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You are on page 1of 11

Revised on 13th December 2011

doi: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0287

ISSN 1751-8784

Signal model and imaging algorithm for spaceborne

interrupted continuous-wave synthetic aperture radar

Y. Liu

1,2

Y.K. Deng

2

R. Wang

2

X. Wang

1,2

1

Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (GUCAS), Beijing, 100190, Peoples Republic of China

2

Spaceborne Microwave Remote Sensing System Department, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences

(IECAS), Beijing, 100190, Peoples Republic of China

E-mail: liuyuehappy@gmail.com

Abstract: Microsatellites have been developed with onboard equipments to monitor and detect early signs of natural disasters and

man-caused destructing emergencies. Continuous-wave (CW) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system operates at constant low-

peak transmission power which offers smaller size and lower cost, and this quality provides an appropriate option for

microsatellites in remote-sensing elds that can work in all-weather conditions. However, using two antennas for sending and

receiving signal separately will cost much more compared with a single antenna; in addition, it is difcult to achieve the

antenna isolation if two separate antennas are used on one platform. Interrupted CW SAR (ICW SAR) uses a single antenna

on a single microsatellite to share the signal transmitting and receiving in different time divisions. In this mode, the antenna

is switched between sending operation and receiving operation to avoid the isolation problems and reduce the costs.

Moreover, ICW SAR can also overcome the long-lasting problem that the range resolution of CW SAR is limited by the slant

range of the farthest target of interest, which makes the CW SAR capable of long-distant sensing and detection for the rst

time. This makes CW SAR applications feasible in spaceborne remote-sensing elds. However, it will cause sparse aperture

when the antenna is switched to sending mode. In this study, an approach is proposed to formulate the relationship of the

contiguous ICW SAR data in one range bin based on CW SAR signal model in the two-dimensional time domain. A signal

reconstruction algorithm using iteration method is proposed based on this relationship. Simulation experiments show that the

proposed method works well to achieve satisfying results under spaceborne ICW SAR mode. Finally, the Wavenumber

Domain Algorithm (WDA) is used to focus on the reconstructed ICW SAR data, and the focusing quality of the image agrees

well with the theoretical values. It means that the proposed spaceborne ICW model and imaging algorithm can be extended to

the future spaceborne applications.

1 Introduction

Microsatellites have been developed with onboard

equipments for remote-sensing elds. Now there are already

microsatellites with optical imaging applications [1, 2],

which will fail under bad weather conditions. Synthetic

aperture radar (SAR) can work well in all-weather and all-

day conditions, which makes a perfect application for

disaster monitoring. However, a conventional SAR system

requires high peak transmission power, which does not t

microsatellite environments. By combining continuous-

wave (CW) technology and SAR techniques, CW SAR

system operates on constant low transmission power which

offers smaller size, light weight and lower cost [37], as

the transmitter peak power requirements can be reduced by

extending the pulse duration without degrading either the

resolution or signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) [8]. This peak

power reduction simplies the transmitter design, increasing

both performance and reliability as well as reducing the risk

of breakdown or arcing in the high-power cables [8]. CW

SAR makes a lightweight, cost-effective imaging sensor of

high resolution [3] which ts the requirements of

microsatellites. With the smaller size, lower cost and more

agile reaction, spaceborne CW SAR has great potential for

different remote-sensing applications, such as monitoring

early signs of natural disasters, detecting man-caused

destructing emergencies, frequent monitoring, global

monitoring and high-resolution wide-swath imaging.

Various investigations are carried out about airborne CW

SAR [3, 4, 912], but spaceborne CW SAR system is

seldom investigated. It is difcult to achieve the antenna

isolation if two separate antennas are used on one platform

as airborne CW SAR because of the enhanced transmitting

power, and using two antennas will increase the cost. In

[2], an alternative novel concept is presented for using CW

SAR in space switched or interrupted CW SAR (ICW

SAR), using a single antenna from a single microsatellite.

Using one antenna for sending and receiving signal can

avoid the isolation problems and reduce the cost, which

demands that the antenna is switched between sending

mode and receiving mode. The process of switching the

transmitter on and off will leave gaps in the synthetic

aperture known as a sparse aperture [2]. The Spline method

is used to ll the sparse aperture in [2], but the results are

not satisfactory enough, and there is no focusing result

presented. On the basis of the ICW SAR concept, this study

348 IET Radar Sonar Navig., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 5, pp. 348358

& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012 doi: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0287

www.ietdl.org

presents an idea to develop microsatellites for remote-sensing

elds with SAR applications. More analyses are carried out

with regard to the advantages of ICW SAR, not only for

reducing the transmitting peak power thus to reduce the size

and weight [2], but also greatly improving the range

resolution which overcame the long-lasting problem of the

inability of CW SAR to manage long-distant detection.

