15

Zero error = 0.03mm

Reading shown

= 6.67..mm

Corrected reading = 6.64..mm 5. Write down the readings shown by the following micrometer screw gauges. (a) (b)
0 5 40
0 5 10 35

35

30

Answer: 6.88 mm (c)


0

Answer: ..12.32 mm (d)


0 5 20 15

25 20

Answer:4.71 mm

Answer:

9.17 mm

6. (a) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.


0 0 45 0 5

Zero error = -0.02 mm

Zero error = 0.03.. mm

(b) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.


0 10 20

5 0

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

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Zero error = 0.03.mm

Reading shown

= .6.67..mm

Corrected reading = 6.64..mm Accuracy and consistency in measurements. The ability of an instrument to measure nearest to the actual value 1. Accuracy : The ability of an instrument to measure consistently with little or no relative 2. Consistency :deviation among readings. The ability of an instrument to detect a small change in the quantity measured. 3. Sensitivity :

consistent but inaccurate consistent and accurate inaccurate and not consistent ..

target

Accurate but not consistent inaccurate but consistent inaccurate but not consistent .. .. Hands-on activity 1.2 on page 2 of the practical book to determine the sensitivity of some measuring instruments.
Errors in measurements

target

of approximation only.

how close the measurement is to the actual value. 1. All measurements are values exist in all measurements. 2. In other word, it is aerror matter of 3. This is because Systematic errors 4. Two main types of errors: 4.1 a weakness of the instrument Occurs due to : the difference between reaction time of the brain and the action. a) zero error is when the pointer is not at zero when not in use. b) c) Range of the measuring instrument absolute error . Reaction time of the brain.
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Initial reading is not at the zero scale

zero error

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

Examples : Refer to the smallest reading that can be measured by an instrument. a) b) c) Absolute error : If, the smallest reading = 0.1 cm Then, Absolute error = 0.1 / 2 = 0.05 cm . It occurs because the position of the eye is not perpendicular to the scale of the instrument. . Example : wrong right position of the eye (no error) wrong Parallax error : Random error where the pointer is not at zero when not in use carelessness in making the measurement. of the eye when taking the readings. circulation.
cm

parallex error , incorrect positioning sudden change of ambient factors


0 1 cm

such as temperature or air


0 1

Readings are close to the actual value but they are not consistent. Zero error : ... +0.03 cm 0 Can 1 2 3 be 4 5 minimized 6 7 8 9 10 by consistently repeating 3 45 6 7 8 9 10 measurement at different places in Correct reading = observed reading zero error 0 1 2 the - 0.04 cm Zero error = anPositive identical manner. zero error negative zero error Zero error =

Horizontal Horizontal 3 divisions above reference reference 2 divisions Gather all available information about the object or below phenomenon to reference horizontal horizontal reference be studied. Using the five senses, sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell. A conclusion from an observation or phenomena using information that Zero error of screw meter gauge already exist.

Positive zero error

Zero error = Variables are factors or physical Zeroquantities error = which change in the course of a scientific investigation. There are three variables : 4.2 .. i. Manipulated variables physical quantity which change according to the aim of the experiment. Occurs due to ii. Responding variables physicals quantity which is the result of a) the changed by manipulated variable. iii. Fixed variables physicals quantities which are kept constantduring the experiment.
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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

b) c) Example : a) .. b) .. ..................................................................................................................... 1.5 SCIENCETIFIC INVESTIGATION Steps 1 Making observation Drawing inferences
Explanation

Identifying and controlling variables

Formulating a Statement of relationship between the manipulated variable and the hypothesis responding variable those we would expect. Hypothesis can either be true or false. Conducting experiments i. Conduct an experiment includes the compilation and interpretation of data. ii. Making a conclusion regarding the validity of the hypothesis.

Plan and report an experiment Situation : A few children are playing on a different length of swing in a playground. It is found that the time of oscillation for each swing is different. The period of the oscillation depends on the length of the Steps pendulum. Example : refer to the situation above 1 Inference When the length of the pendulum increases, the period of the oscillation increases. Investigate the relationship between length and period of a simple pendulum. Manipulated variable : the length of the pendulum. 13 Responding variable : Period Fixed variable : the mass of the pendulum and the displacement.

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________ 2 Hypothesis 3 4

Aim Variables

List of apparatus and materials


Arrangement of the apparatus

Retort stand

protractor

ll

bob

Procedures

1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure above. 2. Measure the length of the pendulum,l = 60.0 cm by using a meter rule. 3. Give the pendulum bob a small displacement 300.Time of 10 oscillations is measured by using a stop watch. 4. Repeat the timing for another 10 oscillations. Calculate the average time. Period = t10 oscillations 10 5. Repeat steps 2, 3 and 4 using l = 50.0 cm, 40.0 cm, 30.0 cm and 20.0 cm Length,l / cm 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 1 Time for 10 oscillations / s 2 Average 15.8 15.7 15.8 15.0 15.0 15.0 13.1 13.1 13.1 11.9 11.9 11.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 Period/ s (T = t10/10) 1.58 1.50 1.31 1.19 0.99

Tabulate the data

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

Analyse the data

T/s 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

Graf of period, T vs pendulums length, l

10

20

30

40

50

60 l / cm

1 0

Discussion

Conclusion 1 1

Precautions : 1. Oscillation time is measured when the pendulum attained a steady state. 2. Time for 10 oscillations is repeated twice to increase accuracy. 3. Discussion (refer to given questions) The period increases when the length of the pendulum increases. Hypothesis accepted.

