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PHYSICS DEPARTMENT
FMIPA UNS
19 September 2013
Work, Kinetic Energy and Power

Work and Energy

Work

n order for work to take place, a force must be exerted through a distance. The amount of work done depends on two things: the amount of force exerted and the distance over which the force is applied. There are

W

k i

th

t

f

f

th

h

ti

mo on.

I

or

s

e rans er o energy

roug

two factors to keep in mind when deciding when work

is being done: something has to move and the motion

must be in the direction of the applied force. Work can be calculated by using the following formula:

Work=force x distance

Work can be positive or negative

Man does positive work lifting box

Man does negative work lowering box

Gravity does positive work when box lowers

Gravity does negative work when box is raised

Work done by a constant Force

• W = F s = |F| |s| cos θ = F s s

|F| : magnitude of force |s| = s : magnitude of displacement F s = magnitude of force in direction of displacement :

F s = |F| cos θ

θ: angle between displacement and force vectors

• Kinetic energy : E kin = 1/2 m v 2

• Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem:

F

θ

s

ΔE kin = W net

Work Done by Gravity

Example : Slide block down incline

W g = (mg)(S)cosθ S = h/cosθ W g = mg(h/cosθ)cosθ W g = mgh with h= h 0 -h f

h 0
h
θ
S
mg
h f

Work done by gravity is independent of path taken between h and h => The gravitational force is a conservative force.

0

f

Concept Question

Imagine that you are comparing three different ways of having a ball move down through the same height. In which case does the ball reach the bottom with the highest speed?

1. Dropping

2. Slide on ramp (no friction)

3. Swinging down

4. All the same

correct

3

1

2

In all three experiments, the balls fall from the same height and therefore the same amount of their gravitational potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. If their kinetic energies are all the same, and their masses are the same, the balls must all have the same speed at the end.

Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem

Work done by the net external (constant) force equals the change in kinetic energy

W

1

1

K = 2 mv 2 2 2 mv 1

2

{NetNet WorkWork done on object} = {changechange in kinetickinetic energyenergy of object}

Work done by Lifting

Example: Lifting a book from the floor to a shelf

• First calculate the work done by gravity:

W

g

= mgg Δrr = -mg Δrr

Now find the work done by the hand:

shelf

Δrr
FF HAND
mgg

W HAND = FF HAND Δrr = F HAND Δrr

vv = constant aa = 0

floor

Work done by Lifting

Work/Kinetic Energy Theorem: W = ΔK

ΔK = K f K i = W NET

shelf

FF
Δrr
HAND
mgg

vv = const aa = 0

floor

When lifting a book from the floor to a shelf, the object is stationary before and after the lift:

K i = K f = 0, Δ K = 0, W NET = 0

W NET = 0

W NET

= W HAND + W g

= F

HAND

Δrr - mg Δrr

= (F HAND - mg) Δrr

W HAND =

- W g

Lifting vs. Lowering

Lifting
Lowering
shelf
shelf
Δrr
FF HAND
Δrr
FF HAND
vv = const
aa = 0
vv = const
aa = 0
mgg
mgg
floor
floor
W g = -mg Δrr
W g = mg Δrr
= F HAND Δrr
= -F HAND Δrr
W HAND
W HAND
- W g
W NET = 0
- W g
W HAND =
W HAND =

Work done by gravity

W NET

= W

1

+ W

2

+

.

 = FF Δ rr 1 + FF Δrr 2 + = FF (Δrr 11 + Δrr 2 + = F Δr
= F Δy
W = mg h
g

.

+ W +FF Δrr n

n

.

m
mgg
Δrr Δrr 22 11
h
Δrr Δr
33
jj
Δrr nn

.+ Δrr nn )

Work done by Variable Force:

* When the force was constant, we wrote W = F Δx area under F vs. x plot:

F

W g

Δx

x

* For variable force, we find the area by integrating:

dW = F(x) dx.

x
2
W
=
F ( x ) dx
x
1

F(x)

x
1
x 2
dx

Work (Kinetic Energy) Theorem for a Variable Force

W =

x 2

x 1

F dx

= m

=

m

x

2

dv

x 1

v 2

v 1

v 2

dt

dv

v

dx

= v dv

m

v 1

= m 2 1 (

v

2

2

dx

dx

v 1 2

) = 2 1 m

v 2 2

F

dv

dt

1

2

= ma = m

d

v

dt

dx dv

=

dt

dx

= v

dv

d x

m

v

1 2

= ΔKE

(chain rule)

