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Published in IET Radar, Sonar and Navigation

Received on 11th May 2011


Revised on 13th December 2011
doi: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0287
ISSN 1751-8784
Signal model and imaging algorithm for spaceborne
interrupted continuous-wave synthetic aperture radar
Y. Liu
1,2
Y.K. Deng
2
R. Wang
2
X. Wang
1,2
1
Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (GUCAS), Beijing, 100190, Peoples Republic of China
2
Spaceborne Microwave Remote Sensing System Department, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences
(IECAS), Beijing, 100190, Peoples Republic of China
E-mail: liuyuehappy@gmail.com
Abstract: Microsatellites have been developed with onboard equipments to monitor and detect early signs of natural disasters and
man-caused destructing emergencies. Continuous-wave (CW) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system operates at constant low-
peak transmission power which offers smaller size and lower cost, and this quality provides an appropriate option for
microsatellites in remote-sensing elds that can work in all-weather conditions. However, using two antennas for sending and
receiving signal separately will cost much more compared with a single antenna; in addition, it is difcult to achieve the
antenna isolation if two separate antennas are used on one platform. Interrupted CW SAR (ICW SAR) uses a single antenna
on a single microsatellite to share the signal transmitting and receiving in different time divisions. In this mode, the antenna
is switched between sending operation and receiving operation to avoid the isolation problems and reduce the costs.
Moreover, ICW SAR can also overcome the long-lasting problem that the range resolution of CW SAR is limited by the slant
range of the farthest target of interest, which makes the CW SAR capable of long-distant sensing and detection for the rst
time. This makes CW SAR applications feasible in spaceborne remote-sensing elds. However, it will cause sparse aperture
when the antenna is switched to sending mode. In this study, an approach is proposed to formulate the relationship of the
contiguous ICW SAR data in one range bin based on CW SAR signal model in the two-dimensional time domain. A signal
reconstruction algorithm using iteration method is proposed based on this relationship. Simulation experiments show that the
proposed method works well to achieve satisfying results under spaceborne ICW SAR mode. Finally, the Wavenumber
Domain Algorithm (WDA) is used to focus on the reconstructed ICW SAR data, and the focusing quality of the image agrees
well with the theoretical values. It means that the proposed spaceborne ICW model and imaging algorithm can be extended to
the future spaceborne applications.
1 Introduction
Microsatellites have been developed with onboard
equipments for remote-sensing elds. Now there are already
microsatellites with optical imaging applications [1, 2],
which will fail under bad weather conditions. Synthetic
aperture radar (SAR) can work well in all-weather and all-
day conditions, which makes a perfect application for
disaster monitoring. However, a conventional SAR system
requires high peak transmission power, which does not t
microsatellite environments. By combining continuous-
wave (CW) technology and SAR techniques, CW SAR
system operates on constant low transmission power which
offers smaller size, light weight and lower cost [37], as
the transmitter peak power requirements can be reduced by
extending the pulse duration without degrading either the
resolution or signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) [8]. This peak
power reduction simplies the transmitter design, increasing
both performance and reliability as well as reducing the risk
of breakdown or arcing in the high-power cables [8]. CW
SAR makes a lightweight, cost-effective imaging sensor of
high resolution [3] which ts the requirements of
microsatellites. With the smaller size, lower cost and more
agile reaction, spaceborne CW SAR has great potential for
different remote-sensing applications, such as monitoring
early signs of natural disasters, detecting man-caused