Then we concentrate on a novel and effective signal-

reconstruction approach by ling the sparse aperture. On

the basis of an accurate signal model in the two-

dimensional (2-D) time domain developed in [3], a method

is developed to formulate the relationship between the CW

SAR data in one range bin and the contiguous azimuth

sampling point, so the lost data can be estimated by the

received signal. Simulation experiments show that the

proposed method can achieve more satisfying results

compared with [2]. Furthermore, the reconstructed ICW

SAR data are well focused by wavenumber domain

algorithm (WDA).

This paper is organised as follows. In Section 2, the paper

discusses the advantages of ICW SAR mode to show why it

can work on a microspacecraft. In Section 3, a novel and

feasible signal-reconstructing algorithm is derived using the

iteration method based on the formulation of ICW SAR

data. Hereafter, we show the processing results of simulated

raw data in Section 4. Finally, conclusions are reported in

Section 5.

2 Advantages of ICW SAR for microsatellites

The mathematical symbols and their denitions used in this

study are given as follows:

f,f

t

Range and azimuth frequency variables

K

r

Chirp rate

T

p

Pulse duration

B

r

Range bandwidth

R Slant range variable

t

0

Zero-Doppler time of the target P(t

0

, r

0

)

r

0

Closest range from target to the ight trajectory

s(t

0

, r

0

) Backscattering coefcient of the target P(t

0

, r

0

)

R

m

Closest range from scene centre to the ight

trajectory

C Transmit signal velocity

v Platform velocity

t

c

Reference slant range for dechirp-on-receive

approach

l,f

c

Carrier wavelength and carrier frequency of the

transmitted signal.

P

t

Transmitter peak power

G Antenna gain

A

e

Surface area of the antenna

T Temperature

F Noise gure

B Receiver bandwidth

k Boltzmanns constant.

With the development of microsatellites, the smaller size

and lower cost remote sensors are highly desired, without

disturbing the systems performance. According to the radar

equations, the system SNR after focusing is expressed as [7]

SNR =

P

t

T

p

G

t

sA

e

(4pR

2

)

2

FkTB

(1)

where Boltzmanns constant k equals to 1.38 10

223

J/K.

For an application on spaceborne platforms, most of the

parameters are settled, there are three options to enhance

the system SNR: increase peak transmitter power P

t

,

enlarge the surface area of the antenna A

e

or extending the

pulse duration time T

p

. However, increasing peak

transmitter power will complicate the transmitter design,

decrease performance and reliability, and even bring the

risk of breakdown or arcing in the high-power cables [8],

which is not feasible especially for microsatellites;

enlarging the antenna surface area will reduce the azimuth

resolution, which will depress the imaging quality;

expanding the pulse duration will yield a signicant

increase in SNR without causing any bad effects. In

contrast, the transmitter peak power requirements can be

reduced by extending the pulse duration without degrading

either the resolution or SNR [8]. As CW SAR brings the

longest pulse duration (i.e. usually 100% duty cycle) by

continuously transmitting signal, it makes a small size, light

weight and cost-effective imaging sensor of high resolution,

and thus will be a wise choice for microsatellite

implementation.

In a conventional CW system, two separate antennas are

used for transmitting and receiving signal simultaneously. If

the two antennas are colocated, isolation can be achieved

through a duplexer (circulator) with a common antenna, but

commercially available circulators can only provide

isolation of the order of 40 dB or so, which could not reach

the requirement in spaceborne situations [2]. If the two

antennas are placed on separated satellites, they have to be

more than 2-km apart along the orbit to meet the far-eld

conditions for the radar equations, which will lead to

problems with relative position control and with

maintaining the antennas sharing a common footprint [2].

Moreover, using separate transmitter and receiver, no matter

on one platform or two, will increase the costs. For a

spaceborne CW SAR system, using a single antenna to

send and receive signal can help avoid the isolation

problems and reduce the costs.

