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JANUARY 2013 | www.hpac.

com A Penton Publication


2013 AHR Expo Product
Preview: A Sneak Peek Inside
the Exhibit Hall
A Paler Shade of Green:
Famed Building Falls Short
Creating Energy-Efficient,
Low-Risk Data Centers
2013 AHR
EXPO
January 28-30 Dallas, Texas
Also in this issue:
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Visit booth #2967 from January 28
th
to the 30
th
at AHR Expo in
Dallas, Texas
Circle 151
Circle 152
JANUARY 2013 HPAC ENGINEERING 3
FEATURES:
SCHOOLS AND UNIVERSITIES/HOSPITALS AND HEALTH CARE/COMMERCIAL OFFICE BUILDINGS/
GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS
26 A Paler Shade of Green
The Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies on the campus
of Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio, is one of the nations most widely
publicized green buildings. It was conceived to be a zero-energy building.
However, data clearly show that from 2000 through 2011, there was not
one year the buildings photovoltaic arrays produced as much energy as
the building consumed.
By John H. Scoeld
SCHOOLS AND UNIVERSITIES/HOSPITALS AND HEALTH CARE/COMMERCIAL OFFICE BUILDINGS/
GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS
32 Creating Energy-Efficient, Low-Risk Data Centers
The third edition of ASHRAE Technical Committee 9.9s Thermal
Guidelines for Data Processing Environments has been released. It contains
new data to help guide greater energy efficiency without voiding
information-technology-equipment warranties.
By Don Beaty, PE, FASHRAE
SPECIAL SECTIONS:
20 2013 AHR Expo Product Preview
39 Boiler Systems Engineering
BSE1 Low-NOx Burners for Industrial Boilers
BSE11 The Boiler-Commissioning Process
BSE16 Burner Retrofits Increase Efficiency and Reduce Emissions for
Owners
BSE17 Happy Ending for Hotel That Inspired Classic Horror Novel
The Shining
BSE18 Wood-Fired Boiler Installed as Part of Schools Green-Energy
Initiative
BSE19 Product Spotlight
58 Innovative Solutions
Special advertising section
HPAC Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning Engineering (ISSN 1527-4055) is published monthly by Penton Media, Inc., 9800 Metcalf
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Weil Im Thinking of It ... ............... 4
Managing Your Facilities ............... 6
News & Notes ............................. 10
INSIDE HPAC ENGINEERING
JANUARY 2013 VOL. 85, NO. 1
PUBLISHING OFFICES:
The Penton Media Building
1300 E. Ninth St.
Cleveland, OH 44114-1503
216-696-7000
Fax: 216-696-3432
www.hpac.com
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DAVID MILLER
Vice President,
Electrical & Mechanical Systems,
Energy & Construction
DAN ASHENDEN
Group Publisher,
Mechanical Systems/Construction
MICHAEL WEIL
Editorial Director
SCOTT ARNOLD
Executive Editor
RON RAJECKI
Senior Editor
CONNIE CONKLIN
Art Director
KATHRYN FINCH
Production Coordinator
SONJA CHEADLE
Audience Development Manager
ANGIE GATES
Online Sales Director
SALES OFFICES:
CALIFORNIA/TEXAS
RANDY JETER
908 Electra
Austin, TX 78734
512-263-7280
Fax: 913-514-6628
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NORTH CENTRAL/NEW ENGLAND/SOUTHEAST
JOE DAHLHEIMER
745 Damon Drive
Medina, OH 44256
330-289-0269
Fax: 913-514-6481
e-mail: joe.dahlheimer@penton.com
MID-ATLANTIC
BILL BOYADJIS
P.O. Box 762
Morris Plains, NJ 07950
973-829-0648
Fax: 973-514-6380
e-mail: bill.boyadjis@penton.com
WEST/SOUTHWEST
JOHN EHLEN
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Plymouth, MN 55446
763-550-2971
Fax: 763-550-2977
e-mail: john.ehlen@penton.com
CLASSIFIEDS/ANCILLARY
DAVID G. KENNEY
1300 E. Ninth St.
Cleveland, OH 44114-1503
216-931-9725
Fax: 913-514-6663
e-mail: david.kenney@penton.com
DAVID KIESELSTEIN
Chief Executive Officer
ON THE COVER:
Dallas is the site of the 2013 International Air-Conditioning, Heating, Refrigerating
Exposition (AHR Expo), which will be held Jan. 28-30 at the Dallas Convention Center. For
a first look at products that will be exhibited, see the 2013 AHR Expo Product Preview,
beginning on Page 20.
Classifieds ................................. 62
Ad Index ..................................... 64
4 HPAC ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013
EDITORIAL
ADVISORY BOARD:
William G. Acker
Acker & Associates
William P. Bahnfleth, PhD, PE
The Pennsylvania State University
Don Beaty, PE, FASHRAE
DLB Associates Consulting Engineers
Edward H. Brzezowski, PE, LEED AP
Noveda Technologies Inc.
Lawrence (Larry) Clark, LEED AP O+M
Sustainable Performance Solutions LLC
William J. Coad, PE, FASHRAE
Coad Engineering Enterprises
Peter C. DAntonio, PE, CEM, LEED AP
PCD Engineering Services Inc.
