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Conflict Management In dual concern model the style which represents a low level of concern for both self

and other known as__________. Avoiding Dominating Obliging Compromising Third party usually helps, clarifies and grounds each disputing partys alternatives to agreement in___________. Reality testing Litigation Negotiation Dispute A person holds_____ power when he influences others by coercing, threatening, harming and irritating. Reward Coercive Normative Expert Research and investigation can be examples of sources of _________power. Expert Reward Normative Democratic A dispute between two neighbors can be example of _________power. Expert Reward Ecological Social Formal power is exercised in a ________manner. Bottom-up Top-down Horizontal Vertical The influence which is deliberate or purposive in nature may be called_____. Motivation Power Integration None of the given options When one disputant is forced to litigation then __________style is not possible. Compromising Integration Authoritative Avoiding Dual concern model assumes that no disputant has ________orientation. Positive Negative Neutral

Zero-Sum In dual concern model the style which represents a moderate level of concern for self and other known as__________. Avoiding Dominating Obliging Compromising Negotiation in which the disputants are the only participants is called________. Adjudication Mediation Simple negotiation Facilitated negotiation An interpersonal conflict in which no participant is aware of the divergence of goals, needs, or interests is known as__________. Latent conflict False conflict Cause of action None of the given options A conflict situation in which the disputants believe that when one disputant helps him/herself, the other disputant is also helped is_______________. Constructive conflict Competitive conflict Destructive conflict Cooperative conflict A situation involving actual incompatibility of needs, interests or goals is defined as__________. False conflict True conflict Veridical conflict Both true and veridical conflict Conflict causes predictable and destructive changes in the disputants attitudes, perceptions and interactions is called____________. Perceived conflict Real conflict Escalating conflict Data type conflict Meeting one partys goals is just like promoting other partys goals known as: Promotive Interdependence Contrient Interdependence Positive Interdependence None of the given options The first step in conflict diagnosis is to describe the______________. Conflict Disputant Motives Position In interpersonal conflict the reality understood by each participant is highly__________.

Objective Personal Subjective Biased There is/are usually ___________ source /sources of any given conflict. Single Multiple Sole Distinct One can infer attitudes and make judgments about people and things through _____________. Perception General attribution theory Stimuli Cognitive Structure High levels of trust between disputants makes: Negotiation more efficient Disputants less responsive Decrease disputants willingness to try to find additional ways to trust each other A competitive conflict cycle more likely Which type of trust is founded on control? Calculus-based trust Knowledge-based trust Identification-based trust Productive based trust There is a contest among all employees of organization about valuable suggestions for improving policies for employees. What type of conflict it may be? Constructive Destructive Competitive but constructive Cooperative but destructive All of the following are advantages of understanding the other disputant's interests except: It helps user visualize and recognize alternate ways to meet goals It creates greater inflexibility in coming to settlement It ensures user doesnt miss an optimal resolution It enables user to evaluate whether some interests could be met outside the conflict Focusing only on resource aspects of a conflict leads to Zero-sum thinking A competitive approach to resolution A cooperative approach to resolution Zero-sum thinking and a competitive approach to resolution Where the disputants aren't fighting about what's really bothering them, the conflict is: Misplaced Misattributed Misaligned Displaced

The meaning of language or behavior may be misunderstood, causing a _____ conflict. Preferences and nuisances Data-type Resource Communication In the final step, Step Seven, disputants put the option into practice, which in turn creates a new: Stimulus Action Option None of the above is correct The conflict gamer reacts to conflict by: Avoiding it Feeling traumatized by it Not preparing for it Postponing negotiation The form of negotiation in which the negotiation is facilitated by a neutral third party is: Mediation Agent or advocate-assisted negotiation Nonbinding evaluation Arbitration In dual concern model the style which represents a low level of concern for both self and other known as__________. Avoiding Dominating Obliging Compromising Third party usually helps, clarifies and grounds each disputing partys alternatives to agreement in___________. Reality testing Litigation Negotiation Dispute A person holds_____ power when he influences others by coercing, threatening, harming and irritating. Reward Coercive Normative Expert Research and investigation can be examples of sources of _________power. Expert Reward Normative Democratic A dispute between two neighbors can be example of _________power. Expert Reward Ecological

Social Formal power is exercised in a ________manner. Bottom-up Top-down Horizontal Vertical The influence which is deliberate or purposive in nature may be called_____. Motivation Power Integration None of the given options When one disputant is forced to litigation then __________style is not possible. Compromising Integration Authoritative Avoiding Dual concern model assumes that no disputant has ________orientation. Positive Negative Neutral Zero-Sum In dual concern model the style which represents a moderate level of concern for self and other known as__________. Avoiding Dominating Obliging Compromising An accurate estimate of BATNA: Allows disputant in making irrational choices about when to continue negotiating, when to accept an offer, and when to stop Allows being unduly pressured into settlement Prevents team to accept a deal better than the BATNA without hesitation; prevents lost opportunities to make good deals Allows team to make better choices about how to exert its relationship power in the negotiation Impressions formed about people that are based upon fitting the person into various categories are a type of impression called: Data processing Systemic processing Category-based processing Detail processing The mental processes which are used unconsciously to reinforce stereotypes include all of the following except: Ignoring Over interpretation Explaining away All of the above are correct

When we try to associate with the information previously assumed even if we get information about a certain phenomenon, we tend to___________ in process of stereotype. Ignore Explain away Agree Challenge Extending a pre assumed perception and confirming it with small piece of information is which type of mental process of stereotyping? Selecting Weighting Processes Stereotype over interpretation Stereotype-consistent perception Explaining away _____________ processing is more accurate, but ________ processing is faster and easier. Systematic, category-based Category-based, systematic Dual, systematic Group, Systematic The mediators primary function is to promote effective negotiation in: Facilitative mediation Evaluative mediation Nonbinding evaluations Mediation In mediation: There may not be a settlement since the disputants may not come to agreement If there is some settlement it is permanent The settlement is usually verbal Settlements reached in mediation are not enforceable contracts An advantage of evaluative mediation is that it: Helps each disputant to fine-tune his or her BATNA for accuracy and to modify it if it is too optimistic Is the best form of mediation in inducing the disputants to use principled negotiation Is the best form of mediation in improving the disputants relationship All of mentioned options In general, settlements reached in mediation, once formalized, are: Unenforceable Enforceable to the same extent as court orders Enforceable to the same extent as contracts, and subject to the same defenses Enforceable, but void able by any disputant who wishes to opt out of the agreement To facilitate Collaborating/Integrating negotiation between the disputants is the goal of which type of mediation? Triage mediation Bargaining-based mediation Therapeutic mediation Pure mediation

Which of the following types of mediation has narrow and evaluative focus? Triage mediation Bargaining-based mediation Pure mediation Therapeutic mediation In which sort of mediation are due process problems the most likely to occur? Triage mediation Bargaining-based mediation Pure mediation Transformative mediation Sara is a triage mediator, Warda is a pure mediator, Afifa is a transformative mediator, and Faria is a bargaining-based mediator. Which of these mediators is more likely to try to encourage her clients to get a fair agreement through compromising? Sara Warda Afifa Faria Most informal arbitration is probably __________________ than most facilitative mediation. Quicker and less expensive Quicker but more expensive Slower but less expensive Slower and more expensive The purpose of pure mediation would be most accurately stated as: Getting a settlement as quickly as possible Getting a fair compromise Facilitating principled bargaining or similar collaborative negotiation so that settlement can result Healing the disputants emotionally Potential mediation client Ms. B complained that she wanted to reach settlement in mediation, but the mediator didnt seem at all concerned with helping the parties reach settlement, or even to negotiate. Which of the following forms of mediation did this mediator probably practice? Triage mediation Bargaining-based mediation Pure mediation Transformative mediation Most informal arbitration is probably __________________ than most facilitative mediation. Quicker and less expensive Quicker but more expensive Slower but less expensive Slower and more expensive Mediation: Indirectly promotes cooperation Can enhance or preserve relationships Can create mistrust Some time unable to create more optimal solutions than processes that do not directly promote cooperation

I want to save time and money. Taking in to consideration the advantages and disadvantages of different type of dispute resolution methods, which of the following is best method to be adopted for the statement given above? Legislation Mediation Negotiation Adjudication In issue clarification stage in the process of mediation, _______________ mediation generally focuses on analyzing interests of disputants and on avoiding positional bargaining. Evaluative Facilitative Category based Non-binding In which type of mediation mediator takes the time to ensure that he or she has no prior dealings with either disputant that might create a conflict of interest? Facilitative Evaluative Both facilitative and evaluative Neither facilitative nor evaluative Which of the following introductory statements by a mediator is MOST LIKELY to lead to improved cooperation between the mediating disputants? The purpose of this mediation is for you to decide whether plaintiffs or defendants version of the issue will prevail. Mediation is a way for the two of you to seek creative solutions to your conflict that address your unique situation and leave neither of you feeling victimized. Now Id like each of you to state your positions. One DISADVANTAGE of caucusing in mediation is that: The mediator is prevented from using evaluative tactics Caucusing does not promote integrating/collaborating Caucusing prevents the mediator from learning about issues the disputants feel uncomfortable discussing in front of one another Caucusing promotes principled negotiation Confidentiality in mediation is: Entirely determined by statute Determined by statute, court rule, or contract, depending on the jurisdiction and the type of mediation Ordered by the mediator in appropriate cases A myth; mediation is not confidential Concerns over whether a mediator should be able to testify in subsequent litigation raise issues of: Effectiveness