In [2], the author presented a novel concept of switched

CW SAR where a single antenna is used on a single

microsatellite to send and receive CW signal in different

time divisions. In this study we name it ICW SAR. As

shown in Fig. 1, the antenna keeps transmitting signal until

it is switched to the receiving mode. The sending mode

lasts for just enough time for the signal to be transmitted

and scattered back to the spacecraft, the receiving mode

starts instantly when the signal from the nearest range

reaches the antenna and will last until all the signals have

returned and been collected by the receiver. This process is

then repeated [2]. According to the ICW SAR operation

mode, the antenna transmitting time t

T

and receiving time

t

R

are expressed as

t

T

=

2R

near

c

(2)

t

R

=

2R

far

+T

p

c

(3)

IET Radar Sonar Navig., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 5, pp. 348358 349

doi: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0287 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012

www.ietdl.org

where R

near

and R

far

represent the nearest slant range and

farthest slant range of the interested area.

According to the ICW SAR operation mode, besides the

aforementioned advantages mentioned in [2], we found that

the ICW SAR mode is capable of dealing with long-

distance situations by greatly improving the target range

resolution, which is especially notable in spaceborne

congurations, where the conventional CW SAR fails to

work. This will be revealed in detail through the following

analyses.

Under CW SAR mode, the instantaneous frequency and

slant range can be related by

f =

2r

c

K

r

(4)

Thus, the range resolution could be expressed as

r

r

=

Df c

2K

r

(5)

In the pulsed mode, the pulse duration is short on the order of

a few microseconds; however, for the CW mode, the pulse

duration is on the order of milliseconds, corresponding to

the pulse repetition interval (PRI). Thus, the dechirp-on-

receive technology is generally used in the CW SAR

system to reduce the sampling requirements and data rate

[3, 4]. Owing to this operation, Df is expressed as (6) under

conventional CW SAR environment

Df

CW

=

1

T

p

t

dm

(6)

where t

dm

refers to the delay time of the farthest target of

interest.

Combining (5) and (6), the range resolution of CW SAR

could be expressed as

r

rCW

=

c

2K

r

1

T

p

t

dm

=

c

2K

r

T

p

T

p

T

p

t

dm

=

c

2B

r

T

p

T

p

t

dm

(7)

Equation (7) shows the main reason why CW SAR is

currently applied only in the short-range case [3]. We can

see that the range resolution of conventional CW SAR is

determined by the slant range of the farthest target of

interest. Obviously, t

dm

is extremely large in spaceborne

congurations, so the range resolution will be unsatised or

even inapplicable.

However, under ICW SAR mode, the receiving progress

starts instantly when the signal backscattered from the

nearest target of interest reaches the antenna, so

Df

ICW

=

1

T

p

(8)

The range resolution for ICW SAR is expressed as

r

rICW

=

c

2K

r

1

T

p

=

c

2B

r

(9)

Equation (9) shows that the range resolution of ICW SAR

does not depend on the slant range, which will greatly

improve the image quality, especially in spaceborne

congurations. ICW SAR overcomes the long-lasting

problem that CW SAR is not capable of long-distance

sensing and detection, and nally makes CW SAR feasible

for spaceborne remote sensing.

3 Data reconstruction algorithm

After showing the advantages of ICW SAR in the spaceborne

conguration, this section starts with the indispensability of

lling the sparse aperture before developing a valid

algorithm. In this study, the designed ICW SAR system

transmits commonly used frequency-modulated continuous

wave (FMCW).

Obviously, there will be gaps in the synthetic aperture

when the antenna is switched to transmitting mode, known

as a sparse aperture [2]. The markspace ratio g in ICW

conguration is expressed as

g =

t

T

t

T

+t

R

(10)

From (2) and (3) we can nd out that the transmitting process

lasts a little shorter than receiving process, which means the

gap will occupy almost 50% of the synthetic aperture. The

author in [2] claimed that these gaps will introduce high

sidelobes. To show the problem caused by these gaps,

rstly a frequency-modulated (FM) signal is used as an

example for direct impression.

Fig. 2a shows the real part of an ordinary FM signal.

Performing matched ltering to this signal yields the result

as shown in Fig. 2b, which is well compressed. However, if

the signal is interrupted then its real part will be formulated

with gaps as shown in Fig. 2c, high sidelobes will exist

after matched ltering operation, as shown in Fig. 2d. From

the experiment results, it can be seen that the FM signal

could be focused by matched ltering, but the signal with

gaps will introduce high sidelobes, which is unacceptable.

