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# Classical Control

Topics covered: Modeling. g ODEs. Linearization. Laplace transform. Transfer functions. Block diagrams. Masons Rule. Time response p specifications. p Effects of zeros and poles. Stability via Routh-Hurwitz. Feedback: Disturbance rejection, Sensitivity, Steady Steady-state state tracking. PID controllers and Ziegler-Nichols tuning procedure. Actuator saturation and integrator wind-up. Root locus. Frequency response--Bode and Nyquist diagrams. Stability Margins. Margins Design of dynamic compensators.
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Classical Control
Text: Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, 4th Edition, Edition G.F. G F Franklin, Franklin J.D. J D Powel and A. A Emami Emami-Naeini Naeini Prentice Hall 2002.

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

What is control?
For any analysis we need a mathematical MODEL of the system Model Relation between gas pedal and speed: 10 mph change in speed per each degree rotation of gas pedal Disturbance Slope of road: 5 mph change in speed per each degree change of slope Block diagram for the cruise control plant:

w 0.5
Control (degrees)

Slope (degrees)

y = 10(u 0.5w)
10
Output speed (mph)

y
3

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

What is control?
O Open-loop l cruise i control: t l

w
PLANT

## 0.5 r 1/10 u + 10 yol

Reference (mph)

r u= 10
yol = 10(u 0.5w) r = 10( 0.5w) 10 = r 5w

## eol = r yol = 5w r yol w eol [%] = = 500 r r

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

## OK when: h 1- Plant is known exactly 2- There is no disturbance

What is control?
Cl Closed-loop d l cruise i control: t l

w
PLANT

u = 20(r ycll )
ycl = 10(u 0.5w)

## 1 5 ecl = r ycl = r+ w 201 201 r ycl 1 5 w ecl [%] = = + r 201 201 r

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

## 1 % = 0.5% 201 1 5 5 r = 65, w = 1 ecl = + = 0.69% 201 201 65 r = 65, w = 0 ecl =

5

What is control?
Feedback control can help: reference following (tracking) disturbance rejection changing dynamic behavior LARGE gain is essential but there is a STABILITY limit The The issue of how to get the gain as large as possible to reduce the errors due to disturbances and uncertainties without making the system become unstable is what much of feedback control design is all about about First step in this design process: DYNAMIC MODEL

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Dynamic Models
MECHANICAL SYSTEMS:

F = ma
& = u bx & m& x & v=x &=& & a=v x

Newtons law

velocity acceleration

b u Vo 1m & + v = v v = =Vo e st ,u =U o e st m m Uo s + b m

T Transfer f Function F ti
d s dt

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Dynamic Models
MECHANICAL SYSTEMS:

F = I

Newtons law

## && = lmg sin + Tc ml 2 angular velocity = & && & = = I = ml 2

angular acceleration moment of inertia

Linearization

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Dynamic Models
g Tc & & + = 2 l ml
Reduce to first order equations:

x1 = & x2 =

&1 = x2 x g Tc &2 = x1 + 2 x l ml

0 x1 Tc &= g x , u 2 x ml l x2 l
General case:

1 0 x + u 0 1

## State Variable Representation

& = Fx + Gu x y = Hx + Ju
9

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Dynamic Models
ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS: Kirchoffs Current Law (KCL): The algebraic Th l b i sum of f currents entering i a node d is i zero at every instant Kirchoffs Voltage Law (KVL) The algebraic sum of voltages around a loop is zero at every instant
Resistors:
vR (t ) = RiR (t ) iR (t ) = GvR (t )

iR
+ vR

iC
+ vC

iL
+ vL

Capacitors:
1 dv (t ) iC (t ) = C C vC (t ) = iC ( ) d + vC (0) dt C0
t

Inductors:

di (t ) 1 vL (t ) = L L iL (t ) = vL ( ) d + iL (0) dt L0
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

10

Dynamic Models
ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS:
OP AMP:

vO = A(v p vn ), A
vp +
ip

+
in

RI + -

RO A(vp-v vn)

iO

vO +

v p = vn i p = in = 0

v+
n

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

11

Dynamic Models
ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS:
R2 R1 C
+ -

KCL:

v1

vO

## 1 1 dvO = vO vI dt R2C R1C

1 t R2 = (OC) vO (t ) = vO (0 ) v I ( ) d R1C 0
v1

vO

1 K = RC
12

Inverting integrator
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Dynamic Models
ELECTRO-MECHANICAL C O C C S SYSTEMS: S S DC C Motor torque armature current

T = K t ia &m e = K e
emf shaft velocity

## &&m = b &m + T J m dia va + Raia + L +e=0 dt

Obtain the State Variable Representation
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

13

Dynamic Models
HEAT-FLOW: Heat Flow Temperature Difference

1 q = (T1 T2 ) R 1 & T= q C
Thermal capacitance Thermal resistance

1 1 1 & (To TI ) TI = + CI R1 R2

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

14

Dynamic Models
FLUID-FLOW: Mass rate Mass Conservation law l

## & = win wout m

l mass fl flow Inlet Outlet l mass fl flow

## 1 & & & = Ah h = (win wout ) m A

A: area of the tank : density of fluid h: height of water
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

15

Linearization
Dynamic System:

& = f ( x, u ) x
0 = f ( xo , uo )
Equilibrium

Denote

x = x xo , u = u uo
& = f ( xo + x, uo + u ) x

Taylor Expansion

## f f & f ( xo , uo ) + x x + u u xo ,uo x xo ,uo f f F ,G x xo ,uo u xo ,uo

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

& Fx + Gu x
16

Linearization

& Fx + Gu x
F f x xo ,uo f1 f1 f1 f1 x L x u L u n m f 1 1 = M ,G = M M M u xo ,uo f n L f n f n L f n x1 u1 xn um xo ,uo xo ,uo

## k & g & & + + sin = 0 m l

0 1 k x &= g x cos x1 l m xo
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

17

Laplace Transform
Function f(t) of time Piecewise continuous and exponential order F ( s ) = f (t )e
0 st

f (t ) < Kebt
+

dt

j 1 F ( s )e st ds L 1[F (s )] = f (t ) = 2j j

0 0- limit is used to capture transients and discontinuities at t=0 s is a complex variable (+j)
There is a need to worry y about regions g of convergence g of the integral g

A frequency

## If f(t) f( ) is i volts l (amps) ( ) then h F(s) F( ) is i volt-seconds l d (amp-seconds) ( d)

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

18

## Laplace transform examples

Step function unit Heavyside Function
After Oliver Heavyside (1850-1925)

F ( s ) = u (t )e
0

st

dt = e
0

st

dt =

st

( + j )t

+ j

## Exponential function F (s) = e

0 After Oliver Exponential (1176 BC- 1066 BC) ( s + )t e t st ( s + )t

dt = e
0

dt =

s +

1 = if > s +

## Delta (impulse) function (t)

F ( s ) = (t )e st dt = 1 for all s
0
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

19

## Laplace Transform Pair Tables

Signal g impulse step ramp exponential damped ramp sine cosine damped sine damped cosine Waveform

(t )
u (t ) tu (t )
e t u (t )
te t u (t )

Transform 1
1 s 1 s2 1 s + 1

( s + ) 2

sin ( t ) u (t ) cos( t )u (t )
e t sin ( t )u (t ) e t cos( t )u (t )

s2 + 2 s s2 + 2

( s + ) 2 + 2 s + ( s + ) 2 + 2
20

## Laplace Transform Properties

Linearity: (absolutely critical property) L{Af f1 (t ) + Bf f 2 (t )} = AL{ f1 (t )} + BL{ f 2 (t )} = AF1 ( s ) + BF2 ( s ) Integration property: Differentiation property:
t F (s ) L f ( )d = s 0 df (t ) L = sF ( s ) f (0) dt

d 2 f (t ) 2 = s F ( s ) sf (0) f (0) L 2 dt

d m f (t ) m m 1 m2 ( m) L L = s F ( s ) s f ( 0 ) s f ( 0 ) f (0 ) m dt
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

21

## Laplace Transform Properties

Translation properties:
s-domain domain translation:

L{e t f (t )} = F ( s + )
as

t-domain translation: L{ f (t a )u (t a )} = e

F ( s ) for a > 0

## Initial Value Property:

t 0 +

lim f (t ) = lim sF ( s )
s

## Final Value Property:

lim f (t ) = lim sF ( s )
s 0

22

## Laplace Transform Properties

Time Scaling: Multiplication by time:
1 s L{ f (at )} = F ( ) a a dF ( s ) L{tf (t )} = ds
t

## Convolution: Time product:

L{ f ( ) g (t )d } = F ( s )G ( s )
0

1 + j L{ f (t ) g (t )} = F ( s )G ( s )d j 2j

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

23

Laplace Transform
Exercise: Find the Laplace transform of the following waveform

## f (t ) = [2 + 2 sin( 2t ) 2 cos(2t )]u (t )

F (s) =

4(s + 2 ) s (s 2 + 4 )

## Exercise: Find the Laplace transform of the following waveform

f (t ) = e u (t ) + 5 sin (4 x )dx
4t 0 40 t d 5 te f (t ) = 5e 40t u (t ) + u (t ) dt