Kenneth M. Elovitz, PE, Esq.
Energy Economics Inc.
Ben Erpelding, PE, CEM
Optimum Energy LLC
Kenneth E. Gill, PE
Integrated Design Group Inc.
Alfred E. Guntermann, PE, FASHRAE
Guntermann Engineering LLC
Thomas Hartman, PE
The Hartman Co.
Asif Kadiani, PE, CEM
Hanson Professional Services Inc.
John H. Klote, PE, DSc
Valentine A. Lehr, PE, FASHRAE
Lehr Consultants International
John J. Lembo, LEED AP
The Ferreira Group
Mark S. Lentz, PE
Lentz Engineering Associates Inc.
Malcolm Lewis, D.Eng., PE
CTG Energetics Inc.
Dave Moser, PE, CPMP
PECI
Joel N. Orr, PhD
Orr Associates International
J. Jay Santos, PE
Facility Dynamics Engineering
Glenn M. Showers, PE
BBS Engineering, a GAI company
Andrew J. Streifel, MPH
University of Minnesota
Robert W. Tinsley, PE, CFPS, CIAQP
P2RS Group
James P. Waltz, PE, CEM, ACFE
Energy Resource Associates Inc.
Gary W. Wamsley, PE, CEM
JoGar Energy Services
Dennis J. Wessel, PE, LEED AP
Karpinski Engineering
Michael K. West, PhD, PE
Advantek Consulting
Ron Wilkinson, PE, LEED AP
e4 inc.
Gerald J. Williams, PE, LEED AP
8760 Engineering LLC
James A. Wise, PhD
Eco-Integrations Inc.
WEIL IM THINKING OF IT...
BY MICHAEL WEIL, EDITORIAL DIRECTOR
A
s I write this column, Im freshly
back in the office from a vacation
in fabulous Costa Rica, where the
landscapes are verdant, the food
amazing, and yes, the temperatures quite
warm. Its a most beautiful country with
friendly people and plenty to do.
Interestingly, on one of the several out-
door adventures my family and
I participated in, we got into a
discussion with one of our hosts
about the political climate here
in the good old U.S. of A. Our
hosts were American ex-pats
who left the U.S. for political
reasons.
Their reasons for leaving
were based on the belief that
the United States has wandered
too far afield from the inten-
tion of the founding fathers
and through greed and power,
has ruined the economy and
peoples ability to make a living.
Wow.
Upon our return, we learned
that in the first week of January,
a last-minute deal was brokered
to avoid the fiscal cliff. It raised
the taxes of high earners. This
was expected and isnt unique
to the U.S. Most large western
nations are taking similar ac-
tions. Yes, the political aspects remain very
bipartisan and very heated. There are more
negotiations ahead with the debt-ceiling
deadlines coming up in late February, man-
datory spending cuts that go into affect in
March, and the need to find a way to continue
funding the government through September
before existing legislation ends in late March.
Serious stuff. But the good news is that
weve avoided, at least for now, the tax cliff.
For the HVACR industry, we are getting
ready to launch into 2013 with positive
vibes during the Dallas edition of the Inter-
national Air-Conditioning, Heating, Refrigerat-
ing Exposition (AHR Expo).
The fiscal cliff aside, AHR Expo manage-
ment is very optimistic based on a survey of
more than 1,000 manufacturer-exhibitors
around the world. Management says that 70
percent of the respondents see the economy
improving in 2013. In fact, 15 percent see 2013
being a much better year than 2012, while 28
percent believe it will remain the same, and
only 3 percent see things getting worse.
The AHR Expo survey also found that 86
percent of the manufacturer respondents
are looking for increases in sales35 per-
cent of them see the increases
to the tune of 10 percent or
more. Now THAT is good news.
In terms of this industrys
contribution to the job mar-
ket, 67 percent of survey re-
spondents felt demand for new
products would come from
domestic markets. Of those re-
spondents, 53 percent felt the
demand would center around
health care, 45 percent from in-
dustrial plants, 43 percent from
the educational marketplace,
and 43 percent from govern-
ment projects.
Well, thats right in our wheel
house, isnt it?
The fact is, if all industries
in the U.S. are innovative and
customer-focused in problem-
solving and service, then profits
and, yes, taxes will be generated.
In my humble opinion, THAT is
how this country should work.
If the government wants to work success-
fully too, then it should focus on what Senate
Republican Leader Mitch McConnell recently
said: Its time (for the government) to turn
to the real issue ... Our spending addiction.
I agree.
I say steer clear of the cliffs and full steam
ahead. I know that its simply traditional to
be positive in January, but lets make 2013 a
great year and prove those Costa Rican ex-
pats wrong.
AHR Expo management says more than
75 percent of their exhibitors will introduce
new products or services in Dallas. This is
an excellent reason for you to journey to the
Dallas Convention Center, January 28-30th
and participate in the turnaround of our in-
dustry. Please visit us in Booth 1204.
We look forward to seeing you there.
Steer Clear of Cliffs and Full Steam Ahead
The fiscal
cliff aside,
manufacturers
around the
world are very
optomistic
about 2013.