According to the results presented in [2], these gaps will

introduce artefacts (false targets) in the processed image in

the form of high sidelobes. However, in our simulation

experiments, besides the false targets which are caused by

high sidelobes, there are also some fake targets formed by

strong energy away from the positions where the real

targets are located. This will be highlighted in the following

simulation experiments.

A simulated scene is designed to be illuminated by a

spaceborne ICW SAR, in order to highlight the sidelobes

Fig. 1 Spaceborne ICW SAR geometry

350 IET Radar Sonar Navig., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 5, pp. 348358

& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012 doi: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0287

www.ietdl.org

and fake targets in the azimuth direction. The designed scene

contains three targets orthogonal to the ight line at the same

azimuth sampling time but different range bins, as shown in

Fig. 3. The target PT2 is located at the centre of the scene.

PT1 and PT3 have the relative slant ranges 25 to 5 km,

respectively, with respect to PT2. Thus, the targets

coordinates of PT1, PT2 and PT3 are 0.695, 0.700 and

0.705 km, respectively. The designed system parameters are

listed in Table 1. For the ongoing simulations, we assume

the window function of rectangular shape in both azimuth

and range directions. All of the simulation results in the

following experiments in this section are zoomed in for

clarity.

If the designed scene is illuminated by a conventional CW

SAR at spaceborne congurations, assume that the transmitter

sends FMCW signal and the signal backscattered from the

designed scenes is completely received by another antenna

with perfect isolation, the targets could be directly focused

using WDA-based on the analytical point target reference

spectrum [3]. To quantify the precision of processing, the Fig. 3 Scene geometry with three-point targets

Table 1 System parameters

carrier frequency 1.28 GHz

pulse repetition interval (PRI) 4500 Hz

PRI 0.22 ms

chirp rate 7 10

7

Hz/s

platform velocity 7000 m/s

azimuth beamwidth 0.678

satellite height 600 km

mid-swath slant range 700 km

range swath width 50 km

range bandwidth 15 MHz

azimuth resolution 10 m

range resolution 10 m

Fig. 2 FM signal as an example for direct impression

a Real part of an ordinary FM signal

b Focused result of FM signal after matched ltering

c Real part of an the interrupted FM signal

d Focused result of the interrupted FM signal after matched ltering

IET Radar Sonar Navig., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 5, pp. 348358 351

doi: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0287 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012

www.ietdl.org

impulse response width, peak sidelobe ratio, and integrated

sidelobe ratio are used as criteria. The processing result is

shown in Fig. 4a. Fig. 4b shows the tridimensional image

of the same targets for more information. The targets

parameters are listed in Table 2, which agree well with the

theoretical values. The simulation results prove that this

processing algorithm is still valid in spaceborne CW SAR

conguration.

Recently, many researchers claimed success in coherently

lling the gaps in the sparse aperture and thereby achieving

clean images using signal-estimation techniques [1315].

However, in these situations the lost data are limited to 25

30% of the total length, beyond which the performance is

compromised. However, in ICW SAR mode, the gaps are

almost 50%, which brings more difculty in addressing the

problem [2]. In paper [2], Dr Ahmed uses the Spline

method to ll the blanks, the result is ne but not

satisfactory. According to his simulation result, the largest

phase error of the interpolation result almost reaches 1

radian, which is nearly 30% smaller than its real value. This

is unacceptable in a practical system. Furthermore, there is

no focusing result with the reconstructed data presented in

[2]. Thus, it is highly desirable to develop a new algorithm

to solve this problem in order to push ICW SAR technique

in practice and make SAR equipment possible for

microsatellites remote sensing.

All the preceding methods are developed using different

interpolation technique, but failed to make use of the signal

model which is already achieved. On the basis of the

analytical CW SAR signal model in the 2-D time domain

presented in [3], the relationship of the contiguous CW

SAR data in one range bin across all the azimuth sampling

time is formulated. So the lost data during the sparse

aperture could be estimated by the received ICW SAR

signal based on this relationship. A spaceborne ICW SAR

sparse aperture lling algorithm is proposed based on this

Fig. 4 Tridimensional image of the targets

a Focused targets of simulated spaceborne CW SAR system

b Tridimensional image of a

c Focused targets of simulated spaceborne ICW SAR system

d Tridimensional image of c

Table 2 Targets parameters of spaceborne CW SAR

IRW, m PSLR, dB ISLR, dB

`

PT1 azimuth 10.05 213.27 29.77

range 10.03 213.27 29.76

PT2 azimuth 10.04 213.26 29.76

range 10.03 213.26 29.76

PT3 azimuth 10.04 213.25 29.75

range 10.02 213.27 29.77

IRW, impulse response width; PSLR, peak sidelobe ratio; ISLR,

integrated sidelobe ratio

352 IET Radar Sonar Navig., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 5, pp. 348358

& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012 doi: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0287