Confidentiality

Participation Enforceability Many scholars recognize advantages of arbitration over litigation. These advantages include: Expertise of a specialized tribunal Fewer saving in time and expense Less compliance with arbitration awards Arbitrators decision serves as precedent in all similar cases throughout the country Which of the following is not advantage of arbitration? Low Cost relative to Litigation Intermediary involved Legally Binding Nature International Enforceability __________ is potentially cheaper and faster than______________. Non-binding evaluation, litigation Litigation, Non-binding evaluation Litigation, ADR ADR, Litigation Negotiation in which the disputants are the only participants is called________. Adjudication Mediation Simple negotiation Facilitated negotiation An interpersonal conflict in which no participant is aware of the divergence of goals, needs, or interests is known as__________. Latent conflict False conflict Cause of action None of the given options A conflict situation in which the disputants believe that when one disputant helps him/herself, the other disputant is also helped is_______________. Constructive conflict Competitive conflict Destructive conflict Cooperative conflict A situation involving actual incompatibility of needs, interests or goals is defined as__________. False conflict True conflict Veridical conflict Both true and veridical conflict Conflict causes predictable and destructive changes in the disputants attitudes, perceptions and interactions is called____________. Perceived conflict Real conflict Escalating conflict

Data type conflict Meeting one partys goals is just like promoting other partys goals known as: Promotive Interdependence Contrient Interdependence Positive Interdependence None of the given options The first step in conflict diagnosis is to describe the______________. Conflict Disputant Motives Position In interpersonal conflict the reality understood by each participant is highly__________. Objective Personal Subjective Biased There is/are usually ___________ source /sources of any given conflict. Single Multiple Sole Distinct One can infer attitudes and make judgments about people and things through _____________. Perception General attribution theory Stimuli Cognitive Structure Which of the following statement is misperception about conflict? Conflict levels are segregated into multiple situations Delaying the conflicts may leads to destructive behavior Conflicts are only created to gain benefits Conflict not always leads to an anger Which of the following does not restrict innovations? Proficiency lack Efficient outcomes Limited resources Ongoing systems Application of ADR is promoted in which of the following type of culture? Collectivist Communist Monopolistic Individualistic Customer remained dissatisfied with the shopkeepers demonstration about the product, it leads to which of the following? Dispute Collision Distortion Confusion

Which of the following is NOT an important tip for a driver to survive in a Fender-Bender? Exchange information Keep calm Call the police Start a row All of the following are dimensions of issue perspective of conflict EXCEPT: Joint Vs Individual Process Vs Outcome Tangible Vs Intangible Narrow Vs Broad focus A conflict which is purely internal and does not involve any other person, is: Interpersonal conflict Intrapersonal conflict Interpretive conflict Not a conflict Which of the following is an internal urge to give good performance and which forces for creativity & innovation? Reinforcement Determination Confidence Motivation While identifying interpersonal conflicts, it is necessary to indicate: The interests of all involved parties The disputants of a particular conflict The divergent goals of all disputants All of the given options Many conflicting situations may have more than one: Activity conflict Interpersonal conflict Intrapersonal conflict Agency conflict Why it is important to focus on resources in order to diagnose a conflict? Helpful in finding other sources of conflict Identify underlying reasons of conflict Identify best available option All of the given options The conflict which arises over personal beliefs and deeply held morals & ethics is termed as: Differences in orientation Conflict over facts Conflicts over deeply held values Threats to self-concept and world view Which of the following truly explains the situation in which the disputants are not focusing the real facts and figures of conflict? Dislodged conflict Misplaced conflict misaligned conflict Misattributed conflict Conflict can be taken as a challenge and could be transformed into a/an:

Threat System Opportunity Weakness You are a negotiator of party A and negotiator of party B is exchanging the ideas about his party's principles, values and preferences. You are analyzing the: Constituents & stake holders interests Other disputants interests Disputants interests Own interests All of the following are advantages of understanding the other disputant's interests, EXCEPT: Disputant is restricted with his own ideas Craft proposals that are acceptable to others Avoidance of positional bargaining Limit later sabotage that may arouse According to Abraham Maslow, the most basic needs are: Safety needs Security needs Physiological needs Psychological needs The stances of disputants in an interpersonal conflict are known as: Position Interests Bargaining Negotiation According to the Deutsch's theory which of the following is that cooperation begets? Exacerbation Competition Cooperation Escalation Who said, If thou are a master, be some time blind; if a servant, sometimes deaf? Robert Gaits Robert Frost Thomas Fuller Thomas Millar Which of the following negotiation style causes loss of both opportunities and benefits? Accommodating style Compromising style Dominating style Avoiding style Which of the following is relevant to the misperception about conflict management? Increases the possibility to impair a positive resolution Reduces the alternative ways to handle conflict It always leads to become more vicious

All of the given options Which of the following is a clear picture of Individualistic culture? It provides more opportunities to promote an individual Its preferences and structures tend to be invisible to inhabitants It provides more opportunities to handle a conflict in a better way All of the given options A social conflict as compared to the corporate conflicts can be considered as: Low risky More risky Risk free None of the given options Conflict is largely considered as: Global phenomenon Perceived phenomenon Destructive phenomenon Constructive phenomenon Theory of Social Ecology includes which of the following important institutions for operation of all human beings? Mass media Court systems School Organizations All of the given institutions Which of the following outcomes of a conflict are being observed in the specific context of Pakistan? Opportunity for change Win-win situation Competition Positive Which of the following is the purpose of adoption of ADR by Efficiency Wing? Divert cases to litigation Save time & money Elapse conflict for long time Create win-win situation After receiving social stimuli, people assign meaning to what they have experienced, which is known as: Interpretation Perception Reception Stimulus Which of the following type of justice refers to the fairness of the process? Distributive Competitive Procedural Substantive The only constant thing in this world is: Values Change Conflict Perception

Which of the following method of negotiation involves only one neutral party to resolve a conflict among disputants? Mediation Simple negotiation Unassisted negotiation Negotiation with advocates Which one of the following is likely to be highest level of trust? Calculus-based Experience-based Knowledge-based Identification-based One of the parties is willing to take a risk that s/he will lose for the opportunity to obtain a huge recovery is what type of barrier in conflict resolution? Jackpot syndrome Lack of ripeness Loss aversion Mistrust Which of the following style demonstrates a low level of concern for a person himself and a high level of concern for others? Compromising Integrating Obliging Avoiding A manager of the restaurant has dismissed the waiter from his job because he served rotten food to a customer. This is the example of what type of power? Referent power Coercive power Normative power Reward power Physical strength is the source of which power? Coercive power Referent power Normative power Expert power Diversity issues are related to all of the following, EXCEPT: Power Culture Stereotyping Compromise The type of power which influences people by offering them something they want, is known as:

Reward power Normative power Coercive power Referent power In stereotyping we draw inferences about a persons: Past, present and future Anticipated traits and behaviors based on logic Anticipated behaviors based on his/her social category All of the given options Over emphasis on a piece of information which may not be so important to determine a certain event, is representing which of the following aspect of stereotype? Explaining away Selecting Weighting Processes Stereotype over interpretation Stereotype consistent perception The mediators primary function is to narrow the gap between extreme disputants' positions by providing evaluations of the merits of the dispute in: Mediation Evaluative mediation Facilitative mediation Nonbinding evaluations Which of the following is the most basic form of nonbinding evaluation consisting of an adjudication process and its outcome is not obligatory? Summary jury trial Neutral evaluation Minitrial Nonbinding arbitration In which of the following, entities are created by contract to resolve disputes as they arise in the course of ongoing projects? Nonbinding arbitration Summary jury trial Neutral evaluation Dispute review board The process of negotiation refers to all of the following, EXCEPT: The communication between parties The relationships among parties The bone of contention The styles parties adopt Which of the following is a legal process whereby a neutral third party hears the dispute and issues an award? Litigation

Mediation Arbitration Collaboration The suggested hierarchy of ADR methods suggests that: Evaluative mediation should come first Facilitative mediation should come first Nonbinding evaluation should come first Nonconsensual processes should come first Which of the following is a clear picture of Individualistic culture? It provides more opportunities to promote an individual Its preferences and structures tend to be invisible to inhabitants It provides more opportunities to handle a conflict in a better way All of the given options Theory of Social Ecology includes which of the following important institutions for operation of all human beings? Mass media Court systems School Organizations All of the given institutions Which of the following is/are the motivating factor/s for the individual during a conflict? Principles Aspirations Values All of the given options Which of the following power is the flip side of Coercive power? Reward/exchange power Normative power Expert power Referent power The major problem with stereotyping is/are: It is undignified to be stereotyped The attributions one makes may be totally wrong Stereotypes are usually based on limited knowledge All of the given options Who has no independent decision-making power? Civil Judge Mediator Advocate Councilor Mediation is distinguished from other ADR processes in which of the following way?