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>Executive summary
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>Executive su Ex mmary
Circle 153
I
n late October 2012, Hurricane Sandy ravaged the
eastern seaboard, causing widespread flooding,
power outages, and tens of billions of dollars in
damage. Following such a disaster,
it is only natural for building owners
and operators to want to get thei r
mechanical systems and buildings back
to full operation as quickly as possible.
Early activation, however, may create
substandard indoor-air quality (IAQ) that
puts occupants and property at risk.
Wat er i ncursi on does more t han
swamp buildings; it promotes environ-
ments that endanger sustainable business
operations. An IAQ approach to remedia-
tion balances immediate business needs
with longer-term environmental impact,
helping to avoid mistakes that could
worsen situations.
Immediately Following a Disaster
In the wake of a disaster, it is impor-
tant to assess the situation. Specifically,
determine:
How the storm altered the surroundings, noting
changed drainage patterns and damage to adjacent
buildings that pose a threat to your facility.
The amount of damage to the facilitys structural
integrity, especially the roof, windows, doors, and walls.
The extent to which evaporation increased moisture
in wall cavities, above ceilings, and in other places
where mold or microbial growth may occur.
The degree of damage to electrical, mechanical,
and control systems that were partially or completely
submerged.
Whether or not HVAC equipment was in operation
at the time of the flooding. If any was, mold and other
microbial contaminants may have entered the HVAC
system, moving within air ducts and other areas that, at
first glance, may not appear to have been impacted.
Restoring Healthy IAQ: Finding the Right Partners
Identifying individuals and firms knowledgeable
about disaster-related indoor environmental issues
starts with resources such as ASHRAE (www.ashrae
.org), the Indoor Air Quality Association (www.iaqa.org),
the American Conference of Governmental Industrial
Hygienists (www.acgih.org), the American Industrial
Hygiene Association (www.aiha.org), and the Institute
of Inspection, Cleaning and Restoration Certification
(http://iicrc.org). These organizations have certified
professionals to point you in the right direction.
Interview prospective engineering partners to gauge
their experience with situations like yours, the outcomes
of previ ous i nvesti gati ons, and the
degree to which they meld engineering
practices with building science, IAQ, and
business priorities. Review past projects,
and ask for a sample report to aid your
understanding of the methods they use to
determine plans of action.
Making Changes That Matter
The right engineering partner can
suggest operational changes that impact
the long-term performance and resiliency
of a facility, changes such as:
Maintain relative humidity between
30 and 35 percent. With relative humidity
below 60 percent, mold growth is unlikely.
Typically, relative humidity is maintained
at 50 percent. Flooding, wind-driven
rain, and other water intrusion can lead
to a sudden increase in relative humidity.
A relative-humidity setpoint of 30 to 35 percent provides
a safety buffer against such an increase.
Clean system components with HVAC-specific
products that can be used safely while buildings are
inhabited. Dirt, mold, and mildew are insulators that
can reduce heat-transfer efficiency.
Keep chiller leaving-water-temperature setpoints
low. While raising chiller leaving-water temperature
can save energy, it also can hinder the moisture-removal
capability of cooling coils.
Develop an air-management plan that discourages
moisture migration and moves air from spaces that
are clean to spaces that are less clean.
Monitor indoor moisture levels to predict the
possibility of future problems.
Preparing for Next Time
Having a disaster-response plan can help a facility
resume operation more quickly. When developing a
6 HPAC ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013
MANAGING YOUR FACILITIES
BY ROBERT BAKER, FASHRAE; BBJ ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS; RIVERVIEW, FLA.
After the Flood
Though unfortunate, disasters present opportunities to effect positive change
The founder and general manager of BBJ Environmental
Solutions, provider of cleaners, disinfectants,
and controlling agents for HVAC and indoor-
air-quality systems, Robert Baker, FASHRAE,
has more than 30 years of clinical and practical
experience in all facets of building operation
and maintenance. He is a sought-after expert
in the field of mold remediation.
Following a
disaster, it is only
natural to want to
get your mechanical
systems back to
full operation as
quickly as possible.
Early activation,
however, may
create substandard
indoor-air quality
that puts occupants
and property at risk.
economic recovery
Use air as a renewable energy source.
When you select a Greenheck Energy Recovery Ventilator (ERV) for
your clients new or renovated building, you can signicantly reduce
the building owners upfront costs for air conditioning and heating
equipment. And, in most cases, the energy savings realized will pay
back the cost of a Greenheck ERV in one to three years.
Greenheck ERVs also keep tenants happy with improved indoor
humidity and temperature levels plus the fresh outdoor air that meets
ASHRAE 62 ventilation requirements. In a competitive leasing market,
satised tenants are crucial to a buildings long-term nancial success.
Greenhecks comprehensive line of ERVs range from basic units
to packaged heating and cooling systems that can be integrated
with virtually any HVAC system. And youll value reliable Greenheck
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8 HPAC ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013
MANAGING YOUR FACILITIES
disaster-response plan, consider:
Life safety. Develop a policy
that identifies who makes the initial
safety assessment, who has authority
to approve re-entry, and how per-
mission to re-enter the building is
communicated to occupants.
Environmental control. Make
arrangements for temporary heating
or cooling in advance, or it may not
be available when needed. A mod-
erate temperature results in better
working conditions for repairpeople
and helps to prevent problems from
getting worse.