destructing emergencies, frequent monitoring, global
monitoring and high-resolution wide-swath imaging.
Various investigations are carried out about airborne CW
SAR [3, 4, 912], but spaceborne CW SAR system is
seldom investigated. It is difcult to achieve the antenna
isolation if two separate antennas are used on one platform
as airborne CW SAR because of the enhanced transmitting
power, and using two antennas will increase the cost. In
[2], an alternative novel concept is presented for using CW
SAR in space switched or interrupted CW SAR (ICW
SAR), using a single antenna from a single microsatellite.
Using one antenna for sending and receiving signal can
avoid the isolation problems and reduce the cost, which
demands that the antenna is switched between sending
mode and receiving mode. The process of switching the
transmitter on and off will leave gaps in the synthetic
aperture known as a sparse aperture [2]. The Spline method
is used to ll the sparse aperture in [2], but the results are
not satisfactory enough, and there is no focusing result
presented. On the basis of the ICW SAR concept, this study
348 IET Radar Sonar Navig., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 5, pp. 348358
& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012 doi: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0287
www.ietdl.org
presents an idea to develop microsatellites for remote-sensing
elds with SAR applications. More analyses are carried out
with regard to the advantages of ICW SAR, not only for
reducing the transmitting peak power thus to reduce the size
and weight [2], but also greatly improving the range
resolution which overcame the long-lasting problem of the
inability of CW SAR to manage long-distant detection.
Then we concentrate on a novel and effective signal-
reconstruction approach by ling the sparse aperture. On
the basis of an accurate signal model in the two-
dimensional (2-D) time domain developed in [3], a method
is developed to formulate the relationship between the CW
SAR data in one range bin and the contiguous azimuth
sampling point, so the lost data can be estimated by the
received signal. Simulation experiments show that the
proposed method can achieve more satisfying results
compared with [2]. Furthermore, the reconstructed ICW
SAR data are well focused by wavenumber domain
algorithm (WDA).
This paper is organised as follows. In Section 2, the paper
discusses the advantages of ICW SAR mode to show why it
can work on a microspacecraft. In Section 3, a novel and
feasible signal-reconstructing algorithm is derived using the
iteration method based on the formulation of ICW SAR
data. Hereafter, we show the processing results of simulated
raw data in Section 4. Finally, conclusions are reported in
Section 5.
2 Advantages of ICW SAR for microsatellites
The mathematical symbols and their denitions used in this
study are given as follows:
f,f
t
Range and azimuth frequency variables
K
r
Chirp rate
T
p
Pulse duration
B
r
Range bandwidth
R Slant range variable
t
0
Zero-Doppler time of the target P(t
0
, r
0
)
r
0
Closest range from target to the ight trajectory
s(t
0
, r
0
) Backscattering coefcient of the target P(t
0
, r
0
)
R
m
Closest range from scene centre to the ight
trajectory
C Transmit signal velocity
v Platform velocity
t
c
Reference slant range for dechirp-on-receive
approach
l,f
c
Carrier wavelength and carrier frequency of the
transmitted signal.
P
t
Transmitter peak power
G Antenna gain
A
e
Surface area of the antenna
T Temperature
F Noise gure
B Receiver bandwidth
k Boltzmanns constant.
With the development of microsatellites, the smaller size
and lower cost remote sensors are highly desired, without
disturbing the systems performance. According to the radar
equations, the system SNR after focusing is expressed as [7]
SNR =
P
t
T
p
G
t
sA
e
(4pR
2
)
2
FkTB
(1)
where Boltzmanns constant k equals to 1.38 10
223
J/K.
For an application on spaceborne platforms, most of the
parameters are settled, there are three options to enhance
the system SNR: increase peak transmitter power P
t
,
enlarge the surface area of the antenna A
e
or extending the
