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Chemical Formulas and Bonding

Ionic Bonding
- Ionic Bond: a positively charged ion is attracted to a negatively
charged ion
- Ionic bonds are commonly formed between the ions of a metallic
element, such as sodium, and a nonmetallic element, such as chlorine
- Ionic Compound: a compound that is composed entirely of ions
- Cations: are positively charged particles in ionic compounds
- Anions: are negatively charged particles in ionic compounds
The Octet Rule
- Atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to acquire a full
set of valence electrons
- The octet rule has exceptions, like Hydrogen
Types of Ions
- Monatomic Ions are ions that are formed from one atom
- Polyatomic Ions are ions made from 1 or more atoms
- Monatomic Cations elements that need to lose 2 electrons in order
to reach the electron configuration of the nearest noble gas
- Monatomic Anions need to gain 1 electron in order to reach the
electron configuration of the nearest noble gas
- Polyatomic Ions like to form an ionic bond with an ion of the opposite
charge

Binary Ionic Compounds


- These compounds only contain ions of two elements
- To denote the ratio of ions in a compound, chemists use an empirical
formula
- The formula uses element symbols to indicate the atoms or ions in a
compound, with subscripts added to their ratios
Covalent Bonding
- A covalent bond is formed by a shared pair of electrons between two
atoms
- A Molecule is a group of atoms that are united by covalent bonds
- A Molecular Substance is a group of molecules
- A Molecular Formula is used to describe the composition of a
molecular compound
- A MF can tell you how many atoms are in a single molecule of the
compound
- The empirical formula lists the atoms’ ratios, or relative number in
the compound
- Chemists prefer to use a structural formula to depict different
compounds because some compounds have similar molecular formulas
- A Structural formula specifies which atoms are bonded to each other
in a molecule
Exceptions to the Octet Rule
- Atoms with less than an octet
- Atoms with more than an octet
- Molecules with an odd number of electrons
Properties of Covalent Bonds
- When on atom is more electronegative than another, than the covalent
bond between them is said to be polar
- When both atoms exert an approx equal amount of force, the bond is
said to be nonpolar
- Electronegativity can be used to predict whether a bond will be
nonpolar, polar, or ionic
- If the electronegativity between two atoms Is .4 or less, chemists
generally consider the bonds to be nonpolar
- If the electronegativity is 2.0 or greater, the bond is generally
considered to be very polar, or ionic
Naming Chemical Compounds
- Chemists name a compound according to the atoms and bonds that
compose it
- Hydrates are substances formed when ionic compounds that absorb
water into their solid structures
- Anhydrous Substances are water-free substances
Naming Molecular Compounds
- Using prefixes such as tetra, di, mono, of suffixes such as ide
- Acids use suffixes of –ide or – ic and prefix hydro