Cleaning and repair. Arrange
training for your staff, or pre-qualify
contractors and/or consultants.
The bringing online of equipment.
Develop a way to quickly assess the
condition of mechanical equipment
and identify needed emergency and
longer-term repairs. Of course, the
sooner equipment is deemed fit to
operate, the sooner it can be brought
online.
Conclusion
A fl ood or other disaster can
have many negative economic and
operational impacts on a facility. It
also can present opportunities for
facility managers to affect long-term
positive change.
Did you find this article useful? Send
comments and suggestions to Executive
Editor Scott Arnold at scott.arnold@
penton.com.
In the wake of Hurricane Sandy, the technical-service and engineering
departments of Weil-McLain, the Burr Ridge, Ill.-based designer,
manufacturer, and marketer of gas- and oil-fired hot-water and steam boilers
for space heating in residential, commercial, and institutional buildings,
developed a checklist to assist in the servicing of flooded boilers.
First, a word of caution: If any part of a boiler has been sprayed with or
submerged in water, do not
attempt to operate the boiler
until it has been completely
repaired and inspected, the company urges. Otherwise, you risk fire,
explosion, or electrical shock.
Saltwater Damage
The exposure of boiler components to saltwater can have immediate
effects, including the shorting out of electrical components and the washing
out of critical lubricants. It also can have longer-term effects because of
the conductive and corrosive nature of salt residue. Weil-McLain equipment
contaminated with saltwater or polluted water no longer is covered under
warranty and should be replaced.
Freshwater Damage
Condensing boilers. If any electrical component or wiring of a condensing
boiler came into contact with water or is suspected to have come into contact
with water, replace the boiler with a new boiler.
Cast-iron boilers. Replace a cast-iron boiler that has experienced flooding
conditions with a new boiler or thoroughly service it as follows:
Replace all controls, gas valves, and electrical wiring. Once an electrical
control gets wet, it poses a fire and electrical-shock risk. Wet gas valves,
meanwhile, no longer can be trusted to provide a safe shutoff, leading to the
risk of gas leaks, fires, and explosions. Even mechanical devices such as
float low-water cutoffs and safety relief valves need to be replaced, as their
components may become corroded.
Thoroughly inspect all burner tubes, gas piping, manifolds, orifices, and
flue ways for rust and/or sediment. Rust and sediment can prevent proper
operation of a boiler.
Replace all oil burners. If solenoid valves, motors, electrodes, or pumps
have experienced flooding, then oil leaks, valve failures, and electrical faults
may occur. In the case of large commercial burners, it is more cost-efficient
to replace the entire burner than it is to attempt to replace all of the controls
and repair the mechanical components.
Replace all water-damaged insulation. After insulation becomes water-
damaged, it is prone to deterioration. This results in reduced insulation
value and a potential fire hazard. Also, bacteria from flood waters remaining
in insulation can pose a health risk.
Where possible, inspect seal rings for damage from petroleum products.
Flood waters often are contaminated with gasoline and other petroleum
products, which can damage elastomer seals.
Thoroughly inspect all venting for corrosion. Replace any venting that is
rusting or corroded to prevent flue gases from entering the building.
For more information, visit http://bit.ly/Flooded_boilers.
For more boiler coverage, see Boiler Systems Engineering, Page 39.
SERVICING FLOODED BOILERS
Taco Assisting Contractors
Affected by Hurricane Sandy
Taco Inc., the Cranston, R.I.-
based developer and manufacturer
of plumbing and hydronic-based
heating and cooling equipment
and accessories, has established
a group to assist contractors in
New York and New Jersey affected
by Hurricane Sandy. If you need
help or want to offer assistance,
visit www.flopro.taco-hvac.com.
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1he 1ALCN uiding Automation System advances your buiding's
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Circle 155
By TRISH HOLDER
Special to HPAC Engineering
R
ick Fedrizzi, president, chief
executive officer, and found-
ing chair of the U.S. Green
Bui l di ng Counci l ( USGBC) , di d
not mince words when he took the
stage to kick off the 2012 Greenbuild
International Conference and Expo
Nov. 14 at The Moscone Center in
San Francisco.
Were up against powerful forces
who want to accelerate mountaintop
coal removal, fast track a pipeline,
or frack the hell out of every square
inch of green space we have left,
Fedrizzi said. Forces who actually
dont want government buildings
or college campuses to save energy,
save water, and save moneythey
just want to claim they do.
If you were an HVAC veteran
accustomed to the politically con-
servative vibe of shows such as the
International Air-Conditioning,
Heating, Refrigerating Exposition
(AHR Expo), it probably dawned
on you: You were not in Kansas any
more.
Attending the opening plenary,
Daryn Cline, director of environ-
mental technologies for Evapco
Inc., designer and manufacturer of
products for the evaporative-cooling
and industrial-refrigeration markets,
said he felt as if he was in the middle
of the Democratic National Conven-
tion. (Contrast that with the com-
ment of opening-plenary speaker
Joe Scarborough, host of MSNBCs
Morning Joe, who, while look-
ing out over the crowd, observed
the green-building movement still
looks a lot like a Republican National
Convention.)