pulse duration time T
p
. However, increasing peak
transmitter power will complicate the transmitter design,
decrease performance and reliability, and even bring the
risk of breakdown or arcing in the high-power cables [8],
which is not feasible especially for microsatellites;
enlarging the antenna surface area will reduce the azimuth
resolution, which will depress the imaging quality;
expanding the pulse duration will yield a signicant
increase in SNR without causing any bad effects. In
contrast, the transmitter peak power requirements can be
reduced by extending the pulse duration without degrading
either the resolution or SNR [8]. As CW SAR brings the
longest pulse duration (i.e. usually 100% duty cycle) by
continuously transmitting signal, it makes a small size, light
weight and cost-effective imaging sensor of high resolution,
and thus will be a wise choice for microsatellite
implementation.
In a conventional CW system, two separate antennas are
used for transmitting and receiving signal simultaneously. If
the two antennas are colocated, isolation can be achieved
through a duplexer (circulator) with a common antenna, but
commercially available circulators can only provide
isolation of the order of 40 dB or so, which could not reach
the requirement in spaceborne situations [2]. If the two
antennas are placed on separated satellites, they have to be
more than 2-km apart along the orbit to meet the far-eld
conditions for the radar equations, which will lead to
problems with relative position control and with
maintaining the antennas sharing a common footprint [2].
Moreover, using separate transmitter and receiver, no matter
on one platform or two, will increase the costs. For a
spaceborne CW SAR system, using a single antenna to
send and receive signal can help avoid the isolation
problems and reduce the costs.
In [2], the author presented a novel concept of switched
CW SAR where a single antenna is used on a single
microsatellite to send and receive CW signal in different
time divisions. In this study we name it ICW SAR. As
shown in Fig. 1, the antenna keeps transmitting signal until
it is switched to the receiving mode. The sending mode
lasts for just enough time for the signal to be transmitted
and scattered back to the spacecraft, the receiving mode
starts instantly when the signal from the nearest range
reaches the antenna and will last until all the signals have
returned and been collected by the receiver. This process is
then repeated [2]. According to the ICW SAR operation
mode, the antenna transmitting time t
T
and receiving time
t
R
are expressed as
t
T
=
2R
near
c
(2)
t
R
=
2R
far
+T
p
c
(3)
IET Radar Sonar Navig., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 5, pp. 348358 349
doi: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0287 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012
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where R
near
and R
far
represent the nearest slant range and
farthest slant range of the interested area.
According to the ICW SAR operation mode, besides the
aforementioned advantages mentioned in [2], we found that
the ICW SAR mode is capable of dealing with long-
distance situations by greatly improving the target range
resolution, which is especially notable in spaceborne
congurations, where the conventional CW SAR fails to
work. This will be revealed in detail through the following
analyses.
Under CW SAR mode, the instantaneous frequency and
slant range can be related by
f =
2r
c
K
r
(4)
Thus, the range resolution could be expressed as
r
r
=
Df c
2K
r
(5)
In the pulsed mode, the pulse duration is short on the order of
a few microseconds; however, for the CW mode, the pulse
duration is on the order of milliseconds, corresponding to
the pulse repetition interval (PRI). Thus, the dechirp-on-
receive technology is generally used in the CW SAR
system to reduce the sampling requirements and data rate
[3, 4]. Owing to this operation, Df is expressed as (6) under
conventional CW SAR environment
Df
CW
=
1
T
p
t
dm
(6)
where t
dm
refers to the delay time of the farthest target of
interest.
Combining (5) and (6), the range resolution of CW SAR