Reinforcement Chapter 1 Part A :Objective Question 1. Which of the following is a base SI quantity? A Weight B Energy C Velocity D Mass 2. Which of the following is a derived quantity? A Length B Mass C Temperature D Voltage

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

3. Which of the following is not a basic unit? A Newton B kilogram C ampere D second 4. Which of the following quantities cannot be derived? A Electric current B Power C Momentum D Force 5. Which of the following quantities is not derived from the basic physical quantity of length? A Electric charge B Density C Velocity D Volume 6. Initial velocity u, final velocity v, time t and another physical quantity k is related by the equation v - u = kt. The unit for k is A m s-1 B m-1 s -2 C ms D m2 s-2 7. Which of the following has the smallest magnitude? A megametre B centimetre C kilometre D mikrometre 8. 4 328 000 000 mm in standard form is A 4.328 x 10-9 m B 4.328 x 10-6 m C 4.328 x 106 m D 4.328 x 109 m 9. Which of the following measurements is the longest? A 1.2 x 10-5 cm B 120 x 10-4 dm C 0.12 mm D 1.2 x 10-11 km 10. The diameter of a particle is 250 m. What is its diameter in cm? A 2.5 x 10-2 B 2.5 x 10-4 -6 C 2.5 x 10 D 2.5 x 10-8

11. Which of the following prefixes is arranged in ascending order? A mili, senti, mikro, desi B mikro, mili, senti, desi C mili, mikro, desi, senti D desi, mikro, mili, senti 12. Velocity, density, force and energy are A basic quantities B scalar quantities C derived quantities D vector quantities 13. Which of the following shows the correct conversion of units? A 24 mm3 =2.4 x 10-6 m3 B 300 mm3=3.0 x 10-7 m3 C 800 mm3=8.0 x 10-2 m3 D 1 000 mm3=1.0 x 10-4 m3 14. Which of the following measurements is the shortest ? A 3.45 x 103 m B 3.45 x 104 cm C 3.45 x 107 mm D 3.45 x 1012 m 15. The Hitz FM channel broadcasts radio waves at a frequency of 92.8 MHz in the north region. What is the frequency of the radio wave in Hz? A 9.28 x 104 B 9.28 x 105 7 C 9.28 x 10 D 9.28 x 1010 16. An object moves along a straight line for time, t. The length of the line, s is given by the equation s = SI unit of g is A m2 s2 B m s-2 -1 C s D s-2 m Part B : Structure Question
1 2 gt . The 2

1. A car moves with an average speed of 75 km h-1 from town P to town Q in 2 hours as shown in Figure 1. By using this information, you may calculate the distance between the two towns. P Q

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

Figure 1 (a) (i) Based on the statements given, state two basic quantities and their respective SI units. Distance : m and time : s (ii) State a derived quantity and its SI unit. Speed m s-1 (b) Convert the value
= 0.2 x 103 m = 2.0 x 102 m

1 . m to standard form. 5 x 10-3

(c) Complete Table 1 by writing the value of each given prefix.

10-9 10-6 106 109

Table 1 (d) Power is defined as the rate of change of work done. Derive the unit for power in terms of its basic units.
Power =

work Force displacement = time time

Unit =

kgms 2 m = kg m2 s-3 s

(e) Calculate the volume of a wooden block with dimension of 7 cm, 5 cm breadth and 12 cm height in m3 and convert its value in standard form.
Volume = (7 x 10-2) (5 x 10-2) (12 x 10-2) = 420 x 10-6 = 4.20 x 10-4 m3

2. Figure 2 shows an ammeter of 03 A range.

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

Figure 2 Mirror (a) (i) Name component X. ... To avoid parallax error (ii) What is the function of X? . (b) Table 2 shows three current readings obtained by three students.

Table 2 No (i) Did all the students use the ammeter in Figure2? ... (ii) Explain your answer in (b)(i). 3rd readings obtained by student 2 and 3 are out of the meter range. 3. Figure 3 shows the meniscus of water in a measuring cylinder K, L, and M are three eye positions while measuring the volume of the water. (a) (i) Which of the eye positions is correct while L taking the reading of the volume of water? .

Figure 3 (b) The water in the measuring cylinder is replaced with 30 cm3 of mercury. (i) In The cohesive force is Figure 4,than draw the meniscus of the larger the adhesive force mercury in the measuring cylinder. Figure 4 (ii) Explain why the shape of the meniscus of mercury is as drawn in (b)(i).

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