www.ietdl.org

relationship to reconstruct CW SAR data using the received

ICW SAR raw data.

Assume the targets number in the scene is p, and s

i

(t

0i

, r

0i

)

refers to the backscattering coefcient of the ith target

P(t

0i

, r

0i

), respectively. t

di

is signal delay time of the target

P(t

0i

, r

0i

). According to [3], the received signal of CW

SAR in the 2-D discrete time domain is expressed as

S(t

n

, t

m

) =

p

i=1

s

i

(t

0i

, r

0i

) exp{j2pf

0

(t

di

t

c

)}

exp {j2pK

r

(t

di

t

c

)(t

m

t

c

)}

=

p

i=1

s

i

(t

0i

, r

0i

) exp{ j2p[f

0

+K

r

(t

m

t

c

)]

(t

di

t

c

)}

=

p

i=1

s

i

(t

0i

, r

0i

)

_

exp j2p[f

0

+K

r

(t

m

t

c

)]

2a

R(t

i

)

c

+

v

2

c

2

(t

n

t

0i

)

_ _

t

c

_ __

(11)

where

a =

1

1 (v

2

/c

2

)

(12)

R(t

i

) =

....................

r

2

0i

+v

2

(t

n

t

0i

)

2

_

(13)

The approximation of R(t

i

) can be achieved by using a Taylor

series

R(t

i

) =

....................

r

2

0i

+v

2

(t

n

t

0i

)

2

_

r

0i

+

v

2

2r

0i

(t

n

t

0i

)

2

(14)

Substituting R(t

i

) into (11), it can be then expressed as

S(t

m

, t

n

)

p

i=1

s

i

(t

0i

, r

0i

) exp

_

j2p[f

0

+K

r

(t

m

t

c

)]

2a

c

r

0i

+

v

2

2r

0i

(t

n

t

0i

)

2

_ _

t

c

_ __

(15)

The data at the same range bin share the same t

m

, so (15)

could be expressed as

S(t

m

, t

n

) = exp{j2p[f

0

+K

r

(t

m

t

c

)]t

c

}

p

i=1

s

i

(t

0i

, r

0i

)

exp jK r

0i

+

v

2

2r

0i

(t

n

t

0i

)

2

_ _ _ _

(16)

where

K =

4pa

c

[f

0

+K

r

(t

m

t

c

)] (17)

The relationship of the contiguous azimuth sample time

variables of CW SAR data is expressed as

t

n

= t

n1

+PRI (18)

The relationship between the contiguous CW SAR data at the

same range bin t

m

could be achieved by taking a division

operation (see (19))

Equation (20) is developed in the same way (see (20))

The PRI in the designed system equals to 2.2 10

24

s,

which is small enough to formulate the following

approximation (see (21))

Multiplying the right side and left side of (19) and (20),

respectively, and combining it with (21), we have

S(t

m

, t

n

)

S(t

m

, t

n1

)

=

p

i=1

s

i

(t

0i

, r

0i

) exp{jK[r

0i

+(v

2

/2r

0i

)(t

n

t

0i

)

2

]}

p

i=1

s

i

(t

0i

, r

0i

) exp{jK[r

0i

+(v

2

/2r

0i

)(t

n1

t

0i

)

2

]}

exp(j(Kv

2

/2R

m

)t

2

n

)

p

i=1

s

i

(t

0i

, r

0i

) exp{jK[r

0i

+(v

2

/2r

0i

)(t

2

0i

2t

n1

t

0i

)]} exp{j(Kv

2

t

0i

/r

0i

) PRI}

exp(j(Kv

2

/2R

m

)t

2

n1

)

p

i=1

s

i

(t

0i

, r

0i

) exp{jK[r

0i

+(v

2

/2r

0i

)(t

2

0i

2t

n1

t

0i

)]}

(19)