## E Exercise: i Find the Laplace transform of the following waveform

f (t ) = Au (t ) 2 Au (t T ) + Au (t 2T )

F (s) =

A(1 e s

Ts 2

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

24

Laplace transforms
Tim me doma ain (t dom main)

## Linear system Differential equation Classical q techniques Response p signal

Complex frequency domain (s domain) Laplace transform L Algebraic equation Algebraic techniques q Inverse Laplace p transform L-1 Response p transform

## The diagram commutes

Same answer whichever way you go
25

## Solving LTI ODEs via Laplace Transform

y ( n ) + an 1 y ( n 1) + L + a0 y = bmu ( m ) + bm 1u ( m 1) + L + b0u

## Initial Conditions: Recall

s Y ( s) y
n j =0 n 1

y ( n 1) (0 ),K, y (0 ), u ( m 1) (0 ),K, u (0 )

k 1 d k f (t ) k ( k 1 j ) j L = s F ( s ) f ( 0 ) s k dt j =0
( n 1 j ) i 1 m i 1 i i j ( i 1 j ) (0) s + ai s Y ( s ) y (0)s = bi s U ( s ) u ( i 1 j ) (0)s j i =0 j =0 j =0 i =0 j n 1

## bm s m + bm 1s m 1 + L + b1s + b0 Y ( s) = n U (s) + s + an 1s n 1 + L + a1s + a0

ai y
i =0 j =0

n 1

i 1

( i 1 j )

(0)s bi u (i 1 j ) (0)s j
j i =0 j =0 n 1

i 1

s + an 1s
n

+ L + a1s + a0

## For a given rational U(s) we get Y(s)=Q(s)/P(s)

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

26

Laplace Transform
Exercise: Find the Laplace transform V(s)

## dv(t ) + 6v(t ) = 4u (t ) dt v(0) = 3

4 3 V (s) = s (s + 6 ) s + 6

## What about v(t) ( )?

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

27

Transfer Functions
y ( n ) + an 1 y ( n 1) + L + a0 y = bm 1u ( m 1) + L + b0u

(s

## + an 1s n 1 + L + a1s + a0 )Y ( s ) = (bm 1s m 1 + L + b1s + b0 )U ( s )

Input

Output

bm 1s m 1 + L + b1s + b0 B( s) Y (s) = n U (s) = U (s) n 1 s + an 1s + L + a1s + a0 A( s ) Y (s) bm 1s m 1 + L + b1s + b0 H (s) = = n U ( s ) s + an 1s n 1 + L + a1s + a0 ( s z1 )( s z2 )L( s zm ) =K ( s p1 )( s p2 )L( s pn )
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

28

Rational Functions
We shall mostly be dealing with LTs which are rational functions ratios of polynomials in s
bm s m + bm 1s m 1 + L + b1s + b0 F (s) = an s n + an 1s n 1 + L + a1s + a0 ( s z1 )( s z2 )L( s zm ) =K ( s p1 )( s p2 )L( s pn )

pi are the poles and zi are the zeros of the function K is the scale factor or (sometimes) gain A proper rational function has nm A strictly proper rational function has n>m An improper rational function has n<m
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

29

## Residues at simple poles

Functions F i of f a complex l variable i bl with i h isolated, i l d finite order poles have residues at the poles
( s z1 )( s z2 )L( s zm ) k1 k2 kn F ( s) = K = + +L+ ( s p1 )( s p2 )L( s pn ) ( s p1 ) ( s p2 ) ( s pn )

(s pi )F ( s) = k1 ( s pi ) + k2 ( s pi ) + L + ki + L + kn ( s pi )
( s p1 ) ( s p2 ) ( s pn )
Residue at a simple pole:

ki = lim ( s pi ) F ( s )
s pi

30

## Residues at multiple poles

Compute residues at poles of order r: ( s z1 )( s z2 )L( s zm ) k1 k2 kr = + + L + F (s) = K ( s p1 ) r ( s p1 ) ( s p1 ) 2 ( s p1 ) r r j d 1 ( s p ) r F ( s ) , kj = lim j = 1L r i r j (r j )! s p ds
i

Example:

2 1 3 2 s 2 + 5s = + 3 2 s + 1 (s + 1) (s + 1) (s + 1)3
+1)3(2s2 +5s) = d ( s 1 lim 3 ds s 1 (s +1) +1)3(2s2 +5s) = 1 lim d2 ( s 2 3 2!s1ds2 + (s 1)

## (s +1)3(2s2 + 5s) = lim 3 3 s3 + (s 1)

2 + 5s 1 2 2 s 1 3 t 1 2 ( ) = L L + = e 2 + t 3 t u (t ) 3 2 3 (s + 1) s + 1 (s + 1) (s + 1)
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

31

## Residues at complex poles

Compute residues at the poles
s a

lim ( s a) F ( s)

Bundle complex conjugate pole pairs into second-order terms if you want but you will need to be careful

( s j )( s + j ) = s 2 2s + 2 + 2

)]

Inverse Laplace Transform is a sum of complex exponentials The answer will be real

32

## Inverting Laplace Transforms in Practice

We have a table of inverse LTs Write F(s) as a partial fraction expansion
F ( s) = an sn + an 1sn 1 + L + a1s + a0 ( s z1 )( s z2 )L ( s zm ) =K ( s p1 )( s p2 )L ( s pn ) = bm sm + bm1sm1 + L + b1s + b0

(s p1 ) (s p2 )

( s p3 )

31

32
2

(s p3 )

33

(s p3 )

+ ... +

(s pq )

Now appeal pp to linearity y to invert via the table Surprise! Nastiness: computing the partial fraction expansion is best d done b by calculating l l i the h residues id
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

33

Example 9-12
Find the inverse LT of 20( s + 3) F ( s) = ( s + 1)( s 2 + 2s + 5)
* k1 k2 k2 F (s) = + + s +1 s +1 j2 s +1+ j2
20( s + 3) k = lim ( s + 1) F ( s ) = = 10 1 s 1 2 s + 2 s + 5 s = 1 20( s + 3) k = lim (s + 1 2 j ) F (s) = 2 s 1 + 2 j ( s + 1)( s + 1 + 2 j ) 5 j = 5 5 j = 5 2e 4

s = 1 + 2 j

## 5 5 ( 1+ j 2)t + j ( 1 j 2)t j 4 u (t ) 4 + 5 2e f (t ) = 10e t + 5 2e 5 = 10e t + 10 2e t cos(2t + ) u (t ) 4

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

34

## Not Strictly Proper Laplace Transforms

Find the inverse LT of s 3 + 6s 2 + 12 s + 8 F ( s) = s 2 + 4s + 3 s+2

## Convert to polynomial plus strictly proper rational function

Use polynomial division

## F (s) = s + 2 + 2 s + 4s + 3 0.5 0.5 = s+2+ + s +1 s + 3

Invert as normal

d (t ) f (t ) = u (t ) + 2 (t ) + 0.5e t + 0.5e 3t dt

35

Block Diagrams
Series:

G1

G2

G = G1G2
G1
G2

Parallel:

+ +

G = G1 + G2

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

36

Block Diagrams
Negative Feedback:

R
R( s)
+

## Reference input Error signal Output Feedback signal

E (s)
-

G
H

C (s)

B( s)

E = RB C = GE B = HC

C G C = GR GHC (1 + GH )C = GR = R (1 + GH ) E 1 E = R HGE (1 + GH ) E = R = R (1 + GH )
Rule: Transfer Function=Forward Gain/(1+Loop Gain)
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

37

Block Diagrams
Positive Feedback:

R
R( s)
+

## Reference input Error signal Output Feedback signal

E (s)
+

G
H

C (s)

B( s)

E = R+B C = GE B = HC

C G C = GR + GHC (1 GH )C = GR = R (1 GH ) E 1 E = R + HGE (1 GH ) E = R = R (1 GH )
Rule: Transfer Function=Forward Gain/(1-Loop Gain)
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

38

Block Diagrams
Moving through a branching point:
R( s)

C (s)

R( s)

B( s)

G 1/ G

C (s)

B( s)

R( s)

+ +

C (s)

R( s)

+ +

C (s)

B( s)

G
B( s)
39

Block Diagrams
Example:

H1
R( s)
+ -

G1

G2

G3

C (s)

H2

R( s)

C (s)

40

Masons Rule
H4

H6
U (s)
+ +

H1 H5

+ +

H2

+ +

H3 H7

+ +

Y (s)

## Signal Flow Graph nodes

1

H4 H6

branches b a c es
3

U (s)

H1 H5

H2

H3 H7

Y (s)

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

41

Masons Rule
Path: P th a sequence of f connected t db branches h in i th the direction di ti of f the th signal flow without repetition Loop: a closed path that returns to its starting node Forward path: connects input and output

## Y (s) 1 G (s) = = Gi i U (s) i

Gi = gain of the ith forward path = the system determinan t = 1- (all loop gains) + (gain products of all possible two loops that do not touch)

(gain products of all possible three loops that do not touch) +L i = value of for the part of the graph that does not touch the ith forward path
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

42

Masons Rule
H4 H6

U (s)

H1 H5

H2

H3 H7

Y (s)

Y ( s) H1 H 2 H 3 + H 4 H 4 H 2 H 6 = U ( s ) 1 H1 H 5 H 2 H 6 H 3 H 7 H 4 H 7 H 6 H 5 + H1 H 5 H 3 H 7

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

43

Impulse Response
Diracs delta:

0 u( ) (t )d = u(t )

## Integration is a limit of a sum u(t) is represented as a sum of impulses

By superposition principle, we only need unit impulse response

h(t )

## Response at t to an impulse applied at

System Response:

u (t )

y (t )

y (t ) = u ( )h(t )d
0
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

44

Impulse Response
t-domain:

u (t )

y (t )
Impulse response

y (t ) = u ( )h(t )d
0

u (t ) = (t ) y (t ) = h(t )

The system response is obtained by convolving the input with the impulse response of the system.

