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# Help Welding calculation

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## Help Welding calculation

Contact: Stefan Comtesse Internet, E-Business Tel.: +49 6831 47 4506 Fax: +49 6831 47 3710 Stefan.Comtesse@dillinger.biz

WELDING

Carbon Equivalents Welding Parameters/ Preheating Heat Input/ Cooling Time Hardness in the HAZ Index

The data calculated by this program are for information only and do not cover all details of a welding procedure. Therefore, this program does not give an assurance in respect to the properties of the welded joints. In any case the underlying welding and construction standards have to be obeyed. Furthermore the description of fabrication properties of our material data sheets should be taken into account and all necessary levels of a careful quality control be respected.

## WELDING CARBON EQUIVALENTS

The carbon equivalents are simplified parameters which try to estimate the influence of the alloying content of a steel by summarising the content of the various alloying elements by a particular averaging procedure. Plenty of carbon equivalents have been developed until now with different suitability for a special welding situation and steel grade. The four carbon equivalents the most common are calculated here (in weight-%): CET CE CEN := C + (Mn + Mo)/10 + (Cr + Cu)/20 + Ni/40 := C + Mn/6 + (Cr + Mo + V)/5 + (Ni+ Cu)/15 := C + [ 0.75 + 0.25*tanh(20*(C - 0.12))] * [Si/24 + Mn/6 + Cu/15 + Ni/20 + (Cr + Mo + V + Nb)/5 + 5*B] := C + Si/30 + (Mn + Cu + Cr)/20 + Mo/15 + Ni/60 + V/10 + 5*B

Pcm

Fill in the alloying contents given in your inspection certificate. The program will calculate the various carbon equivalents. For the CET-equivalent, which is a prerequisite for the following welding parameter calculation, the range of validity is as follows (in weight %):

## 0.05 - 0.32 d 0.80 0.50 - 1.90 d 1.50

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## d 2.50 d 0.75 d 0.70 d 0.18 d 0.06 d 0.12 d 0.005

If an alloying content hurts this range of validity, this element as well as the CET-parameter is marked in red.

## WELDING WELDING PARAMETERS/ PREHEATING

The calculation of welding parameters is based on the method B in EN 1011-2 (Welding - Recommendation for welding metallic materials - Part 2 Arc welding of ferritic steels) described in annex C and D of this code. This method describes how welding parameters should be selected in order to avoid especially cold-cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). In any case the fabrication properties recommendations in our material data sheets should be taken into account for a particular steel. Furthermore, the user has to ensure that the relevant standards, such as EN 10 11, are fulfilled. Preheating: Preheating is very useful in order to avoid the phenomena of cold cracking as it decelerates the cooling of the HAZ and enables the hydrogen induced during welding to escape. Furthermore preheating improves the welding-induced constraints. Multi-layer welds can be begun without preheating if a suitable welding sequence is chosen and the interpass temperature is sufficient. The preheating temperature is the lowest temperature before the first welding pass which has not to be fallen below in order to avoid cold-cracking. For multilayer welds this term refers to the temperature of the second and the subsequent weld passes and is also called interpass temperature. In general the two temperatures are identical. The preheating temperature depends on the following input data: Carbon equivalent CET (see above): The CET can be explicitly filled in here or be calculated by the contents of the alloying elements in the menu carbon equivalent. The CET is inserted in weight-% Plate thickness d: The plate thickness is inserted in mm. It should be considered that the influence of the plate thickness is of minor importance for plate thicknesses above 60 mm due to the three-dimensional heat flux. Hydrogen content HD: The hydrogen content H2 is inserted in ml/100g. Here either a value between 1 and 20 ml/100g can be inserted directly or a typical value depending on the weld process used can be selected: Typical hydrogen content for welding consumables Method Common hydrogen content [ml/100 g] 5 3 5 5

Manual Metal Arc MMA Gas Shielded Metal Arc MIG/MAG Flux Cored Arc Basic FCAW Submerged Arc Basic SAW

Heat Input: The heat input Q, which is given by the product of the line energy E multiplied with an efficiency factor K , Q = K *E, is given here in