Power

PowerPower isis thethe raterate atat whichwhich workwork isis donedone byby aa forceforce

PP AVGAVG == W/W/ΔΔtt PP == dW/dW/dtdt

AverageAverage PowerPower InstantaneousInstantaneous PowerPower

TheThe unitunit ofof ppowerower isis aa Joule/secondJoule/second ((J/sJ/s)) whichwhich wewe definedefine asas aa WattWatt (W)(W) 11 WW == 11 J/J/ss

Work done by a Spring

x=0

Spring unstretched
F s
F p
Person
pulling
Person
F
F
pushing
p
s

*

For a person to hold a spring stretched out or compressed by i

f

x rom

it

t

t

s uns re c

h

e

d l

eng

th

,

it

f

requ res a orce

F p =

kx

where k =spring constant measures the stiffness of the spring.

Work done by a Spring

x=0

Spring unstretched
F s
F p
Person
pulling
Person
F
F
pushing
p
s

The spring exerts a force (restoring force) in the opposite di

ti

rec on:

F

s = −

kx

Hooke’s law

where k =spring constant measures the stiffness of the spring.

Variable Force Example: Spring

*For a spring F x = -kx. ( Hooke’s Law) k =spring constant

F(x)
x
x
1
2
x
relaxed position
-kx
F = - k x 1
F = - k x 2

Variable Force Example: Spring

* The work done by the spring W s during a displacement

from x 1 to x 2 is the area under the F(x) vs x plot between

x 1 and x 2 .

F(x)
x
x
1
2
x
W
s
relaxed position
-kx
F = - k x 1
F = - k x 2

Variable Force Example: Spring

*The work done by the spring

W s during a displacement

from

x 1 to x 2 is the area under the F(x) vs x plot between

x 1 and x 2 .

F(x)
x
x
1
2
x
-kx W s

W s =

x 2

F ( x ) dx

x 1

=

x 2

( kx ) dx

x 1

= − 2 1 kx

2

x 2

x 1

W s =

1

(

2 k x

2

2

x

2

1

)

Work - Energy

A box sliding on a horizontal frictionless surface runs into a

fixed spring, compressing it a distance x

from its relaxed

1

position while momentarily coming to rest.

x
v 1
m 1
m 1

Work - Energy

Use the fact that W NET = ΔK.

In this case W NET = W SPRING = - 1 / 2 kx 2 and ΔK = - 1 / 2 mv 2

m
so kx 2 = mv 2
1
In the case of x 1
x
= v
1
1
k
x
1
v 1
m 1
m 1

Work - Energy

If the initial speed of the box were doubled and its mass were halved, how far x 2 would the spring compress ?

(a)(a)

x 2

= x

1

(b)(b)

x

2

=

2 x
1

(c)(c) x

2

= 2x

1

x
2
v 2
m 2
m 2

Work - Energy

If the initial speed of the box were doubled and its mass were halved, how far x 2 would the spring compress ?

m
k

x =v

So if v 2 = 2v 1 and m 2 = m 1 /2

m
2
x
= 2v
1
= v
2
1
1
k
x
=
2x
2
1

2m

1

k

x
v
2
2
m 2
m 2

Example

A person pulls on a spring. It requires a force of 75N to stretch it by 3 cm. How much work does the person do? If the person compresses the spring by 3 cm how much work does the person do? Calculate the spring constant:

k

The work is

F

75 N

= x = 0.03m = 2.5 × 10 3 N / m

W = 2 1 kx max = 2 1

2

(

2.5

3

2

× 10 N / m ) (0.03 m ) = 1.1J

Th

k

h

i

i

h

i

to compress t e spr ng s t e same s nce proportional to x .

e wor

2

W i

s

Example: Compressed Spring

A horizontal spring has k=360N/m. (a) How much work is required to compress a spring from x=0 to x=-11 cm? (b) If a 1.85 kg block is placed against the spring and the spring is released what will be the speed of the block when it separates from the spring at x=0?

N
F
s =kx
x=0
x=-11
mg

Example: Compressed Spring

The work done to stretch or compress the spring is:

W =

1

2 1

=

kx

2

2

(360N / m)(0 11m) 2 18J

.

2

=

.

In returning to its uncompressed length the spring will do work W=2.18J on the block.

According to the work-energy principle the block acquires kinetic energy:

W net = K f K i = 1 mv 2 0 ΔK = 1 mv 2

2

2

2(ΔK )
v =
=
m
2(2 18 J )
.

1.85 Kg = 1.54 m / s

Thank you for your attention