Convolution: s-domain: U ( s )

L{ u ( )h(t )d } = H ( s )U ( s )
0

Y ( s)
Impulse response

Y ( s ) = H ( s )U ( s )

u (t ) = (t ) U ( s ) = 1 Y ( s ) = H ( s )

The system response is obtained by multiplying the transfer function and the Laplace transform of the input.
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

45

## Time Response vs. Poles

Real pole:

1 H ( s) = h(t ) = e t s +

Impulse Response
Stable Unstable

>0 <0

Time Constant

46

## Time Response vs. Poles

Real pole:

H (s) =

s + 1

h(t ) = e t
Time Constant

Impulse Response

1 Y (s) = y (t ) = 1 e t s + s

Step Response

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

47

2 n Complex poles: H ( s ) = 2 2 s + 2 n s + n

## Time Response vs. Poles

Impulse I l Response

2 n = (s + n )2 + n2 (1 2 )

n : :

## Undamped natural frequency Damping ratio

2 n

H (s) =

(s + + jd )(s + jd )

2 n = (s + )2 + d2

= n , d = n 1 2
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

48

## Time Response vs. Poles

Complex poles:
2 n n t H (s) = h ( t ) = e sin (d t ) 2 2 2 2 (s + n ) + n (1 ) 1

Impulse Response

>0 <0

Stable Unstable

49

## Time Response vs. Poles

Complex poles:
2 n n t H (s) = h ( t ) = e sin (d t ) 2 2 2 2 (s + n ) + n (1 ) 1

Impulse Response

50

## Time Response vs. Poles

Complex poles: 2 n 1 t ( ) ( ) = + Y (s) = y ( t ) 1 e cos t sin t d d (s + n )2 + n2 (1 2 ) s d Step Response

51

## Time Response vs. Poles

Complex poles:
2 n H (s) = 2 2 s + 2 n s + n 2 n = 2 (s + n ) + n2 (1 2 )

CASES:
2 = 0 : s 2 + n 2 (1 2 ) < 1 : (s + n )2 + n 2

Undamped p Underdamped

= 1 : (s + n )

> 1 : s + + 2 1 n s + 2 1 n
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

[ (

) ][ (

) ]

52

53

54

## Time Domain Specifications

1- The rise time tr is the time it takes the system to reach the vicinity of its new set point 2- The settling time ts is the time it takes the system 2 transients to decay 3- The overshoot Mp is the maximum amount the system t overshoot h t it its fi final l value l di divided id d b by its it final fi l value 4- The peak time tp is the time it takes the system to reach the maximum overshoot point

tp =

n 1

tr ts =

1.8

n
4.6

Mp =e

1 2

n
55

## Time Domain Specifications

Design specification are given in terms of

tr , t p , M p , t s
These specifications p give the p g position of the p poles

n , , d
Example: Find the pole positions that guarantee

56

## Effect of Zeros and Additional poles

Additional poles: 1- can be neglected if they are sufficiently to the left of the dominant ones. ones 2- can increase the rise time if the extra pole is within a factor of 4 of the real part of the complex poles. Zeros: 1- a zero near a pole reduces the effect of that pole in th time the ti response. 2- a zero in the LHP will increase the overshoot if the zero is within a factor of 4 of the real part of the complex poles (due to differentiation). 3- a zero in the RHP (nonminimum phase zero) will depress the overshoot and may cause the step response to start out in the wrong direction.
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

57

Stability
Y ( s ) bm s m + bm 1s m 1 + L + b1s + b0 = n R( s) s + an 1s n 1 + L + a1s + a0

## Y (s) ( s z1 )( s z2 )L( s zm ) =K R( s) ( s p1 )( s p2 )L( s pn ) Y (s) k1 k2 kn = + +L+ R ( s ) ( s p1 ) ( s p2 ) ( s pn )

Impulse response:
R( s) = 1 Y ( s) = k1 k2 kn + +L+ ( s p1 ) ( s p2 ) ( s pn )

## y (t ) = k1e p1t + k2e p2t + L + kn e pnt

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

58

Stability
y (t ) = k1e p1t + k2e p2t + L + kn e pnt
We want:

e pit t 0

i = 1K n

Re{ { pi } < 0

## Characteristic polynomial: Characteristic equation:

a ( s ) = s n + an 1s n 1 + L + a1s + a0 a( s) = 0
59

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Stability
Necessary condition for asymptotical stability (a.s.):

ai > 0
Use this as the first test!

## If any ai<0, <0 the the system is UNSTABLE! Example:

s2 + s 2 = 0 ( s + 2)( s 1) = 0

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

60

Rouths Criterion
Necessary and sufficient condition Do not have to find the roots pi! Rouths Array:
sn s n 1 s n2 s n 3 s n4 M s0 an 1 a1 b1 c1 d1 a2 a3 b2 c2 d2 a4 L a5 L b3 c3
b1 =

an

## Depends on whether n is even or odd

a1a2 a3 aa a aa a , b2 = 1 4 5 , b3 = 1 6 7 a1 a1 a1 ba ab ba ab c1 = 1 3 1 2 , c2 = 1 5 1 3 , L b1 b1 c b bc cb bc d1 = 1 2 1 2 , d 2 = 1 3 1 3 , L c1 c1 M M

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

61

Rouths Criterion
How to remember this? Rouths Array:

sn s n 1 s n2 s n 3 M

m11

m12

mi , j =

, i 3

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

62

Rouths Criterion
The criterion: The system is asymptotically stable if and only if all the elements in the first column of the Rouths array are positive The number of roots with positive real parts is equal to the number of sign changes in the first column of the Routh array

63

## Rouths Criterion - Examples

Example 1: Example 2:

s 2 + a1s + a2 = 0 s 3 + a1s 2 + a2 s + a3 = 0

Example 3: s 6 + 4 s 5 + 3s 4 + 2 s 3 + s 2 + 4 s + 4 = 0 Example 4:

s 3 + 5 s 2 + ( k 6) s + k = 0

64

## Rouths Criterion - Examples

Example: Determine the range of K over which the system is stable
R( s)

+ -

s +1 s(s 1)(s + 6 )

Y (s)

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

65

Rouths Criterion
Special Case I: Zero in the first column We replace the zero with a small positive constant >0 and proceed as before. We then apply the stability criterion by taking the limit as 0 Example:

s 4 + 2 s 3 + 4 s 2 + 8s + 10 = 0

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

66

Rouths Criterion
Special Case II: Entire row is zero This indicates that there are complex conjugate pairs. If the ith row is zero, we form an auxiliary equation from the previous nonzero row:

a1 ( s ) = 1s i +1 + 2 s i 1 + 3 s i 3 + L
Where i are the coefficients of the (i+1)th ) row in the array. We then replace the ith row by the coefficients of the derivative of the auxiliary polynomial. Example:

s 5 + 2 s 4 + 4 s 3 + 8s 2 + 10 s + 20 = 0

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

67

Properties of feedback
Disturbance Rejection: Open loop

w
Ko
+

y
y = K o Ar + w

Closed loop

w
+

+ -

Kc

y
Kc A 1 y= r+ w 1 + Kc A 1 + Kc A
68

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Properties of feedback
Disturbance Rejection: Ch Choose control t l s.t. t for f w=0,y 0 r Open loop:

1 Ko = y = r + w A

## Closed loop: K c >>

1 y r + 0w = r A

Feedback allows attenuation of disturbance without h having access to it (without ( h measuring it)!!! )
IMPORTANT: High gain is dangerous for dynamic response!!!
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

69

Properties of feedback
Sensitivity to Gain Plant Changes Open loop

w
Ko
+

y
y To = = AK o r o

Closed loop

w
+

+ -

Kc

y
AK c y Tc = = r c 1 + AK c
70

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Properties of feedback
Sensitivity to Gain Plant Changes Let the plant gain be A + A Open loop: Closed loop:

To
To

A
A

Tc

A To 1 = << = Tc A 1 + AK c A To

## Feedback reduces sensitivity to plant variations!!! Sensitivity: Example:

dT / T A dT S = = dA / A T dA 1 Tc To SA = , SA =1 1 + AK c
T A
71

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

PID Controller
PID: Proportional Integral Derivative P Controller:
Y (s) C ( s )G ( s ) R ( s ) = , R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s ) E (s) 1 = . R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s )
+ -