Our industry is conservative,
Cline said. Greenbuild will have to
come closer to center. The USGBC
will need to lose the left-wing, liberal-
agenda focus, or they will lose mem-
bers and exhibitors.
Kathy Colby, executive vice presi-
dent of LAKOS Separators and
Filtration Systems, also is a conser-
vative-minded HVAC veteran. She,
too, noticed the political undertones,
but found the overall presentation of
the opening plenary exhilarating.
It was impressive, like a huge con-
cert where they did lights and video,
Colby said. It was interesting. It was
entertaining. It was uplifting. And it
really started the show off right.
Colby and Cline may have differed
as to their primary impressions of
the opening plenary, but they both
were enthusiastic about their expe-
rience as exhibitors at Greenbuild.
They commented favorably about
the energy, breadth, and quality of
the attendees, who numbered more
than 25,000. Compared with the
AHR Expo, Greenbuil d draws a
more diverse crowd of building
and design professionals, including
architects, process engineers, and
interior designers.
It felt very new school, Colby
said, adding the audience clearly was
made up of people looking for prod-
uct solutionsnot just any solutions,
but the right solutions. It made for
a more conversational show, she
said.
Brendan Owens, vice president
of LEED (Leadership in Energy and
Environmental Design) technical
development for the USGBC, said the
USGBC, the presenter of Greenbuild,
has the potential to infuse the HVAC
industry with a renewed vigor.
We can learn from the success
and longevity and bulletproof tech-
nical rigor that ASHRAE represents
and improve the USGBC to the ex-
tent that we can bring some of the
excitement and infectious enthusi-
asm to ASHRAE, Owens said. A
consequence of this, he added, is the
potential for the USGBC to help draw
more young people and greater
diversity into the HVAC industry.
When viewed this way, Green-
build is an increasingly mobilizing
force, one that celebrates the com-
plimentary strengths of the USGBC
and ASHRAE as they strive toward a
shared goal: better buildings.
Trish Holder is a writer and market-
ing consultant for the HVAC industry.
She also is creator and publisher of
www.greenspirationhome.com, an
online magazine dedicated to help-
ing homeowners build and renovate
green. She can be reached at mail@
trishholder.com.
10 HPAC ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013
FROM THE FIELD NEWS & NOTES
EDITED BY SCOTT ARNOLD, EXECUTIVE EDITOR
Greenbuild: At Risk of Alienating HVAC Crowd?
Rick Fedrizzi addresses a crowd of more than 6,000 to open Greenbuild 2012.
O
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MAKING MODERN LIVING POSSIBLE
Circle 157
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2012 Armacell LLC. Made in USA. MICROBAN is a registered trademark of Microban Products Company. The GREENGUARD
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FROM THE FIELD NEWS & NOTES
I
nternational Exposition Co. (IEC),
producer and manager of the
International Air-Conditioning,
Heating, Refrigerating Exposition
(AHR Expo), recently announced the
recipients of 2013 AHR Expo Innova-
tion Awards.
A panel of judges made up of
ASHRAE members evaluated prod-
ucts that will be exhibited at the 2013
AHR Expo, which will be held Jan.
28-30 in Dallas, based on innovation,
application, value to the user, and
market impact, giving awards in 10
categories:
Building Automation: Copper-
Watcher LLC for CopperWatcher
Model CW-3, an air-conditioning
copper-theft-deterrent system.
Cooling: Rheem Manufacturing
Co. for the H2AC rooftop unit featur-
ing eSync integration technology, an
integrated air and water system for
full-service restaurants.
Green Building: Titus for Solar
Plexicon, a displacement-ventilation
diffuser with light-powered energy-
harvesting capabilities.
Heating: ClimateMaster Inc. for
the Trilogy 40 Series geothermal heat
pump.
Indoor Air Quality: Energy Wall
LLC for Energy Wall, a high-effi-
ciency heat- and moisture-recovery
plate exchanger, air purifier, and
dehumidifier.
Plumbing: Navien America Inc.
for the NPE-240A NG condensing
tankless gas water heater.
Refrigeration: Danfoss for the
ADAP-KOOL AK-PC 781 integrated
pack controller.
Software: NexTraq for NexTraq
Web-based GPS f l eet -t racki ng
software.
Tools & Instruments: Fluke Corp.
for the Fluke 805 vibration meter.
Ventilation: American Aldes
Ventilation Corp. for Zone Register
Terminal-2 (ZRT-2).
The award recipients will receive
placards to display in their booths,
as well as an etched-crystal award
to be displayed at their headquar-
ters. They will be honored during a
ceremony at the Dallas Convention
Center Jan. 29.
Thirty-three honorable mentions
were awarded. For the list, go to
http://bit.ly/AHR_Awards_2013.
12 HPAC ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013
Circle 158
2013 AHR Expo Innovation Award Recipients Announced
For a sneak peek inside of the
exhibit hall, see HPAC Engineer-
ings 2013 AHR Expo Product
Preview, beginning on Page 20.
THE MORE
ROOMS THE
BETTER!