In mediation, the neutral party issues a decision In mediation, the neutral party does not issue a decision In mediation, the disputants do not retain the power to settle All of the given options In which type of mediation, mediator provides a range of suggested settlements? Facilitative Evaluative Both facilitative and evaluative Neither facilitative nor evaluative How mediators deal with legal issues during the mediation process? Through Privileged communications Advice to seek guidance from legal expert Do not face any legal issues during mediation Use their own expertise of law In which of the following nonbinding evaluation process representatives of the disputants have the authority to settle the case? Summary jury trial Neutral evaluation Minitrial Dispute Review Board The effectiveness of organizational conflict management has been recognized lately by the development of: Dispute resolution systems Court connected ADR Online ADR Med-Arb In which of the following process the case is presented to an arbitrator who decides but keeps the decision secret and then the disputants attempt to mediate a settlement? Med-Arb Arb-Med Incentive Arbitration Ombuds Conflicts can be prevented and minimized by addressing them at: Provincial Level Federal Level Local community level Central Level All of the following are tactics used in evaluative mediation EXCEPT: Conflict escalation Instilling doubt Case evaluation Caucusing

All of the following are tactics used in integrating style of negotiation EXCEPT: Expanding the pie Undercutting Logrolling Bridging The purpose of pure mediation would be most accurately stated as: Getting a settlement as quickly as possible Getting a fair compromise Facilitating principled bargaining or similar collaborative negotiation so that settlement can result Healing the disputants emotionally Potential mediation client Ms. B complained that she wanted to reach settlement in mediation, but the mediator didnt seem at all concerned with helping the parties reach settlement, or even to negotiate. Which of the following forms of mediation did this mediator probably practice? Triage mediation Bargaining-based mediation Pure mediation Transformative mediation Most informal arbitration is probably __________________ than most facilitative mediation. Quicker and less expensive Quicker but more expensive Slower but less expensive Slower and more expensive Mediation: Indirectly promotes cooperation Can enhance or preserve relationships Can create mistrust Some time unable to create more optimal solutions than processes that do not directly promote cooperation I want to save time and money. Taking in to consideration the advantages and disadvantages of different type of dispute resolution methods, which of the following is best method to be adopted for the statement given above? Legislation Mediation Negotiation Adjudication Mediator (and clients) sets ground rules for conduct in which stage of mediation? The introductory stage Issues clarification and communication The productive stage Agreement consummation In issue clarification stage in the process of mediation, _______________ mediation generally focuses on analyzing interests of disputants and on avoiding positional bargaining. Evaluative Facilitative

Category based Non-binding In which type of mediation mediator takes the time to ensure that he or she has no prior dealings with either disputant that might create a conflict of interest? Facilitative Evaluative Both facilitative and evaluative Neither facilitative nor evaluative Which of the following introductory statements by a mediator is MOST LIKELY to lead to improved cooperation between the mediating disputants? The purpose of this mediation is for you to decide whether plaintiffs or defendants version of the issue will prevail. In mediation, I listen to both sides of the case and then we choose who wins. Mediation is a way for the two of you to seek creative solutions to your conflict that address your unique situation and leave neither of you feeling victimized. Now Id like each of you to state your positions. One DISADVANTAGE of caucusing in mediation is that: The mediator is prevented from using evaluative tactics Caucusing does not promote integrating/collaborating Caucusing prevents the mediator from learning about issues the disputants feel uncomfortable discussing in front of one another Caucusing promotes principled negotiation Confidentiality in mediation is: Entirely determined by statute Determined by statute, court rule, or contract, depending on the jurisdiction and the type of mediation Ordered by the mediator in appropriate cases A myth; mediation is not confidential Concerns over whether a mediator should be able to testify in subsequent litigation raise issues of: Effectiveness

Confidentiality

Participation Enforceability Many scholars recognize advantages of arbitration over litigation. These advantages include: Expertise of a specialized tribunal Fewer saving in time and expense Less compliance with arbitration awards Arbitrators decision serves as precedent in all similar cases throughout the country Which of the following is not advantage of arbitration?

Low Cost relative to Litigation Intermediary involved Legally Binding Nature International Enforceability __________ is potentially cheaper and faster than______________. Non-binding evaluation, litigation Litigation, Non-binding evaluation Litigation, ADR ADR, Litigation An accurate estimate of BATNA: Allows disputant in making irrational choices about when to continue negotiating, when to accept an offer, and when to stop Allows being unduly pressured into settlement Prevents team to accept a deal better than the BATNA without hesitation; prevents lost opportunities to make good deals Allows team to make better choices about how to exert its relationship power in the negotiation Impressions formed about people that are based upon fitting the person into various categories are a type of impression called: Data processing Systemic processing Category-based processing Detail processing The mental processes which are used unconsciously to reinforce stereotypes include all of the following except: Ignoring Over interpretation Explaining away All of the above are correct When we try to associate with the information previously assumed even if we get information about a certain phenomenon, we tend to___________ in process of stereotype. Ignore Explain away Agree Challenge Extending a pre assumed perception and confirming it with small piece of information is which type of mental process of stereotyping? Selecting Weighting Processes Stereotype over interpretation Stereotype-consistent perception Explaining away _____________ processing is more accurate, but ________ processing is faster and easier. Systematic, category-based Category-based, systematic Dual, systematic Group, Systematic

The mediators primary function is to promote effective negotiation in: Facilitative mediation Evaluative mediation Nonbinding evaluations Mediation In mediation: There may not be a settlement since the disputants may not come to agreement If there is some settlement it is permanent The settlement is usually verbal Settlements reached in mediation are not enforceable contracts An advantage of evaluative mediation is that it: Helps each disputant to fine-tune his or her BATNA for accuracy and to modify it if it is too optimistic Is the best form of mediation in inducing the disputants to use principled negotiation Is the best form of mediation in improving the disputants relationship All of mentioned options In general, settlements reached in mediation, once formalized, are: Unenforceable Enforceable to the same extent as court orders Enforceable to the same extent as contracts, and subject to the same defenses Enforceable, but void able by any disputant who wishes to opt out of the agreement To facilitate Collaborating/Integrating negotiation between the disputants is the goal of which type of mediation? Triage mediation Bargaining-based mediation Therapeutic mediation Pure mediation Which of the following types of mediation has narrow and evaluative focus? Triage mediation Bargaining-based mediation Pure mediation Therapeutic mediation In which sort of mediation are due process problems the most likely to occur? Triage mediation Bargaining-based mediation Pure mediation Transformative mediation Sara is a triage mediator, Warda is a pure mediator, Afifa is a transformative mediator, and Faria is a bargaining-based mediator. Which of these mediators is more likely to try to encourage her clients to get a fair agreement through compromising? Sara Warda Afifa Faria Most informal arbitration is probably __________________ than most facilitative mediation.

Quicker and less expensive Quicker but more expensive Slower but less expensive Slower and more expensive Which is the most important issue in conflict management? Deciding intensity of conflict Finding the frequency of conflict Finding methods of resolving conflict Distinguishing compatible and incompatible goals Which of the following statement is NOT true for competitive way of conflict resolution? This is a destructive way People negotiate for problem solving People fight with each other All of the given options are false Which of the following is seldom recommended in conflict resolution? Negotiation Arbitration Meditation Adjudication The conflict phobic reacts to conflict by: Not preparing for conflict Postponing negotiations Making extreme demands Valuing interpersonal conflict The second step of social interaction in which the perceiver sees, hears or otherwise uses his/her senses to receive the event, is known as: Stimulus Reception Perception Interpretation A conflict which is purely internal and does not involve any other person, is: Interpersonal conflict Intrapersonal conflict Interpretive conflict Not a conflict Conflict over the ownership or control of something valuable is known as: Preferences conflict Communication conflict Data-type conflict Resource conflict Conflict participants often surround themselves in their own rigid thoughts & close all the possibilities of any other options. This general attitude of conflict participants is termed as: Teamwork effort Negotiation strategy Positional bargaining All of the given options