S(t

m

, t

n1

)

S(t

m

, t

n2

)

=

p

i=1

s

i

(t

0i

, r

0i

) exp{jK[r

0i

+(v

2

/2r

0i

)(t

n

t

0i

)

2

]}

p

i=1

s

i

(t

0i

, r

0i

) exp{jK[r

0i

+(v

2

/2r

0i

)(t

n1

t

0i

)

2

]}

exp(j(Kv

2

/2R

m

)t

2

n1

)

p

i=1

s

i

(t

0i

, r

0i

) exp{jK[r

0i

+(v

2

/2r

0i

)(t

2

0i

2t

n2

t

0i

)]} exp{j(Kv

2

t

0i

/r

0i

) PRI}

exp(j(Kv

2

/2R

m

)t

2

n2

)

p

i=1

s

i

(t

0i

, r

0i

) exp{jK[r

0i

+(v

2

/2r

0i

)(t

2

0i

2t

n2

t

0i

)]}

(20)

p

i=1

s

i

(t

0i

, r

0i

) exp{jK[r

0i

+(v

2

/2r

0i

)(t

2

0i

2t

n1

t

0i

)]} exp{j(Kv

2

t

0i

/r

0i

) PRI}

p

i=1

s

i

(t

0i

, r

0i

) exp{jK[r

0i

+(v

2

/2r

i0

)(t

2

i0

2t

n1

t

i0

)]}

p

i=1

s

i

(t

0i

, r

0i

) exp{jK[r

0i

+(v

2

/2r

0i

)(t

2

0i

2t

n2

t

0i

)]} exp{j(Kv

2

t

0i

/r

0i

) PRI}

p

i=1

s

i

(t

0i

, r

0i

) exp{jK[r

0i

+(v

2

/2r

0i

)(t

2

0i

2t

n2

t

0i

)]}

(21)

IET Radar Sonar Navig., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 5, pp. 348358 353

doi: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0287 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012

www.ietdl.org

S(t

m

, t

n

) exp (j(Kv

2

/2R

m

)t

2

n1

)

S(t

m

, t

n1

) exp (j(Kv

2

/2R

m

)t

2

n

)

=

S(t

m

, t

n1

) exp (j(Kv

2

/2R

m

)t

2

n2

)

S(t

m

, t

n2

) exp (j(Kv

2

/2R

m

)t

2

n1

)

(22)

Thus, one can achieve the relationship of the contiguous CW

SAR data in the same range bin across all the azimuth

sampling time

S(t

m

, t

n

) =

S

2

(t

m

, t

n1

)

S(t

m

, t

n2

)

exp j

Kv

2

R

m

PRI

2

_ _

(23)

According to (23), if the data S(t

m

, t

n

) are lost during the Fig. 5 Block diagram of signal-processing procedure

Fig. 6 Estimation of the lost data and ll the sparse aperture with encouraging results

a Real part of both conventional CW SAR and the ICW SAR data after gaps lling at the central range bin (scene 1)

b Imaginary part of both conventional CW SAR and the ICW SAR data after gaps lling at the central range bin (scene 1)

c Error of real part of the reconstructed ICW data (scene 1)

d Error of imaginary part of the reconstructed ICW data (scene 1)

354 IET Radar Sonar Navig., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 5, pp. 348358

& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012 doi: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0287

www.ietdl.org

sparse aperture, it could be reconstructed by its contiguous

data S(t

m

, t

n21

) and S(t

m

, t

n22

) at the same range bin.

On the basis of the signal reconstruction model (23), the

CW SAR data can be reconstructed by ICW SAR raw data,

though an iteration operation. The CW data can be focused

by data focusing algorithms, for example WDA. Signal-

processing procedure for ICW SAR is shown in Fig. 5. In

Section 4, simulation experiments will highlight the effect

of the algorithm proposed in this paper.

4 Simulation experiments

In this section, a spaceborne simulation is carried out to

validate the performance of the proposed method. The

system parameters are listed in Table 1. For the ongoing

simulations, we assume the window function of rectangular

shape in both range and azimuth directions.

4.1 Simulated scene 1

To highlight the reconstructing capacity of the proposed

method, the designed scene in Section 2 is rstly used for

the convenience of comparison. Using the proposed method

to estimate the lost data and ll the sparse aperture,

encouraging results are achieved as shown below.