could be expressed as
r
rCW
=
c
2K
r
1
T
p
t
dm
=
c
2K
r
T
p
T
p
T
p
t
dm
=
c
2B
r
T
p
T
p
t
dm
(7)
Equation (7) shows the main reason why CW SAR is
currently applied only in the short-range case [3]. We can
see that the range resolution of conventional CW SAR is
determined by the slant range of the farthest target of
interest. Obviously, t
dm
is extremely large in spaceborne
congurations, so the range resolution will be unsatised or
even inapplicable.
However, under ICW SAR mode, the receiving progress
starts instantly when the signal backscattered from the
nearest target of interest reaches the antenna, so
Df
ICW
=
1
T
p
(8)
The range resolution for ICW SAR is expressed as
r
rICW
=
c
2K
r
1
T
p
=
c
2B
r
(9)
Equation (9) shows that the range resolution of ICW SAR
does not depend on the slant range, which will greatly
improve the image quality, especially in spaceborne
congurations. ICW SAR overcomes the long-lasting
problem that CW SAR is not capable of long-distance
sensing and detection, and nally makes CW SAR feasible
for spaceborne remote sensing.
3 Data reconstruction algorithm
After showing the advantages of ICW SAR in the spaceborne
conguration, this section starts with the indispensability of
lling the sparse aperture before developing a valid
algorithm. In this study, the designed ICW SAR system
transmits commonly used frequency-modulated continuous
wave (FMCW).
Obviously, there will be gaps in the synthetic aperture
when the antenna is switched to transmitting mode, known
as a sparse aperture [2]. The markspace ratio g in ICW
conguration is expressed as
g =
t
T
t
T
+t
R
(10)
From (2) and (3) we can nd out that the transmitting process
lasts a little shorter than receiving process, which means the
gap will occupy almost 50% of the synthetic aperture. The
author in [2] claimed that these gaps will introduce high
sidelobes. To show the problem caused by these gaps,
rstly a frequency-modulated (FM) signal is used as an
example for direct impression.
Fig. 2a shows the real part of an ordinary FM signal.
Performing matched ltering to this signal yields the result
as shown in Fig. 2b, which is well compressed. However, if
the signal is interrupted then its real part will be formulated
with gaps as shown in Fig. 2c, high sidelobes will exist
after matched ltering operation, as shown in Fig. 2d. From
the experiment results, it can be seen that the FM signal
could be focused by matched ltering, but the signal with
gaps will introduce high sidelobes, which is unacceptable.
According to the results presented in [2], these gaps will
introduce artefacts (false targets) in the processed image in
the form of high sidelobes. However, in our simulation
experiments, besides the false targets which are caused by
high sidelobes, there are also some fake targets formed by
strong energy away from the positions where the real
targets are located. This will be highlighted in the following
simulation experiments.
A simulated scene is designed to be illuminated by a
spaceborne ICW SAR, in order to highlight the sidelobes
Fig. 1 Spaceborne ICW SAR geometry
350 IET Radar Sonar Navig., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 5, pp. 348358
& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012 doi: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0287
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and fake targets in the azimuth direction. The designed scene
contains three targets orthogonal to the ight line at the same
azimuth sampling time but different range bins, as shown in
Fig. 3. The target PT2 is located at the centre of the scene.
PT1 and PT3 have the relative slant ranges 25 to 5 km,
respectively, with respect to PT2. Thus, the targets
coordinates of PT1, PT2 and PT3 are 0.695, 0.700 and
0.705 km, respectively. The designed system parameters are
listed in Table 1. For the ongoing simulations, we assume
the window function of rectangular shape in both azimuth
and range directions. All of the simulation results in the
following experiments in this section are zoomed in for
clarity.
If the designed scene is illuminated by a conventional CW
SAR at spaceborne congurations, assume that the transmitter