V
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o4,OOO B1U{| ouidoot un|i
Coo||ng and |eai|ng ot up
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|p|ng |engi|: a: |ong a:
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dea| ot te:|deni|a| and ||g|i
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oonpte::ot oonneoi: w|i| up io B |niet|ot un|i:, ava||ab|e |n a u|| tange o wa||-nouni, duoied, and oe|||ng
oa::eiie node|: W|en enetgy eo|enoy and |n:ia||ai|on ea:e ate pt|ne oon:|detai|on:, LC MUL1 MAX
epand: i|e boundat|e: o Duoi-tee petotnanoe Be :ute io dtop by Booi| =49 ai i|e 2O3 A- LXO
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Outdoor Unit
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Circle 159
WE DELIVER COILS!
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FROM THE FIELD NEWS & NOTES
14 HPAC ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013
Circle 160
Construction Report Released
According to management
consultant and investment banker
to the engineering and construction
industry FMIs annual U.S. Markets
Construction Overview, commercial-
buildings, offices, manufacturing-
facilities, communications-systems,
and lodging construction put in place
(CPIP) will perform at an average of
60 percent of 2008 levelsoff by
more than $115 billionin 2013.
By 2016, the sectors are predicted
to reach only 70 percent of 2008
CPIP.
On the bright side, health-care CPIP
was predicted to reach record levels
by 2013. Additionally, education
CPIP is expected to continue to rise,
achieving 2008 numbers by 2016.
To purchase a copy of the
report ($135), go to http://bit.ly/
Overview_2013.
Cleaver-Brooks Acquired
Cleaver-Brooks, the Thomasville,
Ga.-based provider of boiler-room
products and systems, recently
announced it was acquired by
Harbour Group, a privately owned
operating company based in St.
Louis. Terms of the transaction were
not disclosed.
Harbour Group and its companies
are engaged in manufacturing,
distribution, and specialty services in
dozens of industries.
We look forward to working with
the experienced leadership team
at Harbour Group, Cleaver-Brooks
President and Chief Executive Officer
(CEO) Welch Goggins said. Their
knowledge and involvement in our
business will help us to pursue
new growth opportunities through
strategic initiatives.
AERCO International Names CEO
AERCO International Inc., the
Blauvelt, N.Y.-based supplier of
boilers and water-heating products,
recently appointed Ervin Cash CEO.
Cash, who succeeded Fred
Depuy, who remains with AERCO as
executive vice presidentstrategic
planning and marketing, brings
more than 30 years of manufac-
turing-leadership experience to the
position. Previously, he served as
CEO, president, and general manager
of Bosch Thermotechnology North
America. For several years, he served
on AERCOs board of directors.
IN BRIEF
Circle 161
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FROM THE FIELD NEWS & NOTES
JANUARY 2013 HPAC ENGINEERING 17
O
n Dec. 20, the U.S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency
(EPA) issued final changes
to Cl ean Ai r Act standards for
major- and area-source boilers and
commercial and industrial solid-
waste incinerators (CISWI) originally
finalized in March 2011.
The EPA reconsidered the March
2011 standards under a Clean Air
Act process al l owi ng i t to seek
additional public comment in the
interest of ensuring full transpar-
ency. The EPA received more than
50 petitions to reconsider, clarify,
and amend provisions of the final
rules. In December 2011, the EPA
proposed adjustments to the March
2011 standards and invited further
comment. Information provided
during the rule-development and
reconsideration processes resulted
in the EPAs final adjustments, which
include:
Changes to emission limits for
certain pollutants in certain catego-
ries of major boilers and CISWI.
Additions to and refinements of
the list of subcategories of boilers.
Setting compliance deadlines of
2016 and 2018 for major boilers and
CISWI, respectively.
Maintaining numerical emission
limits for the highest-emitting 0.4
percent of all boilers.
The U.S. Department of Energy,
through its regional Clean Energy
Application Centers, will provide
site-specific technical and cost in-
formation to major-source facilities
burning coal or oil in their boilers.
The U.S. Department of Agricul-
ture will reach out to facilities with
boilers that burn biomass to make
sure operators understand the
regulation and its cost- and energy-
saving features.
On Dec. 22, W. Randall Rawson,
president and chief executive officer
of the American Boiler Manufactur-
ers Association, issued the following
statement:
The final Industrial Boiler MACT
rules, as released by EPA on Dec.
20, 2012, are light-years ahead of
its original March 2011 proposals in
compliance latitude and flexibility,
Circle 163 Circle 164
EPA Finalizes Changes to Air-Toxics Requirements
Continued on next page
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Variable speed inverter scroll compressors
Variable speed heat pump with hybrid
(gas, electric, or hot water) heat options
Variable speed ECM motors on all fans
Electronic expansion valves
Composite condenser fans
Energy recovery wheel
3 to 12 tons
FROM THE FIELD NEWS & NOTES
18 HPAC ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013
Calendar
MARCH 13-15
Fundamentals of HVAC; Madison, Wis.;
University of WisconsinMadison De-
partment of Engineering Professional
Development; http://bit.ly/UWM_N214.
MARCH 17-20
2013 HVAC Excel l ence Nat i onal
HVACR Educators & Trainers Confer-
ence/Expo: Education The Key to
a Sustainable Future, Las Vegas,
HVAC Excellence, http://bit.ly/HVAC_
Excellence.
allowing for far more affordable
compliance options than ever be-
fore and embracing approaches to
air toxics that, as EPA put it, recog-
nize the diverse and complex range
of uses and fuels in the real-world
operating conditions of specific types
of boilers. Part of the compliance
flexibility is extended dates for com-
pliance that make observance almost
foolproofclearly, they are compli-
ance dates that the American boiler
industry can and will respond.