Fig. 6a shows the real part of conventional CW SAR using

the same system parameters, and the ICW SAR data after gap

lling are shown in the same gure for intuitive comparison.

The two gures almost superposed each other, which means

that the proposed method achieves good performance.

Fig. 6b shows the imaginary part of both conventional CW

SAR and reconstructed ICW SAR data at the same range

Table 3 Targets parameters of reconstructed spaceborne ICW

SAR

IRW, m PSLR, dB ISLR, dB

PT1 azimuth 10.06 213.28 29.78

range 10.03 213.27 29.77

PT2 azimuth 10.05 213.26 29.76

range 10.03 213.27 29.76

PT3 azimuth 10.04 213.25 29.76

range 10.02 213.27 29.77

IRW, impulse response width; PSLR, peak sidelobe ratio; ISLR,

integrated sidelobe ratio

Fig. 7 WDA to focus on reconstructed signal

a Focused targets using spaceborne ICW SAR after signal reconstruction

b Tridimensional image of focused targets using spaceborne ICW SAR after signal reconstruction

c Impulse responses of PT1

IET Radar Sonar Navig., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 5, pp. 348358 355

doi: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0287 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012

www.ietdl.org

bin. The difference of the real part and imaginary part between

the reconstructed ICW SAR data and the conventional CW

SAR data is calculated and shown in Figs. 6c and d,

respectively. According to the calculation, the largest error is

less than 2% from its real value, which is greatly improved

compared with the result in [2] (i.e. 30%). The simulation

results proved the success of the proposed approach.

WDA is used to focus the reconstructed signal, and show the

results in Fig. 7a. The fake targets are all gone, and from the

tridimensional image in Fig. 7b, we can see the high

sidelobes are well restrained. Fig. 7c is the impulse responses

of the three targets at the nearest range. The target

parameters listed in Table 3 are almost the same as the

conventional CW SAR results which agree well with

the theoretical values. All of the simulations results show

that the signal reconstructed using the proposed method

Fig. 8 Scene geometry with ve point targets

Fig. 9 Different azimuth directions to the designed scene

a Real part of both conventional CW SAR and the ICW SAR data after gaps lling at the central range bin (scene 2)

b Imaginary part of both conventional CW SAR and the ICW SAR data after gaps lling at the central range bin (scene 2)

c Error of real part of the reconstructed ICW data (scene 2)

d Error of imaginary part of the reconstructed ICW data (scene 2)

356 IET Radar Sonar Navig., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 5, pp. 348358

& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012 doi: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0287

www.ietdl.org

achieve satisfactory results in spaceborne ICW SAR

environment.

4.2 Simulated scene 2

For further validation of the reconstructing capacity of the

proposed method, we added two-point targets in different

azimuth directions to the designed scene in Section 4.1, as

shown in Fig. 8. The coordinates targets PT4 and PT5 are

0.03 s, 700 km and 20.03 s, 700 km, respectively. The

proposed method was used to ll the gaps and the results

are shown in Fig. 9.

Figs. 9a and b show the real part and imaginary part of both

conventional CW SAR data and reconstructed ICW SAR data

at the central range bin, respectively. Figs. 9c and d show the

difference of the real part and imaginary part between the

reconstructed ICW SAR data and the conventional CW

SAR data, respectively. The results indicate that the

maximal error is 0.08, which remains to be less than 3%

from its real value. The results also prove the success of the

proposed method under broadside spaceborne ICW SAR

environment.

Figs. 10a and b show the impulse responses of PT1 and

PT2, respectively. According to the images, all of the

targets are well focused. The target parameters are listed in

Table 4, which agree well with the theoretical values. All of

the results show the signal reconstructed by the proposed

method achieve satisfactory results in spaceborne ICW SAR

environment.

5 Conclusion

This paper presents an accurate signal reconstruction model to

formulate the spaceborne ICW SAR. This model is developed

by exploring the relationship between the data of the

contiguous azimuth sampling point at the same range bin,

based on the formulation of ICW SAR signal in the 2-D

time domain. Subsequently, an iteration method is

presented to reconstruct the ICW SAR data by lling the

gaps in the synthetic aperture. This paper also exploits the

advantages of ICW SAR, not only for lowering the size,

weight and cost to accommodate with the microsatellite

environments, but also greatly improving the range

resolution which overcomes the long-lasting problem that

CW SAR could not manage long-distant detection. On the

basis of the designed ICW SAR system, simulation

experiments show that the proposed methods work well in

broadside spaceborne ICW SAR systems. Using WDA to

focus the reconstructed data can achieve clean images,

whose target parameters agree well with the theoretical

values. It means that the proposed spaceborne ICW model

and data reconstruction algorithm can be extended to the

future spaceborne applications.