sends FMCW signal and the signal backscattered from the
designed scenes is completely received by another antenna
with perfect isolation, the targets could be directly focused
using WDA-based on the analytical point target reference
spectrum [3]. To quantify the precision of processing, the Fig. 3 Scene geometry with three-point targets
Table 1 System parameters
carrier frequency 1.28 GHz
pulse repetition interval (PRI) 4500 Hz
PRI 0.22 ms
chirp rate 7 10
7
Hz/s
platform velocity 7000 m/s
azimuth beamwidth 0.678
satellite height 600 km
mid-swath slant range 700 km
range swath width 50 km
range bandwidth 15 MHz
azimuth resolution 10 m
range resolution 10 m
Fig. 2 FM signal as an example for direct impression
a Real part of an ordinary FM signal
b Focused result of FM signal after matched ltering
c Real part of an the interrupted FM signal
d Focused result of the interrupted FM signal after matched ltering
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impulse response width, peak sidelobe ratio, and integrated
sidelobe ratio are used as criteria. The processing result is
shown in Fig. 4a. Fig. 4b shows the tridimensional image
of the same targets for more information. The targets
parameters are listed in Table 2, which agree well with the
theoretical values. The simulation results prove that this
processing algorithm is still valid in spaceborne CW SAR
conguration.
Recently, many researchers claimed success in coherently
lling the gaps in the sparse aperture and thereby achieving
clean images using signal-estimation techniques [1315].
However, in these situations the lost data are limited to 25
30% of the total length, beyond which the performance is
compromised. However, in ICW SAR mode, the gaps are
almost 50%, which brings more difculty in addressing the
problem [2]. In paper [2], Dr Ahmed uses the Spline
method to ll the blanks, the result is ne but not
satisfactory. According to his simulation result, the largest
phase error of the interpolation result almost reaches 1
radian, which is nearly 30% smaller than its real value. This
is unacceptable in a practical system. Furthermore, there is
no focusing result with the reconstructed data presented in
[2]. Thus, it is highly desirable to develop a new algorithm
to solve this problem in order to push ICW SAR technique
in practice and make SAR equipment possible for
microsatellites remote sensing.
All the preceding methods are developed using different
interpolation technique, but failed to make use of the signal
model which is already achieved. On the basis of the
analytical CW SAR signal model in the 2-D time domain
presented in [3], the relationship of the contiguous CW
SAR data in one range bin across all the azimuth sampling
time is formulated. So the lost data during the sparse
aperture could be estimated by the received ICW SAR
signal based on this relationship. A spaceborne ICW SAR
sparse aperture lling algorithm is proposed based on this
Fig. 4 Tridimensional image of the targets
a Focused targets of simulated spaceborne CW SAR system
b Tridimensional image of a
c Focused targets of simulated spaceborne ICW SAR system
d Tridimensional image of c
Table 2 Targets parameters of spaceborne CW SAR
IRW, m PSLR, dB ISLR, dB
`
PT1 azimuth 10.05 213.27 29.77
range 10.03 213.27 29.76
PT2 azimuth 10.04 213.26 29.76
range 10.03 213.26 29.76
PT3 azimuth 10.04 213.25 29.75
range 10.02 213.27 29.77
IRW, impulse response width; PSLR, peak sidelobe ratio; ISLR,
integrated sidelobe ratio
352 IET Radar Sonar Navig., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 5, pp. 348358
& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012 doi: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0287
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relationship to reconstruct CW SAR data using the received
ICW SAR raw data.
Assume the targets number in the scene is p, and s
i
(t
0i
, r
0i
)
refers to the backscattering coefcient of the ith target
P(t
0i
, r
0i
), respectively. t
di
is signal delay time of the target
P(t
0i
, r
0i
). According to [3], the received signal of CW
SAR in the 2-D discrete time domain is expressed as
S(t
n
, t
m
) =