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## Help Welding calculation

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kJ/mm. There are two ways to take the influence of the heat input. - The dependence between the preheating temperature and the weld energy is shown in the weld parameter box which is shown after filling in all necessary data. - Moreover, the preheating temperature can be explicitly calculated by inserting either the heat input Q in kJ/mm or the line energy E in kJ/mm and the efficiency factor K , which depends on the welding process used. The efficiency factor the explicitly explained in the next section From the data above the minimum preheating temperature is calculated as follows: Tp = 697*CET+ 160*tanh(d/35)+62*HD
0,35

+ (53*CET-32)*Q-328

The range of validity for this formula is: CET: d: HD: Q: 0:2 % - 0.5 % 10 mm - 90 mm 1 ml/100g - 20 ml/100 g 0.5 kJ/mm - 4.0 KJ/mm

Influence of the cooling time: The temperature-time cycle is of major importance for the mechanical properties of the welded joint after welding. It is influenced in particular by the welding geometry, the line energy applied, the preheating temperature as well as the weld layer details. Normally the temperature-time cycle during welding is expressed by the time t8/5 which is the time in which a cooling of the welding layer from 800C to 500C occurs. The maximum hardness in the HAZ normally decreases with growing cooling time t8/5. If a given maximum hardness value is not to be exceeded for a particular steel, the welding parameters have to the chosen in such a way that the cooling time t8/5 does not fall under a particular value. On the other hand, increasing cooling times cause a decrease of the toughness of the HAZ, that means a decrease of the impact values measured in the Charpy -V-test or an increase of the transition temperature of the Charpy-V-impact energy. Therefore the welding parameters have to be selected in such a way, that the cooling time does not exceed a particular value. In general, for weldable fine -grain structural steel grades the cooling time for filling and covering weld layers should be in the time 10 s and 25 s dependant on the steel grade given here. After corresponding verification, there is no problem to apply also other values of the cooling time t8/5 under the condition that the quality demands on the structure to be welded are completely fulfilled and suitable welding procedure qualification have been performed. Furthermore you can calculate a welding parameter diagram which shows you the possible heat-input - preheating temperatures for given maximum and minimum cooling times. If you want to calculate explicit cooling times please use the next section (Cooling time). The following parameters have got an influence on the cooling time, either on its calculation or on its selection and can be inserted here in order to obtain optimised welding parameters: Plate thickness d: The plate thickness is inserted in mm. It should be considered that the influence of the plate thickness is of minor importance for plate thicknesses above 60 mm due to the three-dimensional heat flux. Welding geometry: The influence of the welding geometry is taken into consideration by weld geometry factors F2 and F3 for two- and threedimensional heat flux. The values of the weld geometry factor for typical weld geometries are:

Weld geometry

F2 (twodimensional)

F3 (threedimensional) 1.0

Building-up weld

1.0

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Filling passes of butt welds Covering passes of butt welds One-pass fillet weld (Corner joint) One-pass fillet weld (Tjoint)

0.9 1.0

## 0.9 0.9 - 1.0

0.9 - 0.67

0.67

0.45 - 0.67

0.67

The welding geometry factor F2 depends on the relation heat input to plate thickness. Approaching the three-dimensional heat flux F2 decreases for the case of a one-pass fillet weld on a corner joint and increases for the onepass fillet weld on a T-joint. Therefore an adaptive calculation may be necessary here. The factors given above can be selected here. Moreover a free input of the data in the range between 0 and 1 is also possible. Heat Input: The heat input Q, which is given by the product of the line energy E multiplied with an efficiency factor K , Q = K *E, is given here in kJ/mm. The influence of the heat input in dependence of the preheating/interpass temperature and the minimum and maximum cooling time t8/5 is shown in the welding parameter diagram which is built up after completion of the values needed. Preheating/Interpass-temperature: The influence of the preheating time is also expressed in the welding parameter diagram. Maximum and minimum cooling time: From the data given above the cooling time t8/5 can be calculated if a threedimensional heat flux is assumed: t8/5 = (6700-5*TP)*Q* (1/(500-TP)-1/(800-TP))*F3 If the heat flux is two-dimensional the cooling time depends on the plate thickness and the following formula is used: t8/5 = (4300-4.3*TP)*105*Q2/d2* (1/(500-TP)2-1/(800-TP)2)*F2 Only the greater value obtained from the two formulas above is physically valid. Often, a transition plate thickness dt is calculated, at which the transition between the two-dimensional and the three-dimensional heat flux occurs. This transition plate thickness is: dt = SQR(((4300-4.3*Tp)*105/(6700-5*Tp)*Q*(1/(500-TP)2-1/(800-TP)2)/ (1/(500-TP) -1/(800-TP))) The maximum and minimum cooling times depend on the steel grade which is to be welded. The cooling times recommended by Dillinger Htte GTS brand products can be selected here. As described above, other cooling times can be chosen under the condition that the quality demands on the structure to be welded are completely fulfilled and suitable welding procedure qualification have been performed. Therefore also a free input of the cooling time is possible. In any case the recommendations given in our material data sheets have to be taken into account too. Recommended cooling times for Dillinger Htte GTS steels Steel grades Minimal cooling time t8/5 [s] Maximum cooling time t8/5 [s] DI-MC 355 8 40