E (s)

C (s) = K p

U (s)

G (s)

Y (s)

Step Reference:

u (t ) = K p e(t ),

U (s) = K p E (s)

## 1 1 1 1 R ( s ) = ess = lim sE ( s ) = lim s = s 0 s 0 1 + K G ( s ) s s 1 + K pG (0) p ess = 0 K pG (0)

True when: Proportional gain is high Plant has a pole at the origin

High gain proportional feedback (needed for good tracking) results in underdamped (or even unstable) transients.
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

72

PID Controller
P Controller: Example (lecture06_a.m)
R( s)
+ -

E (s)

Kp

U (s)

A s2 + s + 1

Y (s)

K pG ( s) KpA Y ( s) = = 2 R ( s ) 1 + K pG ( s ) s + s + (1 + K p A)
2 n =1+ K p A

2 n =1

1 = = K 0 p 2n 2 1 + K p A

9 Underdamped transient for large proportional gain 9 Steady state error for small proportional gain
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

73

PID Controller
PI Controller:
R( s) Y (s) C ( s )G ( s ) = , R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s ) E (s) 1 = . R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s )
+ -

E (s)

C (s) = K p +

KI s

U (s)

G (s)

Y (s)

Step Reference:

u (t ) = K p e(t ) + K I e( )d ,
0

KI U (s) = K p + s
1 K 1+ K p + I s

E (s)
=0

## 1 R ( s ) = ess = lim li sE E ( s ) = lim li s s 0 s 0 s

1 K 1+ K p + I s

G ( s )

1 = lim li s s 0

G ( s )

It does not matter the value of the proportional gain Plant does not need to have a pole at the origin. The controller has it!

Integral control achieves perfect steady state reference tracking!!! Note that this is valid even for Kp=0 as long as Ki0
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

74

PID Controller
PI Controller: Example (lecture06_b.m)
R( s)
+ -

E (s)

Kp +

KI s

U (s)

A s2 + s + 1

Y (s)

KI G ( s ) Kp + ( K p s + K I )A Y (s) s = = 3 2 KI R( s) s + s + (1 + K p A) s + K I A 1+ K p + ( ) G s s
DANGER: for large

## Ki the characteristic equation has roots in the RHP

Analysis by Rouths Criterion

s 3 + s 2 + (1 + K p A) s + K I A = 0
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

75

PID Controller
PI Controller: Example (lecture06_b.m)

s 3 + s 2 + (1 + K p A) s + K I A = 0
Necessary Conditions: This is satisfied because Rouths Conditions:

1 + K p A > 0, K I A > 0

## A > 0, K p > 0, K I > 0

s3 1 1+ K p A 2 s 1 KI A s1 1 + K p A K I A

1+ K p A KI A > 0

s0

KI A

1 KI < KP + A
76

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

PID Controller
PD Controller:
R( s) Y (s) C ( s )G ( s ) = , R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s ) E (s) 1 = . R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s )
+ -

E (s)

C (s) = K p + K D s

U (s)

G (s)

Y (s)

Step Reference:

de(t ) u (t ) = K p e(t ) + K D , dt

U ( s ) = (K p + K D s )E ( s )

## 1 1 1 1 = R ( s ) = ess = lim sE ( s ) = lim s s 0 s 0 1 + (K + K s )G ( s ) s s 1 + K p G ( 0) p D ess = 0 K pG (0)

True when: Proportional P ti l gain i i is hi high h Plant has a pole at the origin

PD controller fixes problems with stability and damping by adding anticipative action
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

77

PID Controller
PD Controller: Example (lecture06_c.m)
R( s)
+ -

E (s) C ( s) = K + K s U (s) p D

A s2 + s + 1

Y (s)

## ( K p + K D s )G ( s ) A(K p + K D s ) Y (s) = = 2 R ( s ) 1 + (K p + K D s )G ( s ) s + (1 + K D A)s + (1 + K p A)

2 n =1+ K p A

2 n = 1+ KD A

1+ KD A 1+ KD A = = 2n 2 1+ K p A

9 The damping can be increased now independently of Kp 9 The steady state error can be minimized by a large Kp
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

78

PID Controller
PD Controller:
R( s) Y (s) C ( s )G ( s ) = , R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s ) E (s) 1 = . R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s )
+ -

E (s)

C (s) = K p + K D s

U (s)

G (s)

Y (s)

de(t ) u (t ) = K p e(t ) + K D , dt
NOTE: cannot apply pp y pure p differentiation. In practice,

U ( s ) = (K p + K D s )E ( s )

KDs
is implemented as

KDs Ds +1
79

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

PID Controller
PID: Proportional Integral Derivative
R( s)
+ -

E (s)

U (s) 1 Kp 1 + + T s Ts D I

G (s)

Y (s)

## d Kp 1 de(t ) u (t ) = K p e(t ) + e( ) d + TD , K D = K pTD KI = TI 0 d dt TI

U (s) 1 = Kp 1+ + TD s E (s) T s I
PID Controller: Example (lecture06_d.m)
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

80

## PID Controller: Ziegler-Nichols Tuning

Empirical method (no proof that it works well but it works well for simple systems) Only for stable plants You do not need a model to apply the method Class of plants:

Y (s) K Ke td s = U ( s ) s + 1

81

## PID Controller: Ziegler-Nichols Tuning

METHOD 1: Based on step response, tuning to decay ratio of 0.25. Tuning Table: P: Kp = td t PD : K p = 0.9 , TI = d td 0 .3 PID : K p = 1.2 , TI = 2td , TD = 0.5td td

82

## PID Controller: Ziegler-Nichols Tuning

METHOD 2: Based on limit of stability, ultimate sensitivity method.
R( s) E (s)
-

Ku

U (s)

G (s)

Y (s)

Increase the constant gain Ku until the response becomes p purely y oscillatory y (no ( decay y marginally g y stable pure imaginary poles) Measure the period of oscillation Pu

83

## PID Controller: Ziegler-Nichols Tuning

METHOD 2: Based on limit of stability, ultimate sensitivity method. Tuning Table:
P: K p = 0 .5 K u Pu PD : K p = 0.45 K u , TI = 1. 2 Pu Pu PID : K p = 0.6 K u , TI = , TD = 2 8

## The Tuning Tables are the same if you make: K u = 2 , Pu = 4td td

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

84

## PID Controller: Integrator Windup

Actuator Saturates: - valve (fully open) - aircraft rudder (fully deflected)

u
(Input of the plant)

uc
(Output of the controller)

85

## PID Controller: Integrator Windup

R( s)
+ -

E (s)

Kp +

KI s

U c (s)

U (s)

G (s)

Y (s)

What Wh t happens? h ? - large step input in r - large e - large uc u saturates - eventually e becomes small - uc still large because the integrator is charged - u still at maximum - y overshoots h t f for a long l time ti
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

86

87

## PID Controller: Anti-Windup

I saturation, In t ti the th plant l t behaves b h as:

For large Ka, this is a system with very low gain and very fast decay rate, i.e., the integration is turned off.
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

88

The Unity Feedback Case
R( s)
+ -

E (s)

C (s)

U (s)

G(s)

Y (s)

E (s) 1 = R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s )
Test Inputs:

tk r (t ) = 1(t ) k! 1 R ( s ) = k +1 s

89

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

The Unity Feedback Case
R( s)
+ -

Type n System

E (s)

C (s)

Go ((ss) U ) sn

G(s)

Y (s)

## Go ( s ) 1 1 C ( s )G ( s ) = n , E ( s ) = R ( s ), R ( s ) = k +1 Go ( s ) s s 1+ n s Steady State Error:

Final Fin l Value V l e Theorem

## 1 sn s nk 1 1 ess = lim e(t ) = lim sE ( s ) = lim s = lim = lim t s 0 s 0 Go ( s ) s k +1 s 0 s n + Go ( s ) s k s 0 s n + Go (0) 1+ n s

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

90

The Unity Feedback Case
R( s)
+ -

Type yp n System

E (s)

Go ( s ) sn

Y (s)

s nk ess = lim n s 0 s + G ( 0) o
Input (k)

Steady State Error: Type (n) Type 0 Type 1 Type 2 Step (k=0) Ramp (k=1) Parabola (k=2)

## 1 1 1 = = 1 + Go (0) 1 + lim C ( s )G ( s ) 1 + K p s 0 1 1 1 = = 0 Go (0) lim sC ( s )G ( s ) K v

s 0

1 1 1 = = Go (0) lim s 2C ( s )G ( s ) K a
s 0

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

91

K p = lim C ( s )G ( s ) K v = lim sC ( s )G ( s )
s 0 s 0 s 0

n=0 n =1

## Position Constant Velocity Constant Acceleration Constant

K a = lim s 2C ( s )G ( s ) n = 2

## n: Degree of the poles of CG(s) at the origin (the number of

integrators in the loop with unity gain feedback) Applying integral control to a plant with no zeros at the origin makes the system type I All this is true ONLY for unity feedback systems Since in Type I systems ess=0 for any CG(s), we say that the system type is a robust property.