p
i=1
s
i
(t
0i
, r
0i
) exp{j2pf
0
(t
di
t
c
)}
exp {j2pK
r
(t
di
t
c
)(t
m
t
c
)}
=

p
i=1
s
i
(t
0i
, r
0i
) exp{ j2p[f
0
+K
r
(t
m
t
c
)]
(t
di
t
c
)}
=

p
i=1
s
i
(t
0i
, r
0i
)
_
exp j2p[f
0
+K
r
(t
m
t
c
)]
2a
R(t
i
)
c
+
v
2
c
2
(t
n
t
0i
)
_ _
t
c
_ __
(11)
where
a =
1
1 (v
2
/c
2
)
(12)
R(t
i
) =
....................
r
2
0i
+v
2
(t
n
t
0i
)
2
_
(13)
The approximation of R(t
i
) can be achieved by using a Taylor
series
R(t
i
) =
....................
r
2
0i
+v
2
(t
n
t
0i
)
2
_
r
0i
+
v
2
2r
0i
(t
n
t
0i
)
2
(14)
Substituting R(t
i
) into (11), it can be then expressed as
S(t
m
, t
n
)

p
i=1
s
i
(t
0i
, r
0i
) exp
_
j2p[f
0
+K
r
(t
m
t
c
)]

2a
c
r
0i
+
v
2
2r
0i
(t
n
t
0i
)
2
_ _
t
c
_ __
(15)
The data at the same range bin share the same t
m
, so (15)
could be expressed as
S(t
m
, t
n
) = exp{j2p[f
0
+K
r
(t
m
t
c
)]t
c
}

p
i=1
s
i
(t
0i
, r
0i
)
exp jK r
0i
+
v
2
2r
0i
(t
n
t
0i
)
2
_ _ _ _
(16)
where
K =
4pa
c
[f
0
+K
r
(t
m
t
c
)] (17)
The relationship of the contiguous azimuth sample time
variables of CW SAR data is expressed as
t
n
= t
n1
+PRI (18)
The relationship between the contiguous CW SAR data at the
same range bin t
m
could be achieved by taking a division
operation (see (19))
Equation (20) is developed in the same way (see (20))
The PRI in the designed system equals to 2.2 10
24
s,
which is small enough to formulate the following
approximation (see (21))
Multiplying the right side and left side of (19) and (20),
respectively, and combining it with (21), we have
S(t
m
, t
n
)
S(t
m
, t
n1
)
=

p
i=1
s
i
(t
0i
, r
0i
) exp{jK[r
0i
+(v
2
/2r
0i
)(t
n
t
0i
)
2
]}

p
i=1
s
i
(t
0i
, r
0i
) exp{jK[r
0i
+(v
2
/2r
0i
)(t
n1
t
0i
)
2
]}

exp(j(Kv
2
/2R
m
)t
2
n
)

p
i=1
s
i
(t
0i
, r
0i
) exp{jK[r
0i
+(v
2
/2r
0i
)(t
2
0i
2t
n1
t
0i
)]} exp{j(Kv
2
t
0i
/r
0i
) PRI}
exp(j(Kv
2
/2R
m
)t
2
n1
)

p
i=1
s
i
(t
0i
, r
0i
) exp{jK[r
0i
+(v
2
/2r
0i
)(t
2
0i
2t
n1
t
0i
)]}
(19)
S(t
m
, t
n1
)
S(t
m
, t
n2
)
=

p
i=1
s
i
(t
0i
, r
0i
) exp{jK[r
0i
+(v
2
/2r
0i
)(t
n
t
0i
)
2
]}

p
i=1
s
i
(t
0i
, r
0i
) exp{jK[r
0i
+(v
2
/2r
0i
)(t
n1
t
0i
)
2
]}

exp(j(Kv
2
/2R
m
)t
2
n1
)

p
i=1
s
i
(t
0i
, r
0i
) exp{jK[r
0i
+(v
2
/2r
0i
)(t
2
0i
2t
n2
t
0i
)]} exp{j(Kv
2
t
0i
/r
0i
) PRI}
exp(j(Kv
2
/2R
m
)t
2
n2
)

p
i=1
s
i
(t
0i
, r
0i
) exp{jK[r
0i
+(v
2
/2r
0i
)(t
2
0i
2t
n2
t
0i
)]}
(20)

p
i=1
s
i
(t
0i
, r
0i
) exp{jK[r
0i
+(v
2
/2r
0i
)(t
2
0i
2t
n1
t
0i
)]} exp{j(Kv
2
t
0i
/r
0i
) PRI}

p
i=1
s
i
(t
0i
, r
0i
) exp{jK[r
0i
+(v
2
/2r
i0
)(t
2
i0
2t
n1
t
i0
)]}

p
i=1
s
i
(t
0i
, r
0i
) exp{jK[r
0i
+(v
2
/2r
0i
)(t
2
0i
2t
n2
t
0i
)]} exp{j(Kv
2
t
0i
/r
0i
) PRI}