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DI-MC 420 DI-MC 460 DILLIMAX 460 DILLIMAX 500 DILLIMAX 550 DILLIMAX 620 DILLIMAX 690 DILLIMAX 890 DILLIMAX 965

8 8 8

40 40 35

10

30

10

25

10

22

20

12

10

Welding parameter box Form the above parameters a welding parameter box is created giving the possible combinations of heat input Q and preheating/interpass temperature Tp fulfilling the following conditions: sufficient preheating, Cooling time smaller than a maximum value defined above, Cooling time bigger than a minimum value defined above. Moreover a direct calculation of the preheating temperature by specifying either the heat input Q or the line energy E and the efficiency factor K is enabled.

## WELDING HEAT INPUT/ COOLING TIME

One determining parameter during the calculation of welding parameters is the heat input. By the input data Electric Tension U [V] Electric Current I [A] Welding Speed v [cm/min]

first the line energy E [kJ/mm] is calculated by the formula E = U*I/v * (60/1000) in KJ/mm. The heat input Q results form the line energy by the multiplication with an energy efficiency factor K which depends on the welding process applied. Q=K*E with the efficiency factor Energy efficiency factor for various welding processes Welding process Manual Metal Arc Submerged Arc Metal Active Gas (MAG) Efficiency factor K 0.8 1.0 0.8

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Metal Inert Gas (MIG) Flux Cored Ard (FCAW) Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG)

## 0.7 0.9 0.7

Cooling time The cooling time between 800C and 500C t8/5 is the most important parameter in order to determine the welding parameters applied during welding of fine-grain structural steels. The underlying reasons are explicitly described above. In this menu you can easily calculate this cooling time by specifying the following values: Heat Input Q [in kJ/mm] Preheating temperature Tp [C] Plate thickness d [mm] Welding geometry factors F2/F3: For the welding geometry factors the suitable welding geometry has to be selected from a table, Moreover also a free input in the range 0 to 1.0 is possible.

From the data given above the cooling time t8/5 can be calculated if a threedimensional heat flux is assumed: t8/5 = (6700-5*TP)*Q* (1/(500-TP)-1/(800-TP))*F3 If the heat flux is two-dimensional the cooling time depends on the plate thickness an the following formula is used: t8/5 = (4300-4.3*TP)*105*Q2/d2* (1/(500-TP)2-1/(800-TP)2)*F2 Only the greater values obtained from the two formulas above is physically valid. Often, a transition plate thickness dt is calculated, at which the transition between the two-dimensional and the three-dimensional heat flux occurs. This transition plate thickness is determined as follows: dt = SQR(((4300-4.3*Tp)*105/(6700-5*Tp)*Q*(1/(500-TP)2-1/(800-TP)2)/ (1/(500-TP) -1/(800-TP))*F2/F3) Moreover it is signed whether a two- or three-dimensional heat flux occurs. It should be considered that the assumptions underlying the formulas for the cooling time are often not perfectly fulfilled. Therefore the values calculated can deviate form the real values by up to 10 %.