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

92

The Unity Feedback Case
R( s) E (s)
-

tk w(t ) = 1(t ) k! 1 W ( s ) W ( s ) = k +1 s

C (s)

U (s)
+

G(s)

Y (s)

e=r-y=-y

## ess = yss = lim y (t ) = lim sY ( s ) = lim sT ( s )

t s 0 s 0
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

1 s k +1

sn = lim To ( s ) k s 0 s
93

The Unity Feedback Case
R( s)
+ -

W (s) U (s)
+ +

E (s)

C (s)

G(s)

Y (s)

Steady State Output: Disturbance (k) Type (n) Type 0 Type 1 Type 2 Step (k=0)
*

Ramp (k=1)
*

Parabola (k=2)
*
0 <*<
94

0 0

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Example:
W (s) R( s)
+ -

E (s)

K Kp + I s

U (s)
+

A s (s + 1)

Y (s)

type 1 to w KI 0 K P 0, K I = 0 type 0 to w

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

95

Root Locus
Controller
R( s) +
-

Plant
U (s) Y (s)

E (s)

C (s)

G(s)

H (s)

Sensor

C ( s ) = KD ( s )

Y (s) C ( s )G ( s ) C ( s )G ( s ) = = R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s ) H ( s ) 1 + KL ( s )

Writing the loop gain as KL(s) we are interested in tracking the closed-loop poles as gain K varies

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

96

Root Locus
Characteristic Equation:

1 + KL( s ) = 0
The roots (zeros) of the characteristic equation are the closed-loop poles of the feedback system!!! The closed-loop poles are a function of the gain K Writing the loop gain as

b( s ) s m + b1s m 1 + L + bm 1s + bm L( s ) = = n a ( s ) s + a1s n 1 + L + an 1s + an
The closed loop poles are given indistinctly by the solution of:

1 + KL ( s ) = 0,

1+ K

b( s ) = 0, a(s)

a ( s ) + Kb( s ) = 0,

L( s ) =

1 K
97

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Root Locus
RL = zeros{ 1 + KL( s )} = roots{den( L) + Knum( L)}
when K varies from 0 to (positive Root Locus) or from 0 to - (negative Root Locus)

98

## Root Locus by Characteristic Equation Solution

Example:
R( s)
+ -

E (s)

U (s)

1 (s + 10)(s + 1)

Y (s)

## Y (s) K = 2 R ( s ) s + 11s + (10 + K )

Closed-loop Closed loop poles:

1 + L( s ) = 0 s 2 + 11s + (10 + K ) = 0
s = 1,10

K=0
81 4 K 2 4 K 81 2

81 4 K s = 5.5 2

99

## Root Locus by Characteristic Equation Solution

We need a systematic approach to plot the closed-loop closed loop poles as function of the gain K ROOT LOCUS
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

100

## Root Locus by Phase Condition

Example:
R( s)
+ -

E (s)

U (s)

s +1 s (s + 5)(s 2 + 4 s + 8)

Y (s)

L( s ) =

## s +1 s (s + 5)(s 2 + 4 s + 8) s +1 = s (s + 5)(s + 2 + 2i )(s + 2 2i )

so = 1 + 3i
belongs to the locus?

101

45o 36.87
o

90o

108.43o

78.70o

## Note: Check code lecture09_a.m

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

102

## Root Locus by Phase Condition

so = 1 + 3i

We need a systematic approach to plot the closed-loop closed loop poles as function of the gain K ROOT LOCUS
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

103

Root Locus
RL = zeros{ 1 + KL( s )} = roots{den( L) + Knum( L)}
when K varies from 0 to (positive Root Locus) or from 0 to - (negative Root Locus)

1 + KL( s ) = 0 L( s ) =
Basic Properties:

1 a ( s ) + Kb( s ) = 0 K

## Number of branches = number of open-loop poles RL begins at open-loop poles

K = 0 a(s) = 0
RL ends at open-loop open loop zeros e os or o asymptotes as mptotes

b( s ) = 0 K = L( s ) = 0 s (n m > 0)
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

104

Root Locus
Rule 1: The n branches of the locus start at the poles of L(s) and m of these branches end on the zeros of L(s). n: order of the denominator of L(s) m: order of the numerator of L(s)

Rule 2: The locus is on the real axis to the left of and odd number of poles and zeros. In other words, an interval on the real axis belongs to the root locus if the total number of poles and zeros to the right is odd. This rule comes from the phase condition!!!

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

105

Root Locus
Rule 3: As K, m of the closed-loop poles approach the open-loop zeros, and n-m of them approach n-m asymptotes with angles

l = (2l + 1)
and centered at

nm

l = 0,1,K, n m 1

b1 a1 poles zeros = = , nm nm

l = 0,1,K, n m 1

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

106

Root Locus
Rule 4: The locus crosses the j axis (looses stability) where the Routh criterion shows a transition from roots in the left half-plane to roots in the right-half plane. Example:

G (s) =

s+5 s ( s 2 + 4 s + 5) K = 20, s = j 5

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

107

Root Locus
Example:

G (s) =

s +1 s 4 + 3s 3 + 7 s 2 + 6 s + 4

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

108

Root Locus
Design dangers revealed by the Root Locus: High relative degree: For n-m n m3 we have closed loop instability due to asymptotes.

s +1 G ( s) = 4 s + 3s 3 + 7 s 2 + 6 s + 4
Nonminimum phase zeros: They attract closed loop poles into the RHP

G ( s) =

s 1 s2 + s + 1

## Note: Check code lecture09_b.m

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

109

Root Locus
Vietes formula: When the relative degree n-m n m2, 2 the sum of the closed loop poles is constant

## a1 = closed loop poles

b( s ) s m + b1s m 1 + L + bm 1s + bm L( s ) = = n a ( s ) s + a1s n 1 + L + an 1s + an

110

## Phase and Magnitude of a Transfer Function

bm s m + bm 1s m 1 + L + b1s + b0 G (s) = n s + an 1s n 1 + L + a1s + a0

## Th factors The f t K, (s-z ( j) and d (s-p ( k) are complex l numbers: b

(s z j ) = r e , ( s pk ) = r e
p p i k k

z z i j j

j = 1K m k = 1L p
z z i m m p inp n

K = Ke

i K

G(s) = K e

i K

r e r e

z z i1z z i2 1 2 p p p i1 p i2 1 2

r e r e Lr e

Lr e

111

## Phase and Magnitude of a Transfer Function

G (s) = K e
i K

r e r e
K

z z i1z z i2 1 2 p p p i1 p i2 1 2

r e r e Lr e
z 2 p 2

= K e i

r r Lr e (

z 1 p 1

r r Lr e (

Lr e

z z i m m p inp n

z z +L+m z i 1z +2 m p p p p i 1 +2 +L+n n

## z z z r1z r2z L rm ) i [ K + (1z +2 +L+m (1p +2p +L+np )] =K p p e p r1 r2 L rn

Now it is easy to give the phase and magnitude of the o e transfer a s e function: u o
z r1z r2z L rm G ( s) = K p p , p r1 r2 L rn

z ) (1p + 2p + L + np ) G ( s ) = K + (1z + 2z + L + m
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

112

Example:

## ( s + 6.735) G ( s) = (s + 1)(s + 5)( s + 20)

s = so = 7 + 5i
r3p

r1z

r2p r1p

3p

1z 2p

1p

G ( s ) = 1z (1p + 2p + 3p )

r1z G(s) = p p p r1 r2 r3

113

## Root Locus- Magnitude and Phase Conditions

RL = zeros{ 1 + KL( s )} = roots{den( L) + Knum( L)}
when K varies from 0 to (positive Root Locus) or from 0 to - (negative Root Locus)
z K z z ( s z1 )( s z2 )L( s zm ) r1z r2z L rm ) i [ p + (1z +2 +L+m (1p +2p +L+np )] = Kp p p e L( s ) = K p p ( s p1 )( s p2 )L( s pn ) r1 r2 L rn
z r1z r2z L rm 1 L ( s ) K = = p 1 r1p r2p L rnp K K > 0 : L( s ) = K K z ) (1p + 2p + L + np ) = 180o L( s ) = p + (1z + 2z + L + m z r1z r2z L rm 1 L s K ( ) = = p p p p 1 r r L r K K < 0 : L( s ) = 1 2 n K K z ) (1p + 2p + L + np ) = 0o L( s ) = p + (1z + 2z + L + m
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

114

Root Locus
Selecting K for desired closed loop poles on Root Locus: If so belongs to the root locus, locus it must satisfies the characteristic equation for some value of K

1 L( so ) = K
Then we can obtain K as

1 K = L( so ) 1 K= L( so )
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

115

Root Locus
Example:

L( s ) = G ( s ) =

(s + 1)(s + 5)

so = 3 + i 4 K =

1 = so + 1 so + 5 = 3 + i 4 + 1 3 + i 4 + 5 L( so ) =

( 2)2 + 42 (2)2 + 42 = 20

Using MATLAB:
sys=tf(1,poly([-1 -5])) so=-3+4i [K,POLES]=rlocfind(sys,so)
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

116

Root Locus
Example:

L( s ) = G ( s ) =

(s + 1)(s + 5)

so = 3 + i 4

so = 7 + i5 K= 1 = 42.06 L( so )

so = 7 + i5

When we use the absolute value formula we are assuming that the point belongs to the Root Locus!
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

117

## Root Locus - Compensators

Example:

L( s ) = G ( s ) =

(s + 1)(s + 5)

Can we place the closed loop pole at so=-7+i5 only varying K? NO. We need a COMPENSATOR.
L( s) = G ( s ) =

(s + 1)(s + 5)

L( s ) = D( s )G ( s ) = (s + 10 )

(s + 1)(s + 5)

## The zero attracts the locus!!!

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

118

## Root Locus Phase lead compensator

Pure derivative control is not normally practical because of the amplification of the noise due to the differentiation and must be approximated:

s+z , D( s) = s+ p

p>z

When we study frequency response we will understand why we call Phase Lead to this compensator.