p
i=1
s
i
(t
0i
, r
0i
) exp{jK[r
0i
+(v
2
/2r
0i
)(t
2
0i
2t
n2
t
0i
)]}
(21)
IET Radar Sonar Navig., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 5, pp. 348358 353
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S(t
m
, t
n
) exp (j(Kv
2
/2R
m
)t
2
n1
)
S(t
m
, t
n1
) exp (j(Kv
2
/2R
m
)t
2
n
)
=
S(t
m
, t
n1
) exp (j(Kv
2
/2R
m
)t
2
n2
)
S(t
m
, t
n2
) exp (j(Kv
2
/2R
m
)t
2
n1
)
(22)
Thus, one can achieve the relationship of the contiguous CW
SAR data in the same range bin across all the azimuth
sampling time
S(t
m
, t
n
) =
S
2
(t
m
, t
n1
)
S(t
m
, t
n2
)
exp j
Kv
2
R
m
PRI
2
_ _
(23)
According to (23), if the data S(t
m
, t
n
) are lost during the Fig. 5 Block diagram of signal-processing procedure
Fig. 6 Estimation of the lost data and ll the sparse aperture with encouraging results
a Real part of both conventional CW SAR and the ICW SAR data after gaps lling at the central range bin (scene 1)
b Imaginary part of both conventional CW SAR and the ICW SAR data after gaps lling at the central range bin (scene 1)
c Error of real part of the reconstructed ICW data (scene 1)
d Error of imaginary part of the reconstructed ICW data (scene 1)
354 IET Radar Sonar Navig., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 5, pp. 348358
& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012 doi: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0287
www.ietdl.org
sparse aperture, it could be reconstructed by its contiguous
data S(t
m
, t
n21
) and S(t
m
, t
n22
) at the same range bin.
On the basis of the signal reconstruction model (23), the
CW SAR data can be reconstructed by ICW SAR raw data,
though an iteration operation. The CW data can be focused
by data focusing algorithms, for example WDA. Signal-
processing procedure for ICW SAR is shown in Fig. 5. In
Section 4, simulation experiments will highlight the effect
of the algorithm proposed in this paper.
4 Simulation experiments
In this section, a spaceborne simulation is carried out to
validate the performance of the proposed method. The
system parameters are listed in Table 1. For the ongoing
simulations, we assume the window function of rectangular
shape in both range and azimuth directions.
4.1 Simulated scene 1
To highlight the reconstructing capacity of the proposed
method, the designed scene in Section 2 is rstly used for
the convenience of comparison. Using the proposed method
to estimate the lost data and ll the sparse aperture,
encouraging results are achieved as shown below.
Fig. 6a shows the real part of conventional CW SAR using
the same system parameters, and the ICW SAR data after gap
lling are shown in the same gure for intuitive comparison.
The two gures almost superposed each other, which means
that the proposed method achieves good performance.
Fig. 6b shows the imaginary part of both conventional CW
SAR and reconstructed ICW SAR data at the same range
Table 3 Targets parameters of reconstructed spaceborne ICW
SAR
IRW, m PSLR, dB ISLR, dB
PT1 azimuth 10.06 213.28 29.78
range 10.03 213.27 29.77
PT2 azimuth 10.05 213.26 29.76
range 10.03 213.27 29.76
PT3 azimuth 10.04 213.25 29.76
range 10.02 213.27 29.77
IRW, impulse response width; PSLR, peak sidelobe ratio; ISLR,
integrated sidelobe ratio
Fig. 7 WDA to focus on reconstructed signal
a Focused targets using spaceborne ICW SAR after signal reconstruction
b Tridimensional image of focused targets using spaceborne ICW SAR after signal reconstruction
c Impulse responses of PT1
IET Radar Sonar Navig., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 5, pp. 348358 355
doi: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0287 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012
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bin. The difference of the real part and imaginary part between
the reconstructed ICW SAR data and the conventional CW
SAR data is calculated and shown in Figs. 6c and d,
respectively. According to the calculation, the largest error is
less than 2% from its real value, which is greatly improved
compared with the result in [2] (i.e. 30%). The simulation
results proved the success of the proposed approach.
WDA is used to focus the reconstructed signal, and show the
results in Fig. 7a. The fake targets are all gone, and from the
tridimensional image in Fig. 7b, we can see the high
sidelobes are well restrained. Fig. 7c is the impulse responses
of the three targets at the nearest range. The target
parameters listed in Table 3 are almost the same as the
conventional CW SAR results which agree well with
the theoretical values. All of the simulations results show