As with every other recent per-
mutation of its Industrial Boiler
MACT standards, EPAs newest
iteration ... are boiler-room-specific.
As such, how much investment will
actually be needed to comply with
the final rules will depend entirely
on the age and condition of each
boiler room to which the new rules
may apply and to what extent they
may apply. The limits that do apply
to boilers are completely achiev-
able in most conditions and, when
applied to boiler-room-specific situ-
ations, will be far more affordable
than detractors maintain. The vast
majority of existing commercial and
industrial boilers have been taken
out of the mix because of the fuel
they fire; those remaining that will
have to meet specific emissions
limits should find them even more
achievable and affordable than in
previous Industrial Boiler MACT
rules. There is nothing about the
December 2012 fi nal rul es that
render t hem unachi evabl e or
unaffordable. ... The December 2012
final rules represent a dramatic
swing away from earlier more rigid
rules and an embrace of the basic
differences between boiler types,
boiler fuels, and their respective
application.
For more i nformati on on the
adjustments to air-toxics-emissions
requi rement s f or boi l ers and
incinerators, go to www.epa.gov/
airquality/combustion/ and www
. epa. gov/ai rqual i ty/combusti on/
actions.html#dec12.
Circle 165
Continued from previous page
Circle 166
20 HPAC ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013
EDITED BY RON RAJECKI, SENIOR EDITOR
2013 AHR Expo Product Preview
Fire-alarm system design
An online form enables customers to request that System
Sensor design their FAAST fire-alarm-aspiration-sensing-
technology projects. Cus-
tomers simply fill out and
submit a questionnaire lo-
cated at systemsensor.com/
faastq to provide FAAST
desi gn engi neers wi th
proj ect data, detecti on
type, room dimensions and
usage, device location, and
facilities drawings. System Sensors engineers then design
a system and deliver the layout and bill of materials for the
project. System Sensor Circle 1
BOOTH 189
High-performance duct liner
Soulcoustic duct liner is designed to offer the best acous-
tical performance of any non-
fibrous liner on the market. It
is bacteria- and fungi-resistant,
formaldehyde-free, and low in
volatile organic compounds.
Evonik Industries Circle 2
BOOTH 4136
Remote monitoring service
The OnAER remote monitoring service continuously moni-
tors AERCO boiler systems in real time
and immediately alerts customers and
reps of a fault occurrence or decline in
equipment performance via e-mail.
In addition to event data, it monitors
data such as run cycles, exhaust tem-
perature, flame strength, setpoints,
operating modes, and safety limits.
AERCO Circle 3
BOOTH 467
Heat exchangers
Air-to-air heat exchangers include plate models ranging in
size from 8 in. to 95
in. with capacities to
60,000 cfm and ef-
ficiencies of up to 80
percent, as well as ro-
tary-wheel exchang-
ers ranging in diam-
eter from 20 in. to 95
in. with capacities of up to 30,000 cfm and efficiencies of up to
90 percent. Recuperator USA Circle 4
BOOTH 6001
Ceiling-mount air conditioner
The CMW30 wat er - cool ed,
ceiling-mount air conditioner is
designed for server rooms and
other applications with dense
heat loads, but where an air-
cooled model cannot be used
becuase of a lack of space. The compact, self-contained
CMW30 is only 20-in. high, enabling it to fit above a drop ceiling.
MovinCool Circle 5
BOOTH 193
Flue-gas economizer
The EcoFlex 90+ system pack-
aged f an- power ed f l ue- gas
economizer can be installed in
any part of a chimney horizon-
tally or vertically. It can be used
in conjunction with any gas-fired
heating appliance and is suit-
able for use with draft-hood-
and draft-diverter-equipped heating appliances. It al-
l ows mul ti pl e boi l ers to share a si ngl e economi zer.
Enervex Inc. Circle 6
BOOTH 279
Split-universal shaft-grounding kit
The split-universal-mounting-kit version (Split uKIT) of the
AEGIS SGR bearing-protection ring protects the bearings of
variable-frequency-drive
(VFD) motors from elec-
trical damage and allows
quick and easy retrofit-
ting of the ring on virtu-
ally any AC motor shaft
without decoupling at-
tached equipment. The kit
includes a split grounding ring and mounting hardware to
facilitate mounting on virtually any NEMA or IEC motor face-
plate. Electro Static Technology Circle 7
BOOTH 725
Duct-cleaning system
The aiR+ XP air-duct-cleaning system
has been revamped to clean ductwork
in commercial facilities easily and effec-
tively. The aiR+ XP machine offers dou-
ble the power compared with the origi-
nal aiR+. It also features an additional
15 ft of hose and oversized brushes for
larger ductwork. Rotobrush
Circle 8
BOOTH 3376
Circle 167
22 HPAC ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013
2013 AHR Expo Product Preview
Evaporative-cooling unit
The Hurricane portable evaporative-cooling unit utilizes
high-efficiency cooling
pads and water to natu-
rally cool up to 3,500 sq
ft and lower tempera-
tures by up to 30F. The
units design provides
67-gal. water capacity
and airflow delivery of 14,500 cfm. Port-A-Cool
Circle 9
BOOTH 229
Thermal-imaging cameras
The Predator Series of thermal-imaging cameras feature
manual focus, optional interchangeable lenses, and high-
resolution displays to provide
accurate thermograms. On-
camera analysis tools increase
operator efficiency by allow-
ing real-time access to and
collection of all relevant data.