The bottom line that disputant is willing to accept is represented by which of the following term in a conflict onion? Position Aspiration Underlying interest Principles and values Which of the following is the feature of competitive pattern of a conflict in organizations? It results in missed opportunities It increases productivity It results in fewer turnovers It has less destructive political behavior Which of the following statement is true regarding 'power'? Power is always perceived by individuals Power is always used to harm others Power has usually negative dimensions Power can psychologically affect the negotiation According to which of the given power, an individual is able to influence others byConferring(reward) benefit? Reward power Normative power Coercive power Referent power Mr. Jahanzaib has changed the sitting arrangement of his subordinates to make them more comfortable in order to get good output. He is exercising which type of power? Reward power Normative power Expert power Ecological power Innocent faces can distract others from actual facts ; this statement justifies which of the given power? Coercive power Expert power Referent power Normative power How does power affect BATNA (Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement)? The more power a disputant has, the poorer the disputant s BATNA The more power a disputant has, the better the disputant s BATNA The power of one party may dominates the other party in BATNA There is no affect of power in BATNA The main problem of relying on BATNA is that: It is not as much useful It often leads to poor outcomes It makes the situation more complex It is often very expensive in terms of time All of the following are tactics used in 'integration' phase of negotiation, EXCEPT: Expanding the pie Undercutting

Logrolling Bridging The type of power which influences people by offering them something they want, is known as: Reward power Normative power Coercive power Referent power In order to arrive at one's BATNA in a legal dispute, it is necessary to do an analysis of the costs and benefits of litigation. It is known as: Valuation Resolution Negotiation Management The impression formed about people by gathering information from scratch is a type of impression called: Data processing Detail processing Systematic processing Category based processing Which of the following is true about stereotypes? These are wrong, leading to strategic errors These are accurate, leading a right decision These are accurate but may result in leading to a wrong direction These are wrong but may result in leading to a right direction In stereotyping we draw inferences about a person s: Past, present and future Anticipated traits and behaviors based on logic Anticipated behaviors based on his/her social category All of the given options A major problem with stereotyping is that: It is based on logic Stereotypes are usually correct It is honored to be stereotyped The attributions, one made may be totally wrong If we try to thoroughly process the information about each & every individual in all situations, it will become: Highly inefficient Highly efficient Highly effective Highly ineffective Which of the following class of people see their own characteristics as changeable? Disputed-self Dependent-self Independent-self Interdependent-self In which of the following method individuals gather information form the scratch during impression formation?

Dual processing Group processing Systematic processing Category-based processing In which of the following process, an expert in the subject matter of the dispute or legal expert gives an opinion of the strengths and weaknesses of each side's case? Summary jury trial Neutral evaluation Dispute review board Nonbinding arbitration If a disputant refuses to participate, what effect can it make on the usefulness of facilitative mediation? Facilitative mediation can not be used Quality of facilitative mediation will suffer Quality of consent may be impaired Facilitative mediation will take a long time than usual If one or both disputants are unsure about their BATNA s, what effect can it make on the usefulness of facilitative mediation? Facilitative mediation can not be used Quality of facilitative mediation will suffer Facilitative mediation will take a long time than usual Quality of consent may be impaired To promote empowerment and recognition of each disputant is the goal of which type of mediation? Pure mediation Triage mediation Transformative mediation Bargaining-based mediation One of the most significant features of mediation is its effectiveness in preserving Ongoing: Conflict Competition Controversy Relationship In which stage of mediation mediator will inform clients about mediator s style, explain process, and explain advantages of cooperative dispute resolution and mediation? Issues clarification and communication Agreement consummation The introductory stage The productive stage What important role, ethics play in mediation? Enhance effectiveness of mediation Helps in achieving extra compromises Assists in avoiding the courts involvement Simply a waste of time & money, if it fails

Which of the following rule requires that the mediators should not favor or impose their will on one disputant? Revolutionary Confidentiality Neutrality Adversary The law of arbitration in Pakistan is contained in which of the following Arbitration Act? 1960 1990 1940 1945 Which of the following class of arbitration is mentioned in chapter III, section 20 of the 'Arbitration Act'? Arbitration in suits through court Arbitration where no suit is pending Arbitration without court intervention Arbitration investigation through agency Agreements to submit future disputes not yet in existence to arbitration are which of the following category of arbitration agreements? Non-executory Unexecuted Executory Executed In the Neutral evaluation, who is typically neutral? Arbitrator Corporate executive Members in jury pool Experts in technical area Extensive preparation often creates hindrance in settlement. All of the following are suggestions for avoiding it, EXCEPT: Set limits to involvement No financial constraints Periodically reappraise strategies Intention to save one special person In which of the following a mediator shall fully disclose and explain the involvement of money? Fee Quality Morality Competence 'Positional bargaining' leads to which of the following consequence? impasses the bad feelings among disputants Better position for each of the bargainers Creative approaches to conflict resolution The most integrative outcome in conflict In what type of conflict the disputants duplicate efforts to gather information? Constructive Conflict

Cooperative Conflict Competitive Conflict Destructive Conflict Which is the most important issue in conflict management? Deciding intensity of conflict Finding the frequency of conflict Finding methods of resolving conflict (not confrm) Distinguishing compatible and incompatible goals Which of the following statement is NOT true for competitive way of conflict resolution? This is a destructive way People negotiate for problem solving People fight with each other All of the given options are false The conflict phobic reacts to conflict by: Not preparing for conflict Postponing negotiations Making extreme demands Valuing interpersonal conflict The second step of social interaction in which the perceiver sees, hears or Otherwise uses his/her senses to receive the event, is known as: Stimulus Reception Perception Interpretation Conflict over the ownership or control of something valuable is known as: Preferences conflict Communication conflict Data-type conflict Resource conflict According to which of the given power, an individual is able to influence others by Conferring(reward) benefit? Reward power Normative power Coercive power Referent power The main problem of relying on BATNA is that: It is not as much useful It often leads to poor outcomes It makes the situation more complex It is often very expensive in terms of time All of the following are tactics used in 'integration' phase of negotiation, EXCEPT: Expanding the pie Undercutting Logrolling Bridging The type of power which influences people by offering them something they want, is known as: Reward power

Normative power Coercive power Referent power The impression formed about people by gathering information from scratch is a type of impression called: Data processing Detail processing Systematic processing Category based processing In stereotyping we draw inferences about a person s: Past, present and future Anticipated traits and behaviors based on logic Anticipated behaviors based on his/her social category All of the given options A major problem with stereotyping is that: It is based on logic Stereotypes are usually correct It is honored to be stereotyped The attributions, one made may be totally wrong If we try to thoroughly process the information about each & every individual in all situations, it will become: Highly inefficient Highly efficient Highly effective Highly ineffective Which of the following class of people see their own characteristics as changeable? Disputed-self Dependent-self Independent-self Interdependent-self In which of the following method individuals gather information form the Scratch during impression formation? Dual processing Group processing Systematic processing Category-based processing In which of the following process, an expert in the subject matter of the dispute or legal expert gives an opinion of the strengths and weaknesses of each side's case? Summary jury trial Neutral evaluation Dispute review board Nonbinding arbitration To promote empowerment and recognition of each disputant is the goal of which type of mediation? Pure mediation Triage mediation Transformative mediation Bargaining-based mediation

One of the most significant features of mediation is its effectiveness in Preserving Ongoing: Conflict Competition Controversy Relationship In which stage of mediation mediator will inform clients about mediator s style, explain process, and explain advantages of cooperative dispute resolution and mediation? Issues clarification and communication Agreement consummation The introductory stage The productive stage The law of arbitration in Pakistan is contained in which of the following Arbitration Act? 1960 1990 1940 1945 Which of the following class of arbitration is mentioned in chapter III, section 20 of? the 'Arbitration Act'? Arbitration in suits through court Arbitration where no suit is pending Arbitration without court intervention Arbitration investigation through agency Agreements to submit future disputes not yet in existence to arbitration are which of the following category of arbitration agreements? Non-executory Unexecuted Executory Executed In which of the following a mediator shall fully disclose and explain the Involvement of money? Fee Quality Morality Competence In what type of conflict the disputants duplicate efforts to gather information? Constructive Conflict Cooperative Conflict Competitive Conflict Destructive Conflict A dispute in which some of the contentions can be expressed as a cause of action or as a defense to a cause of action is known as: War Collision Legal dispute Fender-bender

Which of the following type of justice prescribes whether the outcome of a conflict is fair? Substantive Procedural Distributive Conflict All of the following are steps which might influence the conflict cycle EXCEPT: Establishing ground rules for civility Pointing out areas of agreement Using competitive language Assigning joint tasks Which of the following is a disagreement or difference of opinion of two persons or two parties? Dispute Collision Conciliation Adjudication Which of the following power has ability to disempowered to the others? Expert power Referent power Coercive power Normative power Premise Three of Deutsch's theory is that cooperation begets: Exacerbation Competition Cooperation Escalation Which of the following emotion led to more integrative and compromised strategies by the partner? Disappointment Anger Pride Guilt A conflict revolving around two people perceiving the same event like "an accident" differently is known as __________. Resurce conflict Data-type conflict Communication conflict Preferences and nuisances conflict Efforts to apply alternative blueprints largely fail because: There is little support from others People lack of proficiency People try to use old tools to address alternative blue prints All of the given options A conflict which is purely internal and does not involve another person is a(n): Interpersonal conflict Intrapersonal conflict Interpretive conflict Not a conflict In mediation:

There may not be a settlement since the disputant may not come to agreement If there is some settlement it is permanent The settlement usually verbal Settlements reached in mediation are not enforceable We have met the enemy and it is us, quoted by the: Ben okri Walt Kelly Mao zeding Stuart Hampshire A mans greatest battles are the ones he fights within himself, is quoted by the: Ben okri Walt Kelly Mao zeding Stuart Hampshire Anger can be an effective negotiating tool, is quoted by: Paul Getty Adam smith John Dryden Mark McCormack Which of the following is a type of assisted negotiation that uses a third party to help disputants negotiate their settlement? Advocacy Mediation Provocation Aggravation In a conflict diagram participants are indicated by: Double-ended block arrow One-tailed arrows Straight lines Circles Getting information form scratch is called: Systematic processing Category based processing Dual processing Group processing Getting information form scratch is called: Reinforcement Determination Confidence Motivation Of the two types of mediation, ________ would be more likely to encourage positional bargaining. Facilitative mediation Evaluation mediation Nonbinding mediation Mediation All of the following are dimensions of person perspective of conflict EXCEPT: Joint-disputant

Social disputant Individual disputant Institution and society Which one of the following mainly shows individuals and their relationships to one another? Sociomap Sociogram Interception Determination The Meta-disputes generally are based on: Anger Bad feelings Revengeful attitude Misunderstandings The theorists who developed this model proposed five basic negotiation styles which include all of the following EXCEPT: Dominating Avoiding Obliging Settling All of the following are dimensions of person perspective of conflict EXCEPT: Joint-disputant Social disputant Individual disputant Institution or society In an interpersonal conflict where the disputants do not wish to do the work necessary to resolve the conflict until they feel there is no other alternative, the impediment to resolution is __________. Mistrust Lack of ripeness Excluded stakeholders Over commitment & entrapment All of the following are advantages of understanding the other disputant's interests EXCEPT: It ensures user doesnt miss an optimal resolution It creates greater flexibility in coming to settlement It ensures user isnt diverted by details, heat of the moment and so on It prevents user to evaluate whether some interests could be met outside the conflict In dual concern model the style which represents a low level of concern for both self And other known as__________. Avoiding Dominating Obliging Compromising Third party usually helps, clarifies and grounds each disputing partys alternatives to agreement in___________. Reality testing Litigation Negotiation

Dispute A person holds_____ power when he influences others by coercing, threatening, Harming and irritating. Reward Coercive Normative Expert Research and investigation can be examples of sources of _________power. Expert Reward Normative Democratic A dispute between two neighbors can be example of _________power. Expert Reward Ecological Social Formal power is exercised in a ________manner. Bottom-up Top-down Horizontal Vertical The influence which is deliberate or purposive in nature may be called_____. Motivation Power Integration None of the given options When one disputant is forced to litigation then __________style is not possible. Compromising Integration Authoritative Avoiding Dual concern model assumes that no disputant has ________orientation. Positive Negative Neutral Zero-Sum In dual concern model the style which represents a moderate level of concern for self And other known as__________. Avoiding Dominating Obliging Compromising An accurate estimate of BATNA: Allows disputant in making irrational choices about when to continue negotiating, when to accept an offer, and when to stop Allows being unduly pressured into settlement Prevents team to accept a deal better than the BATNA without hesitation; prevents lost opportunities to make good deals

Allows team to make better choices about how to exert its relationship power in the negotiation Impressions formed about people that are based upon fitting the person into various categories are a type of impression called: Data processing Systemic processing Category-based processing Detail processing The mental processes which are used unconsciously to reinforce stereotypes include all of the following except: Ignoring Over interpretation Explaining away All of the above are correct When we try to associate with the information previously assumed even if we get information about a certain phenomenon, we tend to___________ in process of stereotype. Ignore Explain away Agree Challenge Extending a pre assumed perception and confirming it with small piece of information is which type of mental process of stereotyping? Selecting Weighting Processes Stereotype over interpretation Stereotype-consistent perception Explaining away _____________ processing is more accurate, but ________ processing is faster and easier. Systematic, category-based Category-based, systematic Dual, systematic Group, Systematic The mediators primary function is to promote effective negotiation in: Facilitative mediation Evaluative mediation Nonbinding evaluations Mediation In mediation: There may not be a settlement since the disputants may not come to agreement If there is some settlement it is permanent The settlement is usually verbal Settlements reached in mediation are not enforceable contracts An advantage of evaluative mediation is that it: Helps each disputant to fine-tune his or her BATNA for accuracy and to modify it if it is too optimistic Is the best form of mediation in inducing the disputants to use principled

negotiation Is the best form of mediation in improving the disputants relationship All of mentioned options In general, settlements reached in mediation, once formalized, are: Unenforceable Enforceable to the same extent as court orders Enforceable to the same extent as contracts, and subject to the same defenses Enforceable, but void able by any disputant who wishes to opt out of the agreement To facilitate Collaborating/Integrating negotiation between the disputants is the goal of which type of mediation? Triage mediation Bargaining-based mediation Therapeutic mediation Pure mediation Which of the following types of mediation has narrow and evaluative focus? Triage mediation Bargaining-based mediation Pure mediation Therapeutic mediation In which sort of mediation are due process problems the most likely to occur? Triage mediation Bargaining-based mediation Pure mediation Transformative mediation Sara is a triage mediator, Warda is a pure mediator, Afifa is a transformative mediator, and Faria is a bargaining-based mediator. Which of these mediators is more likely to try to encourage her clients to get a fair agreement through compromising? Sara Warda Afifa Faria Most informal arbitration is probably __________________ than most facilitative mediation. Quicker and less expensive Quicker but more expensive Slower but less expensive Slower and more expensive The purpose of pure mediation would be most accurately stated as: Getting a settlement as quickly as possible Getting a fair compromise Facilitating principled bargaining or similar collaborative negotiation so that settlement can result Healing the disputants emotionally Potential mediation client Ms. B complained that she wanted to reach settlement in mediation, but the mediator didnt seem at all concerned with helping the parties reach settlement, or even to negotiate. Which of the following forms of mediation did this mediator probably practice? Triage mediation

Bargaining-based mediation Pure mediation Transformative mediation Most informal arbitration is probably __________________ than most facilitative mediation. Quicker and less expensive Quicker but more expensive Slower but less expensive Slower and more expensive Mediation: Indirectly promotes cooperation Can enhance or preserve relationships Can create mistrust Some time unable to create more optimal solutions than processes that do not directly promote cooperation I want to save time and money. Taking in to consideration the advantages and disadvantages of different type of dispute resolution methods, which of the following is best method to be adopted for the statement given above? Legislation Mediation Negotiation Adjudication Mediator (and clients) sets ground rules for conduct in which stage of mediation? The introductory stage Issues clarification and communication The productive stage Agreement consummation In issue clarification stage in the process of mediation, _______________ mediation generally focuses on analyzing interests of disputants and on avoiding positional bargaining. Evaluative Facilitative Category based Non-binding In which type of mediation mediator takes the time to ensure that he or she has no prior dealings with either disputant that might create a conflict of interest? Facilitative Evaluative Both facilitative and evaluative Neither facilitative nor evaluative Which of the following introductory statements by a mediator is MOST LIKELY to lead to improved cooperation between the mediating disputants? The purpose of this mediation is for you to decide whether plaintiffs or defendants version of the issue will prevail. In mediation, I listen to both sides of the case and then we choose who wins. Mediation is a way for the two of you to seek creative solutions to your conflict that address your unique situation and leave neither of you

feeling victimized. Now Id like each of you to state your positions. One DISADVANTAGE of caucusing in mediation is that: The mediator is prevented from using evaluative tactics Caucusing does not promote integrating/collaborating Caucusing prevents the mediator from learning about issues the disputants feel uncomfortable discussing in front of one another Caucusing promotes principled negotiation Confidentiality in mediation is: Entirely determined by statute Determined by statute, court rule, or contract, depending on the jurisdiction and the type of mediation Ordered by the mediator in appropriate cases A myth; mediation is not confidential Concerns over whether a mediator should be able to testify in subsequent litigation raise issues of: Effectiveness Confidentiality Participation Enforceability Many scholars recognize advantages of arbitration over litigation. These advantages include: Expertise of a specialized tribunal Fewer saving in time and expense Less compliance with arbitration awards Arbitrators decision serves as precedent in all similar cases throughout the country Which of the following is not advantage of arbitration? Low Cost relative to Litigation Intermediary involved Legally Binding Nature International Enforceability __________ is potentially cheaper and faster than______________. Non-binding evaluation, litigation Litigation, Non-binding evaluation Litigation, ADR ADR, Litigation Negotiation in which the disputants are the only participants is called________. Adjudication Mediation Simple negotiation Facilitated negotiation An interpersonal conflict in which no participant is aware of the divergence of goals, needs, or interests is known as__________. Latent conflict False conflict Cause of action None of the given options