that the signal reconstructed using the proposed method
Fig. 8 Scene geometry with ve point targets
Fig. 9 Different azimuth directions to the designed scene
a Real part of both conventional CW SAR and the ICW SAR data after gaps lling at the central range bin (scene 2)
b Imaginary part of both conventional CW SAR and the ICW SAR data after gaps lling at the central range bin (scene 2)
c Error of real part of the reconstructed ICW data (scene 2)
d Error of imaginary part of the reconstructed ICW data (scene 2)
356 IET Radar Sonar Navig., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 5, pp. 348358
& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012 doi: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0287
www.ietdl.org
achieve satisfactory results in spaceborne ICW SAR
environment.
4.2 Simulated scene 2
For further validation of the reconstructing capacity of the
proposed method, we added two-point targets in different
azimuth directions to the designed scene in Section 4.1, as
shown in Fig. 8. The coordinates targets PT4 and PT5 are
0.03 s, 700 km and 20.03 s, 700 km, respectively. The
proposed method was used to ll the gaps and the results
are shown in Fig. 9.
Figs. 9a and b show the real part and imaginary part of both
conventional CW SAR data and reconstructed ICW SAR data
at the central range bin, respectively. Figs. 9c and d show the
difference of the real part and imaginary part between the
reconstructed ICW SAR data and the conventional CW
SAR data, respectively. The results indicate that the
maximal error is 0.08, which remains to be less than 3%
from its real value. The results also prove the success of the
proposed method under broadside spaceborne ICW SAR
environment.
Figs. 10a and b show the impulse responses of PT1 and
PT2, respectively. According to the images, all of the
targets are well focused. The target parameters are listed in
Table 4, which agree well with the theoretical values. All of
the results show the signal reconstructed by the proposed
method achieve satisfactory results in spaceborne ICW SAR
environment.
5 Conclusion
This paper presents an accurate signal reconstruction model to
formulate the spaceborne ICW SAR. This model is developed
by exploring the relationship between the data of the
contiguous azimuth sampling point at the same range bin,
based on the formulation of ICW SAR signal in the 2-D
time domain. Subsequently, an iteration method is
presented to reconstruct the ICW SAR data by lling the
gaps in the synthetic aperture. This paper also exploits the
advantages of ICW SAR, not only for lowering the size,
weight and cost to accommodate with the microsatellite
environments, but also greatly improving the range
resolution which overcomes the long-lasting problem that
CW SAR could not manage long-distant detection. On the
basis of the designed ICW SAR system, simulation
experiments show that the proposed methods work well in
broadside spaceborne ICW SAR systems. Using WDA to
focus the reconstructed data can achieve clean images,
whose target parameters agree well with the theoretical
values. It means that the proposed spaceborne ICW model
and data reconstruction algorithm can be extended to the
future spaceborne applications.
6 Acknowledgments
This work reported herein was jointly supported by the
Hundred Talents Program of the Chinese Academy of
Sciences and the General Program of National Natural
Science Foundation of China under Grant 61172122.
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Fig. 10 Impulse responses of PT1 and PT2
a Impulse responses of PT1
b Impulse responses of PT2
Table 4 Targets parameters of reconstructed spaceborne ICW
SAR
IRW, m PSLR, dB ISLR, dB
PT1 azimuth 10.05 213.27 29.79
range 10.03 213.24 29.74
PT2 azimuth 10.02 213.24 29.78
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PT3 azimuth 10.01 213.27 29.76
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PT4 azimuth 10.02 213.24 29.78
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PT5 azimuth 10.04 213.24 29.76
range 10.02 213.29 29.78
IWR, impulse response width; PSLR, peak sidelobe ratio; ISLR,
integrated sidelobe ratio
IET Radar Sonar Navig., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 5, pp. 348358 357
doi: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0287 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012
www.ietdl.org
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358 IET Radar Sonar Navig., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 5, pp. 348358
& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012 doi: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0287
www.ietdl.org