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MUZAFFAR ALAM Prophets beyond timeframe, geographical boundaries and national entities had all along been in touch

with all sections of the society and treated them at par with each other. They aimed at their ultimate salvation. Prophet Jesus (AS) had been enough merciful and compassionate with weaker and disabled sections of the society. He mobilized his efforts for poor, children, elderly and sick persons. Prophet Moses (AS) used his power and authority for them, prophet Noah (AS) was an embodiment of patience and Prophet Abraham (AS) showered his majesty upon them and the last prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is known for his benign gesture, benevolent character and philanthropist feature for the people across all sections, castes and creeds. The inner dynamism, perfection, flexibility and comprehensiveness of last sermon of the prophet explains the unique position of the prophet on different sections of the society as it is capable of satisfying spiritual needs as well as aspirations of mankind till the end of the world. It was not merely a policy statement but a universal law that will never change. Since prophets are supposed to communicate with great conviction the divine message of truth, justice, benevolence, love, compassion, human dignity and equality they have to be in proximity with all strata of the society as it facilitates their mission and takes it to the grand success. Hence, it is needless to state that all prophets had brought these values and exemplified them through their personal conduct and behavior.


The prophets and messengers of God belong to the highest rank among various virtuous groups of human beings. These groups are listed in the Quran (4:69), in which their position in paradise is described: and whoever obeys God and the messenger, these will be (in paradise) with the prophets and the truthful (al-sadiqun) and the martyrs (al-shuhada) and the righteous (al-salihin), upon whom God has bestowed favours. As for the prophets, their presence among their respective peoples is perceived as a sign of Gods benefaction (ni mah) unto these peoples (The Quran 5:20). God started sending prophets after humankind became separated, when the initial state of righteousness was replaced by moral corruption. The prophets emerged in succession. Muhammad (peace be on him) was the last prophet sent by God to all the generations to come till the Day of Judgment.

God not only provides his messengers with the prophetic inspiration but He also stays with them when they deliver his message as is formulated in The Quran 72: 27-28. The guards , referred to in these verses , are said to be the angels and elsewhere it is asserted that God is always aware of what His Apostles are doing (The Quran 23:51) . Gods presence renders his apostles immune to dangers (The Quran 27:10) and his help (nasr) is always ensured for them. God also provides His Prophets with concrete means designed to increase their power of persuasion. These are called bayyinat, i.e. clear proofs or arguments. Occasionally the muslim scholars interpret this term as miracles, the mujizat . The miralcles constitute a varieties of signs given by God to the prophets. Muhammad (peace be on him) was gifted a number of bayyinat the most significant of which was the Quran itself. The Makkan pagans discarded these bayyinat as a sheer magic (The Quran 61:6). The term burhan is also used to signal what the last Prophet has brought to his audience (The Quran 4:174). Muslim Scholars throughout the history have been taking interest in discussing the bayyinat given to Muhammad ( peace be on him ) in order to prove his revelatory position and final authority over the divine commands and teachings keeping in view the mindset, psyche and arguments of the time . These contributions have enriched the Islamic literature to the extent unmatched in the world history. In the later centuries of islam being confronted with the colonialism the scholars have adopted more balanced, rationally sound and argumentatively convincing approach in this regard. This paper aims to study the fourteen droplets discussed in the Nineteenth Word of the Risale-i-Nur provided by Shaykh Bediuzzaman Said Nursi (1877-1960) in connection with the evidences of the prophet hood, and compare them with the same points in number, but drastically different in nature and academically more sound, as discussed in Takmil -Al Iman written in Persian by Shaykh Abdul Haqq Muhaddith of Delhi (d. 1052/1642). This paper also traces the origin and authenticity of the arguments and evidences of prophethood as provided by these great Islamic scholars.

SHUMAILA MAJEED In his yearning for truth Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) reached the highest heavens. This miraculous journey tells that among all the creatures of Allah, humans are the best and the superior creation. The Ascension of Prophet (Miraj) is a very important topic discussed in RisaleI Nur. Bediuzzaman Said Nursi pointed out that the profound truth of Ascension (Miraj) was a supreme miracle of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) in the world of the inner dimensions of things. Through this clear wonder, the sainthood of his prophethood was proved. This topic has also been discussed in detail in Allama Muhamma Iqbals Reconstruction

of Religious Thought in Islam and Javed Nama. He learns from the miracle of Ascension (Miraj) of Muhammad (Peace be upon him) that "Heaven" is within the reach of mankind. According to him, return of the Prophet from highest heavens discloses the psychological difference between the prophetic and the mystic types of consciousness. The aim of this paper is to compare the views of these two most influential figures of twentieth century Muslim scholarship about the significance of the miracle of Ascension (Miraj).

ELMIRA AKHMEDOVA This paper studies the issue of the necessity of the prophethood in building of a true civilization with a special reference to the writings of AlFarabi, Ibn Sina and Said Nursi. The paper defines the term of the true civilization (or an ideal state in Al-Farabi), its foundations and peculiarities from the viewpoints of these three Muslim scholars. It suggests that, on one hand, human being cannot achieve his main goal, i.e. felicity in Al-Farabi, without living in a society, and, on the other, his most fundamental need is the need for religion, revealed by the prophets. Therefore, as all these three scholars agreed that the real civilization, which is capable to make its citizens happy, satisfied and equal without any exceptions, originates from the divine laws. Said Nursi accordingly stated that the mission of the prophets, besides establishing of the worship to One God, also includes bringing of economic and political justice, social stability, ethical enhancement and emotional inspiration to his society, which are fundamental requirements for building of strong civilizations but beyond the power of an ordinary man. Based on the ideas of the scholars, the paper concludes that prophets sent by God are the best law-givers and greatest founders of the most excellent civilizations.

FAUZAN SALEH As early as tenth century, Abu Bakr al-Razi (d. 935), a notable figure in Islamic philosophy, claimed that prophethood is pointless. He argues: what need does humankind have for prophethood or divine revelation, since God initially imparted the gift of reason to them from the essence of His divinity? According to his point of view, reason is enough to enlighten or guide humankind, and thus prophethood is entirely superfluous. More decisively, he maintained that the competing claims of diverse revelation have been the cause of endless bloodshed and warfare between the nations favored with divine revelation and those who were not (Fakhry, 1997:32). Al-Razis skeptical view sounds provocative, and thus worthy of further study. However, some other philosophers, like al-Farabi, Ibn Sina and Ibn Maskawaih, all acknowledge the necessity of

prophethood for the guidance of human life. Their idea, though formulated in different reasoning from the one held by Muslim theologians, indicates their acceptance of the authority of divine revelation. On the other hand, Said Nursi, as one of the greatest Muslim reformers in the modern time, maintains that since divine power does not leave the ant without leader, or bees without a queen, it surely would not leave mankind without prophet or code of law. After all, the order of the world necessitates the existence of the prophets to preserve its solidity. This article will scrutinize more critically Nursis idea on the necessity of divine revelation that would enlighten human path to truth, to be compared with some ideas held by Muslim philosophers in discussing the relationship between reason and revelation, and its corollaries.