L( s ) = D( s )G ( s ) =

1 s+z , s + p (s + 1)(s + 5)

p>z

119

## Root Locus Phase lead compensator

Example:

L( s ) = D( s )G ( s ) =

s+z 1 , s + p (s + 1)(s + 5)

p<z

21.04

111.80o 140.19o

1z ?

L( s ) =

Kp

## 1z = 180o + 140.19o + 111.80o + 21.04o = 453.03o = 93.03o z = 6.735

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

120

## Root Locus Phase lead compensator

Example:

L( s ) = D( s )G ( s ) =

s + 6.735 1 s + 20 (s + 1)(s + 5)

so = 7 + i5 K = 117

121

## Root Locus Phase lead compensator

Selecting z and p is a trial an error procedure. In general: The zero is p placed in the neighborhood g of the closedloop natural frequency, as determined by rise-time or settling time requirements. The poles is placed at a distance 5 to 20 times the value of the zero location. The pole is fast enough to avoid modifying the dominant pole behavior. The exact position of the pole p is a compromise between: Noise suppression (we want a small value for p) Compensation effectiveness (we want large value for p)

122

## Root Locus Phase lag compensator

Example:

L( s ) = D( s )G ( s ) =

s + 6.735 1 s + 20 (s + 1)(s + 5)

s 0 s 0

## What can we do to increase Kp? Suppose we want Kp=10.

L( s ) = D( s )G ( s ) =

## 1 s + z s + 6.735 , s + p s + 20 (s + 1)(s + 5) z 1 = 103 = 148.48 p 6.735

p<z
Phase lag Ph l COMPENSATOR

We choose:

123

## Root Locus Phase lag compensator

Example:

L( s ) = D( s )G ( s ) =

124

## Root Locus Phase lag compensator

Selecting z and p is a trial an error procedure. In general: The ratio zero/pole /p is chosen based on the error constant specification. We pick z and p small to avoid affecting the dominant dynamic of the system (to avoid modifying the part of the locus representing the dominant dynamics) Slow transient due to the small p is almost cancelled by an small z. The ratio zero/pole cannot be very big. The exact position of z and p is a compromise between: Steady state error (we want a large value for z/p) The transient response (we want the pole p placed far from the origin)

125

## Root Locus - Compensators

D( s) = D( s) =

s+z , s+ p s+z , s+ p

z< p z> p

## Phase lag compensator:

We will see why we call phase lead and phase lag to these compensators when we study frequency response

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

126

Frequency Response
We now know how to analyze and design systems via s-domain methods which yield dynamical information
The responses are described b by the e exponential ponential modes The modes are determined by the poles of the response Laplace Transform

We next will look at describing cct performance via frequency response methods This guides us in specifying the system pole and zero positions

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

127

Consider C id a stable t bl t transfer f function f ti with ith a sinusoidal input: A u (t ) = A cos(t ) U ( s ) = 2 s + 2
The Laplace Transform of the response has poles Where the natural modes lie These are in the open left half plane Re(s)<0 At the input modes

## s=+j and s=-j

Y ( s ) = G ( s )U ( s ) = K

( s z1 )( s z2 )L( s zm ) A ( s p1 )( s p2 )L( s pn ) (s 2 + 2 )

Only the response due to the poles on the imaginary axis remains after a sufficiently long time
This is the sinusoidal steady-state response
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

128

Input
u (t ) = A cos(t + ) = A cos t sin A sin t cos

Transform

U ( s ) = A cos

s + A sin s2 + 2 s2 + 2

Response R Transform T f
k k* k1 k2 kN Y ( s ) = G ( s )U ( s ) = + + + +L+ s j s + j s p1 s p2 s pN

Response Signal

forced response

natural response

## jt + k *e jt + k e p1t + k e p2t + L + k e p N t y (t ) = ke 1 4442 1442443 1 44 2444N 44 3 forced response natural response

ySS (t ) = ke jt + k *e jt
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

0
129

Calculating the SSS response to
s j s j

u(t ) = Acos(t + )

## Residue calculation k = lim li [(s j )Y (s)] = li lim [(s j )G(s)U (s)]

j cos sin s cos sin = ( ) = lim G( s)(s j ) A G j A s j (s j )(s + j ) 2 j 1 1 = AG( j ) e j = A G( j ) e j ( +G ( j )) 2 2

Signal g calculation

k k* + yss (t ) = L s j s + j = k e jK e jt + k e jK e jt
1

= 2 k cos(t + K )
yss (t ) = A G( j ) cos(t + + G( j ))
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

130

Response to is
u (t ) = A cos(t + ) yss = G ( j ) A cos(t + + G ( j ))

Output frequency = input frequency Output p amplitude p = input p amplitude p |G(j (j)| Output phase = input phase +G(j) Th The Frequency F Response R of f the h transfer f function f i G(s) G( ) is i given i by its evaluation as a function of a complex variable at s=j
We speak of the amplitude response and of the phase response They cannot independently be varied Bodes relations of analytic function theory

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

131

Frequency Response
Find the steady state output for v1(t)=Acos(t+)
+ V1(s) _ sL R + V2(s) -

C Compute t the th s-domain d i transfer t f function f ti T(s) T( ) R T s ( ) = Voltage divider sL + R Compute the frequency response
T ( j ) = R R 2 + (L) 2 ,

L T ( j ) = tan 1 R

## Compute the steady state output

v2 SS (t ) = AR R 2 + (L) 2

]
132

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Bode Diagrams
Log-log plot of mag(T), log-linear plot of arg(T) versus
Bode Diagram 0

-5 5

-10

-15

-20

-25 0

-45

-90 10
4

10

10

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

133

Frequency Response
u (t ) = A cos(t + )

G( s)

yss = G ( j ) A cos(t + + G ( j ))
Stable Transfer Function

After a transient, the output settles to a sinusoid with an amplitude magnified by G ( j ) and phase shifted by G ( j ) . Since all signals can be represented by sinusoids (Fourier series and transform), the quantities G ( j ) and G ( j ) are extremely important. important Bode developed methods for quickly finding G ( j ) and G ( j ) for a given G ( s ) and for using them in control design. design
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

134

Frequency Response
Find the steady state output for v1(t)=Acos(t+)
+ V1(s) _ sL R + V2(s) -

C Compute t the th s-domain d i transfer t f function f ti T(s) T( ) R T s ( ) = Voltage divider sL + R Compute the frequency response
T ( j ) = R R 2 + (L) 2 ,

L T ( j ) = tan 1 R

## Compute the steady state output

v2 SS (t ) = AR R 2 + (L) 2

]
135

## Frequency Response - Bode Diagrams

Log-log plot of mag(T), log-linear plot of arg(T) versus
Bode Diagram 0

## Magn nitude (dB) ) Magnitude (dB) M Phase e (deg) Phas se (deg)

-5 5

-10

-15

-20

-25 0

-45

-90 10
4

10

10

[ ] = rad / sec, = 2f , [ f ] = Hz
136

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Bode Diagrams
( s z1 )( s z2 )L( s zm ) G (s) = K ( s p1 )( s p2 )L( s pn )
z z z r1z r2z L rm ) i [ K + (1z +2 +L+m (1p +2p +L+np )] G (s) = K p p e p r1 r2 L rn

The magnitude and phase of G(s) when s=j is given by: Nonlinear in the magnitudes
z r1z r2z L rm , G ( j ) = K p p p r1 r2 L rn

z ) (1p + 2p + L + np ) G ( j ) = K + (1z + 2z + L + m

## Linear in the phases

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

137

Bode Diagrams
Why do we express G ( j ) in decibels?