A conflict situation in which the disputants believe that when one disputant helps him/herself, the other disputant is also helped is_______________. Constructive conflict Competitive conflict Destructive conflict Cooperative conflict A situation involving actual incompatibility of needs, interests or goals is defined as__________. False conflict True conflict Veridical conflict Both true and veridical conflict Conflict causes predictable and destructive changes in the disputants attitudes, perceptions and interactions is called____________. Perceived conflict Real conflict Escalating conflict Data type conflict Meeting one partys goals is just like promoting other partys goals known as: Promotive Interdependence Contrient Interdependence Positive Interdependence None of the given options The first step in conflict diagnosis is to describe the______________. Conflict Disputant Motives Position In interpersonal conflict the reality understood by each participant is highly__________. Objective Personal Subjective Biased There is/are usually ___________ source /sources of any given conflict. Single Multiple Sole Distinct One can infer attitudes and make judgments about people and things through _____________. a) Perception b) General attribution theory c) Stimuli d) Cognitive Structure Which of the following provides a rigorous and clear framework for understanding and appreciating the multiple facets of any conflict? Commercial conflict Conflict resolution

Conflict diagnosis Systematic conflict We have met the enemy and it is us, quoted by the: Ben Okri Walt Kelly Mao Zedong Stuart Hampshire Ten themes of conflict diagnosis are helpful in: Understanding nature of conflict Making better use of ADR Resolving conflict All of the given options Which of the following is often unconscious to be given good performance in every situation? Reinforcement Determination Confidence Motivation Which one of the following mainly shows individuals and their relationships to one another? Sociomap Sociogram Interception Determination ________________ allows the user to choose the best blueprint and the best tools to handle a conflict well. Conflict diagnosis Commercial conflict Conflict resolution Systematic conflict Usually the sources of conflict are __________ and many of them are __________. Multiple, hidden Multiple, obvious Less than 5, hidden Less than 5, obvious Which of the following emotion led to more integrative and compromised strategies by the partner? Disappointment Anger Pride Guilt Who said that It is essential to the sanity of mankind that each should think the other crazy? Walt Kelly Neil Johnson Hillarie Belloc Emily Dickinson The purpose of pure mediation would be most accurately stated as: Getting a settlement as quickly as possible

Getting a fair compromise Facilitating principled bargaining or similar collaborative negotiation so that settlement can result Healing the disputants emotionally Potential mediation client Ms. B complained that she wanted to reach settlement in mediation, but the mediator didnt seem at all concerned with helping the parties reach settlement, or even to negotiate. Which of the following forms of mediation did this mediator probably practice? Triage mediation Bargaining-based mediation Pure mediation Transformative mediation Most informal arbitration is probably __________________ than most facilitative mediation. Quicker and less expensive Quicker but more expensive Slower but less expensive Slower and more expensive Mediation: Indirectly promotes cooperation Can enhance or preserve relationships Can create mistrust Some time unable to create more optimal solutions than processes that do not directly promote cooperation I want to save time and money. Taking in to consideration the advantages and disadvantages of different type of dispute resolution methods, which of the following is best method to be adopted for the statement given above? Legislation Mediation Negotiation Adjudication Mediator (and clients) sets ground rules for conduct in which stage of mediation? The introductory stage Issues clarification and communication The productive stage Agreement consummation In issue clarification stage in the process of mediation, _______________ mediation generally focuses on analyzing interests of disputants and on avoiding positional bargaining. Evaluative Facilitative Category based Non-binding In which type of mediation mediator takes the time to ensure that he or she has no prior dealings with either disputant that might create a conflict of interest? Facilitative Evaluative Both facilitative and evaluative

Neither facilitative nor evaluative Which of the following introductory statements by a mediator is MOST LIKELY to lead to improved cooperation between the mediating disputants? The purpose of this mediation is for you to decide whether plaintiffs or defendants version of the issue will prevail. In mediation, I listen to both sides of the case and then we choose who wins. Mediation is a way for the two of you to seek creative solutions to your conflict that address your unique situation and leave neither of you feeling victimized. Now Id like each of you to state your positions. One DISADVANTAGE of caucusing in mediation is that: The mediator is prevented from using evaluative tactics Caucusing does not promote integrating/collaborating Caucusing prevents the mediator from learning about issues the disputants feel uncomfortable discussing in front of one another Caucusing promotes principled negotiation Confidentiality in mediation is: Entirely determined by statute Determined by statute, court rule, or contract, depending on the jurisdiction and the type of mediation Ordered by the mediator in appropriate cases A myth; mediation is not confidential Concerns over whether a mediator should be able to testify in subsequent litigation raise issues of: Effectiveness

Confidentiality

Participation Enforceability Many scholars recognize advantages of arbitration over litigation. These advantages include: Expertise of a specialized tribunal Fewer saving in time and expense Less compliance with arbitration awards Arbitrators decision serves as precedent in all similar cases throughout the country Which of the following is not advantage of arbitration? Low Cost relative to Litigation Intermediary involved Legally Binding Nature International Enforceability __________ is potentially cheaper and faster than______________. Non-binding evaluation, litigation Litigation, Non-binding evaluation Litigation, ADR

ADR, Litigation A conflict in which the parties' goals are violently manifested, the parties treat one another as: Advocates. Disputants. Adversaries. Agents. A conflict which can only be resolved by having a winner and a loser of "splitting the difference" the parties are: Continently interdependent. Promotively interdependent. Positively interdependent. Falsely interdependent. Where parties are unaware of the existence of divergent goals, needs of interests, the conflict is: Latent. Zero sum. Contrient. Veridical. Where the goals of one party enhance the goals of the other, the parties are: Not interdependent. Latently interdependent. Continently interdependent. Promotively interdependent. Most transactions contain both compatible and incompatible goals and are known as: False conflicts. Zero-sum situations. Win-win situations. Mixed-motive situations. Forward-looking arrangements which satisfy compatible goals and there is no obvious disagreement almost always involves some divergent goals and is known as: Transactions. Disputes. Zero-sum situations. False conflicts. A non latent interpersonal conflict characterized by emphasizing the incompatible goals of disputants is a: Transaction. False conflict. Dispute. Win-win situation. A type of representative of a disputant who has legal and ethical responsibility to represent disputant's interest is a: Stakeholder. Agent.

Advocate. Constituent A party to a conflict who is powerful enough to significantly alter its course is a: Stakeholder. Agent. Advocate. Constituent The various dispute resolution processes can be distinguished by all of the following factors except: Who participates Who decides the outcome. Where it is held. Under what authority the process takes place. The two main categories of dispute resolution, according to who decides the outcome, are: Arbitration and mediation. Negotiation and adjudication. Assisted and unassisted negotiation. Litigation and arbitration. The principal distinction between negotiation and adjudication is: The person in charge of deciding the outcome. The binding effect. Whether or not the parties are assisted. None of these is correct. A form of negotiation where the disputants are the only participants is known as: Unassisted negotiation. Assisted negotiation. Simple negotiation. Both 1 and 3 are correct The three principal forms of assisted or facilitated negotiation include all of the following except: Agent- or advocate-assisted negotiation. Mediation. Nonbinding evaluation. Arbitration. The form of negotiation in which the disputants are represented by assistants who stand in their shoes and negotiate on their behalf is: Mediation. Agent or advocate assisted negotiation. Nonbinding evaluation. Arbitration. The form of negotiation in which the negotiation is facilitated by a neutral third party is: Mediation. Agent or advocate-assisted negotiation. Nonbinding evaluation. Arbitration.