6 Acknowledgments

This work reported herein was jointly supported by the

Hundred Talents Program of the Chinese Academy of

Sciences and the General Program of National Natural

Science Foundation of China under Grant 61172122.

7 References

1 Sun, W., da Silva, L., Sweeting, M.C.: Operational earth observation

continuity of the disaster monitoring constellation. IAC, 2006

2 Ahmed, N.: Monostatic CW SAR concept for microsatellites. EUSAR,

Aachen, Germany, June 2010, pp. 15451554

Fig. 10 Impulse responses of PT1 and PT2

a Impulse responses of PT1

b Impulse responses of PT2

Table 4 Targets parameters of reconstructed spaceborne ICW

SAR

IRW, m PSLR, dB ISLR, dB

PT1 azimuth 10.05 213.27 29.79

range 10.03 213.24 29.74

PT2 azimuth 10.02 213.24 29.78

range 10.03 213.28 29.78

PT3 azimuth 10.01 213.27 29.76

range 10.02 212.28 29.78

PT4 azimuth 10.02 213.24 29.78

range 10.03 213.28 29.78

PT5 azimuth 10.04 213.24 29.76

range 10.02 213.29 29.78

IWR, impulse response width; PSLR, peak sidelobe ratio; ISLR,

integrated sidelobe ratio

IET Radar Sonar Navig., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 5, pp. 348358 357

doi: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0287 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012

www.ietdl.org

3 Wang, R., Loffeld, O., Nies, H., Knedlik, S., Hagelen, M., Essen, H.:

Focus FMCW SAR data using the wavenumber omain algorithm,

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 2010, 48, (4), pp. 21092108

4 Meta, A., Hoogeboom, P., Ligthart, L.P.: Signal processing for FMCW

SAR, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 2007, 45, (11), pp. 35193532

5 Edrich, M.: Ultra-lightweight synthetic aperture radar based on a

35 GHz FMCW sensor concept and online raw data transmission,

IEE Proc. Radar Sonar Navig., 2006, 153, (2), pp. 129134

6 Stove, A.G.: Linear FMCW radar techniques, IEE Proc-F, 1992,

139, (5), pp. 343350

7 Charvat, G.L., Kempel, L.C.: Synthetic aperture radar imaging using a

unique approach to frequency-modulated continuous-wave radar

design, IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., 2006, 48, (1), pp. 171177

8 Curlander, J.C., Mcdonough, R.N.: Sythetic aperture radar: systems and

signal processing (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991)

9 De Wit, J.J.M., Meta, A., Hoogeboom, P.: Modied range-doppler

processing for FM-CW synthetic aperture radar, IEEE Geosci.

Remote Sens. Lett., 2006, 3, (1), pp. 8387

10 Meta, A., Hoogeboom, P., Ligthart, L.P.: Non-linear frequency scaling

algorithm for FMCW SAR data. EuRAD, Manchester, UK, September

2006, pp. 912

11 Mittermayer, J., Moreira, A., Loffeld, O.: Spotlight SAR data

processing using the frequency scaling algorithm, IEEE Trans.

Geosci. Remote Sens., 1999, 37, (9), pp. 21982214

12 Jiang, Z.H., Kan, H.F., Wan, J.W.: A chirp transform algorithm for

processing squint mode FMCW SAR data, IEEE Geosci. Remote

Sens. Lett., 2006, 4, (3), pp. 377381

13 Stank.intz, H.C., Kosek, M.R.: Sparse aperture Fill for S A R using

SUPER-SVA. IEEE Radar Conf., MI, USA, May 1996

14 C etina, M., Mosesb, R.L.: SAR imaging from partial-

aperture data with frequency-band omissions. Laboratory for

Information and Decision Systems, Massachusetts Institute of

Technology, USA, 2005

15 Bosser, L., Fiani-Nouvel, M.: Reconstruction of sparse bandwidth by

regularization method in SAR imagery. IEEE Radar Conf., NY,

USA, April 2006

358 IET Radar Sonar Navig., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 5, pp. 348358

& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012 doi: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0287

www.ietdl.org

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