G ( j ) dB = 20 log G ( j )
z r1z r2z L rm G ( j ) = K p p G ( j ) dB = ? p r1 r2 L rn

## By properties of the logarithm we can write:

z z ) (20 log r1p + 20 log r2p + L + 20 log rnp ) 20 log G ( s ) = 20 log K + (20 log r1z + 20 log rm + L + 20 log rm

The magnitude and phase of G(s) when s=j is given by: Linear in the magnitudes (dB)

G ( s ) dB = K dB + r1z

z ) (1p + 2p + L + np ) G ( s ) = K + (1z + 2z + L + m

dB

+ r2z

dB

z + L + rm

dB

) (r

1 dB

+ r2p

dB

+ L + rnp

dB

)
138

## Linear in the phases

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Bode Diagrams
Why do we use a logarithmic scale? Let Lets s have a look at our example:

## R R T ( j ) = = T (s) = 2 2 sL L+R R + (L)

Expressing the magnitude in dB:

1 1+ R L
2

T ( j ) dB

## L 2 = 20 log1 20 log 1 + = 10 log 1 + R R L

2

Asymptotic behavior:

: T ( j ) dB 20 log

0 : T ( j ) dB 0

R/L

R ( ) = 20 log / 20 log = R L

L dB

20 log

## LINEAR FUNCTION in log!!! We plot G ( j ) dB as a function of log.

Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

139

Bode Diagrams
Decade: Any frequency range whose end points have a 10:1 ratio A cutoff frequency occurs when the gain is reduced from its maximum i passband b d value l b by a f factor t 1/ 2 :

## 1 20 log T MAX = 20 log T MAX 20 log 2 20 log T MAX 3dB 2

Bandwith: frequency range spanned by the gain passband Lets have a look at our example:

= 0 T ( j ) = 2 = R / L L 1+ R 1

T ( j ) = 1 T ( j ) = 1 / 2

This i Thi is a low-pass l fil filter!!! !!! P Passband b d gain= i 1, C Cutoff ff frequency= f R/L The Bandwith is R/L!
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

140

## General Transfer Function (Bode Form)

j j G ( j ) = K o ( j ) ( j + 1) + 2 + 1 n n
2

The magnitude (dB) (phase) is the sum of the magnitudes (dB) (phases) of each one of the terms. We learn how to plot each term, we learn how to plot the whole magnitude and phase Bode Plot. Classes of terms:

123 34-

G ( j ) = K o G ( j ) = ( j )
m n q

G ( j ) = ( j + 1)
2

j j G ( j ) = + 2 + 1 n n

141

## General Transfer Function: DC gain

G ( j ) = K o
Magnitude g and Phase:

G ( j) dB = 20 log K o d 0 G ( j ) =
200 180 160

G (s ) = 10
40 35 30

if K o > 0 if K o < 0

140

Magnitude (dB)

Phas se (deg)

25 20 15 10

120 100 80 60 40

5 0 -1 10
0 1 2

20

10

10

10

0 -1 10

10

142

## General Transfer Function: Poles/zeros at origin

G ( j ) = ( j )
Magnitude and Phase:
m

G ( j) dB = m 20 log G ( j ) = m

20

1 m = 1, G (s ) = s

2
0

10

G (1) dB = 0
Pha ase (deg)
1 2

-20

-40

-10

-60

-20

-30

dB m 20 dec
10
0

-80

-100

-40 -1 10

10

10

-120 -1 10

10

10

10

143

## General Transfer Function: Real poles/zeros

G( j ) = ( j + 1)
Magnitude and Phase:
n

G ( j) dB = n 10 log( 2 2 + 1) G ( j ) = n tan 1 ( )
Asymptotic behavior:

## 0 G ( j ) dB <<1 / G ( j ) dB n >>1 / + n 20 log dB

o G ( j ) 0 <<1 / o G ( j ) n 90 >>1 /

144

## General Transfer Function: Real poles/zeros

10 5 0

n = 1, = 1 / 10
n 3dB dB n 20 dec

Magnitude (d dB)

## -5 -10 10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -1 10

G (s ) =

1 s +1 10

G ( j 0) dB = 0dB G ( j1 / ) dB = n 3dB
10
0

10

10

10

G () dB = sgn(n)dB

145

## General Transfer Function: Real poles/zeros

10 0 -10 -20

n = 1, = 1 / 10 G (s ) = 1 s +1 10

Phase (deg) P )

## -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 -100 -1 10 10

0

n 45o

G ( j 0) = 0o G ( j1 / ) = n 45o
10
1

10

10

G ( j) = n 90o

146

## General Transfer Function: Complex poles/zeros

j j G( j ) = + 2 + 1 n n
2 q

## Magnitude and Phase:

Asymptotic behavior:

2 2 2 G( j ) dB = q 10 log 2 1 2 + n n 1 2 / n G( j ) = q tan 1 2 / 2 n

G ( j ) dB 0 <<
n

o G ( j ) 0 <<
n

G ( j ) dB 2q n dB + q 40 log g >>
n

o G ( j ) q 180 >>
n

147

## General Transfer Function: Complex poles/zeros

20 0 -20 Magnitude ( (dB) -40 40 -60 -80 -100 -120 -1 10
MAX

q 2

q = 1, n = 1, = 0.05
dB

dB q 40 dec

1 G (s ) = 2 s + 0.1s + 1

## G ( jn ) dB = q (3dB + G ( j) dB = sgn( (q )dB

10
0

G ( j 0) dB = 0dB

dB

10

10

G ( j ) dB = G ( jr ) dB = q 2 1 2
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

dB

= r =

n 1 2
148

## General Transfer Function: Complex poles/zeros

20 0 -20 -40

q = 1, n = 1, = 0.05 1 G (s ) = 2 s + 0.1s + 1
G ( j 0) = 0o G ( j1 / ) = q 90o G ( j) = q 180o

Phase (deg) P )

-1

q 90o

10

10

10

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

149

Frequency Response
Example:

150

## Frequency Response: Poles/Zeros in the RHP

Same G ( j ) . The effect on G ( j ) is opposite than the stable case. An unstable pole behaves like a stable zero pole An unstable zero behaves like a stable p

Example: p

1 G (s ) = s2

This frequency response cannot be found experimentally but can be computed and used for control design.

151

## First order LOW PASS

K T ( s) = s + K T ( j ) = j +

## Gain and Phase:

T ( j ) = K

( ) = K tan t 1 ( / )
0 K = o 180
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

2 + 2

K >0 K <0
152

## First order LOW PASS

T ( j ) = K

( ) = K tan 1 ( / )
T ( 0) = K

2 + 2

K T ( 0) T ( j ) = = = c = 2 2 2 2 + K

, T ( ) = 0

Cutoff frequency

T ( j ) <<
T ( j ) >>

= c =

Cutoff frequency

Bandwith
153

B = c
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

## First order LOW PASS

T ( j ) = K

( ) = K tan 1 ( / )
(0) = K ( ) = K tan 1 (1) = K 45o

2 + 2

( ) K <<
o ( ) K 90 >>

154

## First Order HIGH PASS

Ks T ( s) = s + Kj T ( j ) = j +

## Gain and Phase:

T ( j ) = K

( ) = K + 90o tan t 1 ( / )
0 K = o 180
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

2 + 2

K >0 K <0
155

## First order HIGH PASS

T ( j ) = K

( ) = K + 90o tan 1 ( / )
T (0) = 0, T () = K

2 + 2

K T ( ) = = c = T ( j ) = 2 2 2 2 + T ( j ) K / << T ( j ) K >>
K

Cutoff frequency

= K = c = Cutoff frequency

B=
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Bandwith
156

T ( j ) = K

## ( ) = K + 90o tan 1 ( / ) (0) = K + 90o ( ) = K + 90o tan 1 (1) = K + 45o

o ( ) K + 90 << o 1 ( ) K + 90 tan ( ) >>

2 + 2

= K

157

## First Order BANDPASS

K1s K 2 T ( s ) = T1 ( s ) T2 ( s ) = s + s + 1 2 K1 j K 2 T ( j ) = j + j + 1 2

T ( j ) << <<
1 2

K1 K 2

K1 K 2 T ( j ) = 2 + 2 2 + 2 1 2
K1 K 2

1 2
K1 K 2

T ( j ) << <<
1 2

1 2
K1 K 2

K1 K 2

= cH = 1

2
K1 K 2

T ( j ) << <<
1 2

K1 K 2

= cL = 2
158

B = cL cH = 2 2 Passband

## First Order BANDSTOP

K1 K 2 + T ( j ) = 2 + 2 2 + 2 1 2 K2 T ( j ) << <<
2 1

T ( j ) K1 << <<
2 1

K2

2
T ( j ) <
2

= K1

K2

K1

K2

T ( j ) <
1

K1

1 K 2
K1

= 1 2
Bandstop
159

B = 1 2

## Second Order BANDPASS

T (s) =

Ks
2 s 2 + 2o s + o

T ( j ) =

Kj 2 2 + 2o j + o

o : :

160

## Second Order BANDPASS

Kj T ( j ) = T (s) = 2 2 2 2 + 2o j + o s + 2o s + o Ks
K
2 o

T ( j ) = <<
o

= T ( j ) >>
o

2 o

= o

T ( j ) =

K / o K / o T ( j ) = =o MAX 2 o 2 + j o
161

## Second Order BANDPASS

K / o K / o T ( j ) = T ( j ) MAX = =o 2 o 2 + j o

T ( j ) o = 2
o

K / o T ( j ) MAX K / o 2 = T ( j ) = = 2 + j 2 2 2

## o The roots of = 2 are the cutoff frequencie s! ! ! o

C1 = o + 1 + 2 C 2
o

( = (+ +

1+ 2

) )