In_____ the disputants present their side to a third party or panel which renders a nonbinding decision or opinion. Mediation Agent- or advocate-assisted negotiation Nonbinding evaluation Arbitration What differentiates nonbinding evaluation from evaluative mediation is that nonbinding evaluation: The evaluation is just a beginning point. The parties do not participate in the process. In evaluative mediation the evaluation is just a beginning point of the settlement process. None of the above is correct. The three major forms of adjudication include all of the following except: Litigation. Mediation. Agency Adjudication. Arbitration Our narrow perspective on how conflict is best managed and resolved: Is fostered by cultural beliefs and practices. Impairs our ability to understand conflict. Impairs out ability to choose effective methods to resolve conflict. All of the above are correct. In order to create a quality product, a master artisan needs all of the following except: An effective plan or blueprint. An innovative approach. A set of tools suited to the craft. Proficiency in using the tools. The part of a person's environment consisting of overall societal social structures is a: Microsystem. Macrosystem. Microcosm. None of the above is correct. Bronfenbrenner's theory of Social Ecology includes as the important institutions in which we operate the following institution(s) Mass media. Court systems. School Organizations. All of the above are correct. Children with_____ parents are more likely to learn that all disputants matter in a conflict. Authoritative Authoritarian Permissive Strict The American legal system tends to emphasize all of the following except:

Individual rights. Individualism. Cooperation. Competition. Efforts to apply alternative blueprints largely fail because: There is little support from others. People try to use old tools to address alternative blueprints. People lack proficiency in using new tools. All of the above are correct. People confronted with conflict in our culture typically react by seeing the situation as a_____ where there can only be one winner. Opportunity for change Competition Win-win situation Positive The American legal system is a(n)_____ process built on the notion that justice is achievable through competition. Win-win Cooperative Adversarial None of the above is correct Our cultural perspective leads us to view conflict as all of the following except: War. Dangerous. A way to spur reform. Emotionally painful. In order to select the best dispute resolution method, it is necessary to engage in the process of: Litigation. Conflict diagnosis. Negotiation. None of the above is correct. All of the following are steps in the process of conflict diagnosis except: Identify sources and causes of the conflict. Identify impediments to settlement. Choose an appropriate dispute resolution process. All of the above are steps in the process. The conflict phobic reacts to conflict by: Making extreme demands. Not preparing. Loving interpersonal conflict. Postponing negotiations. The conflict gamer reacts to conflict by: Avoiding it. Feeling traumatized by it. Not preparing for it. Postponing negotiation. The two "camps" of the ADR movement are the:

Right and left wings. Radical and efficiency wings. Radical and left wings. Right and efficiency wings. An effective ADR program will have the effect of: Relieving crowded court dockets. Avoiding litigation down the line. Leaving parties feeling more empowered All of the above are true. The ADR movement in the U.S. has been dominated by the: Efficiency wing. Right wing. Radical wing. Left wing. The following people could benefit from understanding conflict diagnosis: Lawyers. Negotiators. Dispute professionals. All of the above are correct. In Step One of responding to conflict, an event which causes a reaction in someone is known as a (n): Perception. Reception. Stimulus. Interpretation. In the second step of social interaction the perceiver sees, hears, or otherwise uses his or her senses to receive the event, known as: Perception. Reception. Stimulus. Interpretation. After having received social stimuli, people assign meaning to what they have experienced, which is known as: Perception. Reception. Stimulus. Interpretation In social science, the phrase for mental shortcuts people use to make quick assessments of others in social interactions is known as: Heuristics. Holistics. Mapping. Salience. The tendency of a disputant in an interpersonal conflict to see themselves as "good" and to characterize the other side as "evil" is known as: Demonization. Salience. Heuristics. Context.

In Step Four a disputant considers a range of possible responses. This step is known As: Interpreting. Responding. Generating options. Weighing options. Step Five in the process is a cost benefit analysis of those options known as: Interpreting. Responding. Generating options. Weighing options. As part of the cost benefit analysis, a disputant makes assumptions about what results his or her actions will have, known as: Expectancy of success. Expectancy of reinforcement. Expectancy of conflict. Expectancy of resolution. In Step Six, which is a culmination of all the previous ones, the disputant decides what to do or: Acts. Chooses an option. Plans. Perceives. In the final step, Step Seven, disputants put the option into practice, which in turn creates a new: Stimulus. Action. Option. None of the above is correct. The purposes of describing the conflict include all of the following except: Understanding the interests of those involved. Analyzing who is involved in the conflict. Clarifying what the conflict is about. All of the above are purposes of describing the conflict. Writing down a description of the conflict and putting it aside for a while serves the purpose(s) of: Forgetting the conflict Clarifying the divergent goals. Seeing where you need more information. Both 2 and 3 are correct. A conflict which is purely internal and does not involve another person is a(n): Interpersonal conflict. Intrapersonal conflict. Interpretive conflict. Not a conflict. After completing a written description of the conflict, it is important to map out the conflict. This map is known in the field of psychology as a: Sociomap. Sociogram.

Picture. Diagramatic. In a conflict diagram participants are indicated by: Circles. A double-ended block arrow. One-tailed arrows. Straight lines. In a conflict diagram conflict is indicated by_____ with the parties at both ends. Circles A double ended block arrow One-tailed arrows Straight lines In a conflict diagram the purpose of one tailed arrows is to indicate_____ between participants. Relationships Conflicts Communication Participation In a conflict diagram relationships between participants are indicated by: Circles. A double-ended block arrow. One-tailed arrows. Straight lines Conflicts over ownership or control of something of value are known as_____ conflicts. Preferences and nuisances. Data-type. Resource. Communication. A conflict revolving around two people perceiving the same event, like an accident, differently, is known as a_____ conflict. Preferences and nuisances Data-type Resource Communication When one disputant is doing something which harms or bothers the other, it is a _____conflict. Preferences and nuisances Data-type Resource Communication The meaning of language or behavior may be misunderstood, causing a_____ conflict. Preferences and nuisances Data-type Resource Communication Where each disputant believes the conflict is due to a different cause, there are:

Differences in conflict orientation. Threats to self-concept and world view. Conflicts over deeply held values. Differing attributions of causation. Where one disputant's viewpoint threatens the other's central ideas about his or herself, there are: Differences in conflict orientation. Threats to self-concept and world view. Conflicts over deeply held values. Differing attributions of causation. Differences in the way people preferentially or automatically respond to conflict are: Differences in conflict orientation. Threats to self-concept and world view. Conflicts over deeply held values Differing attributions of causation. Disputants in conflict over deeply held personal, community, or social beliefs are: Differences in conflict orientation. Threats to self-concept and world view. Conflicts over deeply held values. Differing attributions of causation. Being in conflict with the wrong person would be_____ conflict. Misplaced Misattributed Misaligned Displaced Where the disputants aren't fighting about what's really bothering them, the conflict is: Misplaced. Misattributed. Misaligned. Displaced. Often conflict participants paint themselves into a corner by firmly demanding what they want at the outset, in a process known as: Teamwork. Negotiating. Positional bargaining. None of the above are correct All of the following are advantages of understanding the other disputant's interests except: Craft proposals the other side wants to accept. Avoidance of later sabotage. Avoidance of positional bargaining. Blinding the disputant to any position but their own . To insure that they will cooperate in making a resolution work and not sabotage it, it is important to analyze the interests of those affected by the course and outcome of a conflict known as:

Constituents. Advocates. Stakeholders. Both answers 1 and 3 are correct. The main reason to analyze the interests of agents and advocates is to determine if they have interests adverse to their principal, known as: Strategy. Conflicts of interest. Power struggles. None of the above is correct. In a conflict onion, revealing the layers of conflict, the demand the disputant makes to others, is known as their: Aspirations. Position. Principles and values. Underlying interests. In a conflict onion, revealing the layers of conflict, the bottom line the disputant is willing to accept, is known as their: Aspirations. Position. Principles and values. Underlying interests. The diagram which is designed to show the relationships among the various aspects of the participants' interest is known as a (n): Diagramatic. Interest tree . Family tree. Interest picture. Of the two major types of justice,_____ justice is concerned with whether the outcome of a conflict is fair; while_____ justice refers to the fairness of the process. Distributive; Procedural Procedural; Distributive Distributive; Substantive Substantive; Procedural Maslow's Needs Theory is that people need to satisfy human needs which are organized hierarchically and the most basic of these needs is for: Safety and security (deficiency). Love and belongingness (love). Air, food, shelter and sleep (physiological). Be a unique individual (self-actualization). Erickson's Psychosocial Theory is that over a human lifespan people go through life stages associated with overriding concerns, with the final stage occurring in late adulthood being: To develop enduring relationships (intimacy vs. isolation). Finding peace and satisfaction (ego integrity vs. despair). To learn to act in an autonomous manner (autonomy vs. doubt and shame). To master academic, social and vocational skills (industry vs. inferiority).

One of the four basic tenets of Morton Deutsch's Theory of Constructive or Destructive Conduct is that conflict is either cooperative or Constructive. Individualistic. Competitive. None of the above is correct. In a competitive conflict, hostile feelings promote a lack of communication leading to negative attributions about the other person, known as: Autistic hostility. Reactive devaluation. Effective communication. None of the above is correct. The second premise of Deutsch's theory is that: Cooperation is less efficient than competition. Cooperation causes more duplication of effort than competition. Cooperation is destructive, while competition is constructive. Cooperation is constructive, while competition is destructive. A conflict (including a dispute) over the handling of the conflict is called a: Meta-dispute. Mega-dispute. Productive dispute. Cooperative dispute. The term for a disputant's tendency in a competitive conflict to disregard the qualities of the other disputant because their similarities are uncomfortable is: Opposites attract. Cognitive dissonance. Mega-dispute. Reactive devaluation. Premise Three of Deutsch's theory is that cooperation begets: Competition. Cooperation. Escalation. Exacerbation. Deutsch's theories can be illustrated by two round graphs showing how cooperative and competitive move through a_____ process conflicts. Conciliatory Escalating Cyclical Efficient In the final premise of Deutsch's theory, we learn that it is easier to move from _____to _____ than vice versa. Cooperation to competition Competition to cooperation Efficiency to cooperation Competition to resolution All of the following are steps which might influence the conflict cycle except: Establishing ground rules for civility.