## WELDING PEAK HARDNESS IN THE HEAT-AFFECTED ZONE

The peak hardness in the heat affected zone (HAZ) is often to be considered to be a sign of the fabrication quality of the weld joint and is therefore often measured during welding procedure approvals and welding test. Upper limits for the HAZ hardness are determined in the welding standards such as EN 288. Physically the maximum hardness depends on the cooling speed in the coarsegrain zone of the HAZ. The faster the cooling speed the higher is the resulting hardness in the HAZ. A slower cooling speed results in a smoother grain structure such as bainite and ferrite. Therefore also the cooling time t8/5 is often used to evaluate the maximum hardness in the HAZ zone. The second important influencing factor is the chemical composition of the steel because it determines the quantity of the various grain structures which are formed during cooling. Normally alloying elements such as carbon, molybdenum, manganese and chromium increase the hardability and shift the hardness drop to longer cooling times. But also the hardness of the various grain structures is influenced by the alloying composition. Calculation of hardness values The program offers two routines to evaluate the peak hardness in the HAZ, the formula of Dren and the formula of Yurioka. Both formulas have been

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developed by systematically performed investigations together with a regression analysis of the HAZ-hardness in dependence of the chemical composition and the t8/5-cooling time. Here the chemical composition can be entered and then the theoretical hardness according to the Dren- respectively Yurioka-formula is calculated in dependence of the cooling time. Moreover the value of the peak hardness for a special cooling time can be calculated by inserting a cooling time. The Dren-hardness is calculated according to the following formulas: Martensite hardness HVM HVM = 802 x C + 305 Bainite hardness HVB HVB = 350 x CE* + 101 CE* = C +Si/11 +Mn/8 +Cu/9 +Cr/5 +Ni/17 +Mo/6 +V/3 Resulting hardness: HV = 2019x[ C(1-log t8/5) + 0,3(CE*-C)] + 66x[1 - 0,8 x log t8/5 ] If HV < HVM and HV > HVB, the Yurioka-hardness is calculated according to the formulas HV = 0,5 (HVM + HVB) - 0,455 (HVM - HVB) arctan t* with HVM HVB CE1 CE2 CE3 t* tnb tnm := := := := := := := := 884 x C (1 - 0,3 C) + 294 145 + 130 x tanh (2,65 CE2 - 0,69) C + Si/24 + Mn/6 + Cu/15 + Ni/12 + Cr/8 + Mo/4 C+Si/24+Mn/5+Cu/10+Ni/18+Cr/5+Mo/2,5+Nb/3+V/5 C + Mn/3,5 + Cu/20 + Cr/5 + Ni/9 + Mo/4 4 (ln t8/5 - ln tnb)/(ln tnm - ln tnb) -2 exp (10,6 x CE1 - 4,8 exp (6,2 x CE3+ 0,74)

Moreover the maximum hardness values admissible by EN 288-3 can be called by the button "Max. Hardness" and a maximum hardness value can be selected and inserted in the hardness diagrams Maximum admissible hardness values, HV 10 according to EN 288-3. Steel group Single pass After welding after post weld heat treatment 320 Multi-passes After welding after post weld heat treatment 320

1 - Steels with Reh d 355 MPa 2 - Fine grain steel (N or TM) with Reh > 355 MPa 3 - Quenchend and tempered fine grain steel with Reh > 500 MPa 4 - Steels with Cr d 0,6 %, Mo d 0,5 %, V d 0,25 %, 5 - Steels with Cr d 9 %, Mo d 1,2

380

350

380

320

350

320

450

to be agreed

420

to be agreed

to be agreed

320

to be agreed

320

to be agreed

320

to be agreed

320

Post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) For welded joint which are treated by a post-weld heat treatment also the hardness decrease due to this heat treatment can be calculated using the formula of Okumura :

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'HV =

## [884C+177-197CE2+16,5(HP-21,5)]xMM-7CE2+26 +[ 18 ( HP-18) - 138 ] V

2 2 1/2 1/2 1/2

+[ 20 ( HP-18) - 268 ] Nb
2

## martensite share = 0,5 - 0,455 arctan t from the Yurioka formula

Herein HP is the so-called Hollomon-parameter HP = (T+273)/1000 x (20 + log t) with the heat treatment temperature in C and the annealing time t in hour. For the calculation this parameter has to be entered or the annealing time and temperature can be input. After entering the input data a diagram shows the dependence of the PWHTinduced hardness drop from the cooling time as well as the difference function between Yurioka hardness and Okumura hardness decrease. A special value can be evaluated by entering a cooling time.

WELDING INDEX

Carbon Equivalents CET-equivalents Cooling time Dren-hardness Efficiency factor Hardness in the HAZ Heat Affected Zone Heat Input Hollomon-parameter Hydrogen Line Energy Okumura-hardness Preheating Preheating temperature Transition thickness Weld geometry Yurioka-Hardness

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