2 o = C1C 2 B = C 2 C1 = 2

162

T (s) =

K s + 2o s +
2 2 o

T ( j ) =

K
2 2 + 2o j + o

o : :

163

## Second Order LOWPASS

T (s) = K
2 s 2 + 2o s + o

T ( j ) =

K
2 2 + 2o j + o

T ( j ) <<
o

2 o

= T ( 0)
K

= T ( j ) >>
o

2 o

= o

2
K / o T ( 0) T ( jo ) = = 2 2

T ( j ) MAX =

T ( 0) 2 1 2

= MAX = o 1 2
164

## Second Order HIGHPASS

Ks 2 K K 2 T (s) = 2 T ( j ) = 2 2 s + 2o s + o 2 + 2o j + o

o : :

165

## Second Order HIGHPASS

K 2 T (s) = 2 T ( j ) = 2 2 s + 2o s + o 2 + 2o j + o Ks 2 K 2

T ( j ) <<
o o

2 o

K 2

T ( j ) = K = T () >>

2 o

= K = o

K T ( ) T ( j o ) = = 2 2 T ( j ) MAX = T ( )
2 1
2

= MAX

o = 1 2
166

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

Frequency Response
u (t ) = A cos(t + )

G( s)

yss = G ( j ) A cos(t + + G ( j ))
Stable Transfer Function

G ( j ) = G ( j ) e jG ( j )
G ( j ) = Re{G ( j )} + j Im{G ( j )}

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

167

Frequency Response
G ( j ) = Re{G ( j )} + j Im{G ( j )} = G ( j ) e jG ( j )
How are the Bode and Nyquist plots related?
They are two way to represent the same information

j Im{G ( j )}

G ( j )

G ( j )
Re{G ( j )}

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

168

Frequency Response
Find the steady state output for v1(t)=Acos(t+)
+ V1(s) _ sL R + V2(s) -

C Compute t the th s-domain d i transfer t f function f ti T(s) T( ) R ( ) = T s Voltage divider sL + R Compute the frequency response
T ( j ) = R R 2 + (L) 2 ,

L T ( j ) = tan 1 R

## Compute the steady state output

v2 SS (t ) = AR R 2 + (L) 2

]
169

## Frequency Response - Bode Plots

Log-log plot of mag(T), log-linear plot of arg(T) versus
Bode Diagram 0

## Magn nitude (dB) ) Magnitude M (dB)

-5 5

-10

-15

10 G ( s) = s + 10 R / L = 10

-20

-25 0

## Phase e Phas se(deg) (deg)

-45

-90 10
4

10

10

[ ] = rad / sec, = 2f , [ f ] = Hz
170

## Frequency Response Nyquist Plots

R R R jL R 2 jRL = T ( j ) = = 2 R + jL R + jL R jL R + 2 L2

R 2 + (L) R2 Re{T ( j )} = 2 , R + 2 L2

T ( j ) =

, 2

L T ( j ) = tan t 1 R
Im{T ( j )} =

RL R 2 + 2 L2

1- 0 : T ( j ) 1, 1 2- : T ( j ) 0, 34-

T ( j ) 0

T ( j ) = 1

T ( j ) 90o

T ( j ) j

R 0 L

Re{T ( j )} = 0 =

Im{T ( j )} = 0 = 0, =
171

## Frequency Response - Nyquist Plots

Im{G ( j )} vs. Re{G ( j )}

10 G ( s) = s + 10 R / L = 10

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

172

Nyquist Diagrams
General procedure for sketching Nyquist Diagrams: Find G(j0) Find G(j) Find Fi d * such h that h Re{ R {G(j*)}=0; } 0 Im{ I {G(j*)} is i the h intersection with the imaginary axis. Find * such that Im{G(j*)}=0; } 0; Re{G(j*)} is the intersection with the real axis. Connect the points

173

## Frequency Response - Nyquist Plots

Example:

1 G(s) = 2 ( ) s s +1
1
2

G ( j ) =

j ( j + 1)

( j )(1 j )2 = 2 + j ( 2 1) 2 2 2 j ( j + 1) ( j )(1 j ) ( 2 + 1)
1

1- 0 : G ( j ) = 2 j 1
1 j 0 2- : G ( j ) 3

34-

Re{G ( j )} = 0 =

Im{G ( j )} = 0 = 1, =

Re{G ( j1)} =

1 2
174

## Frequency Response - Nyquist Plots

Example:

1 G(s) = 2 ( ) s s +1

175

## Nyquist Plots based on Bode Plots

1 G(s) = 2 s(s + 1)
20 dB dec

60

dB dec

176

## Nyquist Stability Criterion

U (s)
+ -

G(s)

Y (s)

When is this transfer function Stable? NYQUIST: The closed loop is asymptotically stable if the number of counterclockwise encirclements of the point ( 1+j0) that the Nyquist curve of G(j) is equal to the (-1+ number of poles of G(s) with positive real parts (unstable poles) Corollary: If the open-loop system G(s) is stable, then the closed-loop system is also stable provided G(s) makes no encirclement of the point (-1+j0).

177

## Nyquist Stability Criterion

1 G (s) = 4 s + 2 s 3 + 3s 2 + 3 s + 1

G (s) =

1 s 4 + 5 s 3 + 3 s 2 + 3s + 1

178

## Nyquist Stability Criterion

U (s)
+ -

G(s)
K

Y (s)

When is this transfer function Stable? NYQUIST: The closed loop is asymptotically stable if the number of counterclockwise encirclements of the point ( 1/K+j0) that the Nyquist curve of G(j) is equal to the (-1/K+ number of poles of G(s) with positive real parts (unstable poles)

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

179

Neutral Stability
U (s)
+ -

KG ( s )

Y (s)

1 G (s) = 2 s(s + 1)

## Root locus condition:

KG ( s ) = 1, G ( s ) = 180o
At points of neutral stability RL condition hold for s=j

KG ( j ) = 1, G ( j ) = 180o
Stability: At G ( j ) = 180o
KG ( j ) < 1 If K leads to instability KG ( j ) > 1 If K leads to instability
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

180

Stability Margins
The GAIN MARGIN (GM) is the factor by which the gain can be raised before instability results.

GM < 1( GM

dB

< 0)

UNSTABLE SYSTEM

## GM is equal to 1 / KG ( j ) KG ( j ) dB where G ( j ) = 180o .

at the frequency

The PHASE MARGIN (PM) is the value by which the phase can be raised before instability results.

PM < 0

UNSTABLE SYSTEM

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

181

Stability Margins
G(s) = 1 2 s (s + 1)
1/GM

PM

## Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

182

Stability Margins
GM

1 G(s) = 2 s(s + 1)

PM

183

## Specifications in the Frequency Domain

1. The crossover frequency c, which determines bandwith BW, rise time tr and settling time ts. 2. The phase margin PM, which determines the damping coefficient and the overshoot Mp. 3. The low-frequency gain, which determines the steady state error characteristics. steady-state characteristics

184

## Specifications in the Frequency Domain

The phase and the magnitude are NOT independent! Bodes Gain-Phase relationship:

dM G ( jo ) = W (u )du du

M = ln G ( j ) W (u ) = ln (coth u / 2 ) u = ln( / o )

185

## Specifications in the Frequency Domain

The crossover frequency:

c BW 2c

186

## Specifications in the Frequency Domain

The Phase Margin: PM vs. Mp

187

## Specifications in the Frequency Domain

The Phase Margin: PM vs.

PM 100

188

## Frequency Response Phase Lead Compensators

Ts + 1 D( s) = , Ts + 1

<1

189

## Frequency Response Phase Lead Compensators

1. Determine the open-loop gain K to satisfy error or bandwidth requirements: - To meet error requirement, pick K to satisfy error constants t t (Kp, Kv, Ka) so that th t ess specification ifi ti i is met. t - To meet bandwidth requirement, pick K so that the open-loop crossover frequency is a factor of two below the desired closed-loop bandwidth. bandwidth 2. Determine the needed phase lead based on the PM specification. 3. Pick MAX to be at the crossover frequency. 4. Determine the zero and pole of the compensator. 5. Draw the compensated frequency response and check PM. 6. Iterate on the design
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

190

## Frequency Response Phase Lag Compensators

Ts + 1 D( s) = , Ts + 1

>1

191

## Frequency Response Phase Lag Compensators

1. Determine the open-loop gain K that will meet the PM requirement without compensation. 2 D 2. Draw the th Bode B d plot l t of f the th uncompensated t d system t with ith crossover frequency from step 1 and evaluate the lowfrequency gain. 3. Determine to meet the low frequency gain error requirement. 4. Choose the corner frequency =1/T (the zero of the compensator) to be one decade below the new crossover frequency q y c. 5. The other corner frequency (the pole of the compensator) is then =1/ T. 6. Iterate on the design
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University

192