Assigning joint tasks. Using competitive language. Pointing out areas of agreement. One of the lessons learned about the fragility of cooperative conflicts is that it is best to resolve them: Through litigation. Early (but not too early). At any cost. In a competitive environment The attitude that allows for risk taking behavior is known as: Cooperation. Competition. Trust. Mistrust. The most basic level of trust, based on knowledge of the consequences of compliance or Noncompliance is_____ trust. Calculus-based Knowledge-based Identification-based Experience-based Trust based on one disputant's knowledge and understanding of the other is_____ trust. Calculus-based Knowledge-based Identification-based Experience-based The level of trust founded on the disputant's sense of "oneness" with the other person based on shared goals, values and needs is_____ trust Calculus-based Knowledge-based Identification-based Experience-based Of the three levels of trust,_____ trust is the highest level of trust. Calculus-based Knowledge-based Identification-based Experience-based Of the three levels of trust, the easiest to establish is_____ trust. Calculus-based Knowledge-based Identification-based Experience-based The origin of knowledge-based trust is: Being well acquainted with one another. Investigation and research or a long-standing relationship. Provisions in the contract giving incentives not to harm one another. Intimate and well-functioning family relationships.

People who must be involved in a relationship but who have low levels of trust in one another would be best served by creating a: Business relationship. Competitive relationship. Adversary relationship. None of the above is correct. Business relationships are made up of all of the following components except: Explicit, detailed agreements. Informality. Restraint of emotional expression. Balanced, neutral fact-finding and evaluation. Goals of effective drafting include all of the following except: Relationship preservation. Ambiguity. Accuracy and completeness. Flexibility In an interpersonal conflict in which a disputant has an interest in hurting and punishing the other side, the impediment to resolution is: Conflicts of interests among team members. Jackpot syndrome. Motivation to seek vengeance. Lack of ripeness In an interpersonal conflict in which there are disputes about the way a conflict is being handled, the impediment to resolution is: Meta-disputes. Mistrust. Lack of ripeness. Loss aversion. In an interpersonal conflict in which the disputants have dramatically different perceptions of fact or law, the impediment to resolution is: Jackpot syndrome. Vastly differing perceptions of reality. Mistrust. Overcommitment and entrapment. In an interpersonal conflict where a disputant puts so much time, money, and energy into the conflict that it seems wasteful to back out, the impediment to resolution is: Lack of ripeness. Overcommitment and entrapment. Jackpot syndrome. Excluded stakeholders. In an interpersonal conflict where the disputants do not wish to do the work necessary to resolve the conflict until they feel there is no other alternative, the impediment to resolution is: Excluded stakeholders. Overcommitment and entrapment. Mistrust. Lack of ripeness.

In an interpersonal conflict involving apparently irrational behavior by a disputant who believes he or she has a chance of "winning big" the impediment to resolution is: Lack of ripeness. Disempowered disputant. Loss aversion. Jackpot syndrome. In an interpersonal conflict where the disputant would rather gamble on an uncertain outcome rather than take on a certain but manageable loss, the impediment to resolution is: Linkages. Loss aversion. Conflicts of interest among team members. Lack of ripeness. In an interpersonal conflict where constituents have goals at odds with other members of their side of the dispute, the impediment to resolution is: Linkages. Conflict of interest among team members. Loss aversion. Excluded stakeholders. In an interpersonal conflict where people not at the negotiation table feel they need to be, the impediment to resolution is: Unpleasant disputants. Disempowered disputants. Excluded stakeholders. Loss aversion. In an interpersonal conflict where a disputant feels he or she has insufficient power in the relationship, the impediment to resolution is: Disempowered disputant. Excluded stakeholders. Jackpot syndrome. Loss aversion Organizational psychologists who believed Deutsch's model characterizing behavior as cooperative or competitive had disadvantages developed the_____ model of negotiation behavior dividing styles into assertiveness and cooperativeness. Integrative. Dual-concern. Pareto-efficiency. Compromising. The theorists who developed this model proposed five basic negotiation styles which include all of the following except: Dominating. Avoiding. Settling. Obliging Of the five negotiating styles, the_____ style represents a low level of concern for self and a high level of concern for others. Integrating. Obliging.

Compromising. Avoiding. In a settlement agreement which maximizes resources by allocating them to those who value them most, this form of efficiency is known as: Pareto-efficiency. Para-efficiency. Inefficiency. Resource allocation. The most efficient negotiation style, in terms of meeting everyone's underlying interests and needs, is: Obliging. Avoiding. Compromising. Integrating. The success of this style is dependent upon a free flow of information. Mutual and unilateral. Self-protectiveness. Usefulness in inducing cooperation. Cooperative versus competitive. Of the five negotiating styles, the style that is most protective of self-interest while promoting a cooperative response in the other disputant is the: Avoiding Integrating. Obliging. Compromising. All of the following are tactics used in integrating except: Expanding the pie. Logrolling. Undercutting. Bridging. The tactic of giving the other disputant something of value which is unrelated to the dispute in return for something of value is known as: Nonspecific compensation. Logrolling. Cutting costs. Bridging. The Rabin Organizational Conflict Inventory II is a device for assessing negotiation: Abilities. Styles. Parties
What is the correct order for the first three steps in conflict resolution? discussing shared goals, an intrapersonal evaluation, an interpersonal A) definition an interpersonal definition, discussing shared goals, an intrapersonal B) evaluation

an intrapersonal evaluation, an interpersonal definition, discussing shared C) goals an interpersonal definition, an intrapersonal evaluation, discussing shared D) goals

2 CORRECT

Which statement correctly describes the process of conflict resolution? A) B) C) It is an effort to agree on a win-win solution. If the steps are carefully followed, it is virtually foolproof. A third party who is neutral is needed to help the partners negotiate.

It is dangerous to wait too long after finishing the process for an overall D) assessment.

3 CORRECT

What is the name of the stage of conflict resolution when the partners get together to work out their definition of the problem, being careful to listen to each other and to talk assertively? A) B) C) D) evaluating the costs and rewards listening empathically agreeing on an interpersonal definition of the problem describing a win-win situation

4 CORRECT

In the fourth stage of conflict resolution, partners A) B) C) D) come up with possible solutions define shared goals analyze the problem alone define the problem

5 INCORRECT

The final stage of the process of conflict resolution is evaluating the solution. Which statement best describes this stage? It should take place within 24 hours of the partners' final agreement on the A) best solution, while memories are still fresh. B) It should involve a trained negotiator, even if the rest of the process has not.

It should always lead to a win-win situation, if the steps have been followed C) properly. It should be done some time later, because human behavior does not change D) overnight.

6 INCORRECT

When considering conflict at work, the textbook suggests which of the following? A) Aggressively state your message. Focus on the others' personalities.

B) C) D) Interrupt when your side is not being represented correctly. Plan to evaluate solutions.

7 INCORRECT

Considering conflict resolution in the workplace, the textbook suggests which of the following as the first step? A) B) C) D) Plan, prepare and rehearse. Address the issue immediately. Adopt an adversarial attitude. Aggressively state the message.

8 CORRECT

Which of the following items is NOT a common source of conflict? A) B) C) D) decision-making power procedures work distribution

9 INCORRECT

Which of the following approaches to managing group conflict is correctly defined? Accommodation the leader gives in to the wishes of the majority of the A) group. Avoiding the group has split into factions and are so far apart that they all B) agree to avoid discussing the issue. Compromise the leader is willing to compromise with the wishes of the C) majority of the group. Competition group members care about winning more than they care about D) the feelings of other members.

10 INCORRECT

Which of the following is NOT a successful technique for dealing with rejection? A) B) C) D) avoid self-defeating assumptions adopt a constructive attitude do not let it compromise or derail your dreams learn from it

11 CORRECT

Kali Munro, a psychotherapist, offers which tip/tips for handling online conflict? A) discuss the situation with others think about what you want to accomplish and verbalize it

B) C) D) start and end your post with positive, affirming, and validating statements all of the above

12 INCORRECT

In a study by The Institute of American Values, which of the following techniques did NOT improve happiness in unhappy relationships? A) B) C) D) Therapy Endurance Work ethic Personal happiness

13 CORRECT

Conflict is destructive when it A) B) C) D) Polarizes groups so that cooperation is reduced. Invents new approaches to problems. Destroys the morale of people. A and C only.

14 CORRECT

Conflict in groups can occur over perceptual differences such as A) B) C) D) Culture, race, and ethnicity Gender and sexuality Knowledge or previous experiences All of the above

15 CORRECT

Which of the following defensive behaviors is correctly matched with its supportive response? A) B) C) D) Neutrality versus spontaneity Evaluation versus equality Certainty versus provisionalism Control versus empathy