General Tools & Instruments
Circle 10
BOOTH 816
Humidity and temperature meter
The HUMICAP HM40 hand-held humidity and tempera-
ture meter is available in both standard and remote-probe
models. The remote probe increases
the versatility of the meter by enabling
conveni ent measurements i n ducts
and other difficult-to-reach or confined
places. Other features include an inter-
changeable HMP113 probe. Vaisala
Circle 11
BOOTH 872
Hydrocarbon compressors
A full range of hydrocarbon compressors includes low-
temperature cooling capacities from 520 Btuh to 4,780 Btuh
and high-temperature capacities from 4,700 Btuh to 10,125
Btuh. Hydrocar-
bon systems help
r educe ener gy
c o n s u mp t i o n
compared with synthetic fluids in commercial applications
and have nearly no global-warming or ozone-depletion po-
tential. Embraco Circle 12
BOOTH 1413
Building automation and control
Lynxsprings full portfolio of open building-automation and
control solutions includes JENEsys Harmony, a NiagaraAX-
based solution that reduces commissioning time, complex-
ity, and costs on project deployments while providing own-
ers the ability to create integration standards and enforce
repeatable and consistent engineering practices. Lynx-
spring Circle 13
BOOTH 810
Easily fasten PEX to wire mesh
The Smart Clip System saves both time and radiant-system
installers backs. It adjusts to the
installers height and allows the
installer to walk alongrather
t han bend over when at -
taching radiant-tubing clips to
a radiant systems wire mesh.
Mr. PEX Systems Circle14
BOOTH 3327
Closed-circuit cooling tower
The PF2 induced-draft, counterflow cooling tower is de-
signed for systems that benefit
from dry operation in severely
cold weather. The PF2 offers the
flexibility to operate in evapora-
tive-cooling mode to minimize
energy usage or i n dry mode
for extreme winter conditions.
Baltimore Aircoil Co. Circle 15
BOOTH 2305
Server-rack cooling
The Chilled Door system for high-density
server racks has enhancements including
an increased cooling capacity of up to 45
kw per standard rack using 65F chilled
water and centrifugal fans with electroni-
cally commutated motors to improve air-
flow while reducing power consumption
and noise levels. Motivair
Circle 16
BOOTH 2895
VFDs with bypass option
The P-Series line of variable-frequency drives
(VFDs) now features an energy-management-
bypass option (EMB) that includes integrated
power metering and a BACnet interface. The
option ensures uninterruptible operation
of HVAC systems, even if the drive is taken
out of the loop, such as for reprogramming
or maintenance operations. P-Series VFDs
are available in a range of packages from 1
through 400 hp. Cerus Industrial
Circle 17
BOOTH 1332
Printed in U.S.A. January 2013. THE PINK PANTHER

& 19642013 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. All Rights Reserved. The color PINK is a registered trademark
of Owens Corning. 2013 Owens Corning. All Rights Reserved.
Owens Corning Air Handling Solutions. Moving Air Forward.
Owens Corning Air Handling Solutions. Moving Air Forward.
Choose Owens Corning and youre bringing 75 years of industry-leading innovation to your project. Our products meet or exceed
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solution for your next job by downloading our Division 22/23 Mechanical Manufacturers Guide in e-book form.
owenscorningcommercial.com/movingairforward
Circle 168
New ZIP Economizer

the Fast Route to Reliable Energy Savings.


Airside economizing shouldnt just be good in theory. It should
deliver what owners expect. With the ZIP Economizer, it does.

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ZIP Code Patented Set-up
Plug and Play
Acceptance Tests
Fault Detection and Diagnostics (FDD)
Onboard Information
Modular Design
> Learn more
www.ZIPEconomizer.com
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Circle 170
T
By JOHN H. SCOFIELD
Oberlin College
Oberlin, Ohio
The Adam Joseph Lewis Center (AJLC) for Environ-
mental Studies on the campus of Oberlin College in
Oberlin, Ohio, is one of the nations most widely
publicized green buildings. Showcasing a variety of
energy-efficient strategies and technologies,
1
the
13, 600-sq-ft bui l di ng i s the wi nner of numerous
architecture awards and was named the most important
green building constructed since 1980 in a poll of green-
building experts and advocates.
2
The AJLC was conceived to be a zero-energy building
(ZEB) or net energy exporter, with a 58-kw, 4,600-sq-ft
photovoltaic (PV) array mounted on the roof generating
as much energy as the building consumed annually, if not
more.
1
During the groundbreaking in 1998, the design
team projected the all-electric
building would consume 64,000
kwh of energy annually. Later,
when the rooftop PV array was
projected to produce 69,000 kwh
of energy annually, Oberlin Col-
lege Director of Environmental
Studies David Orr said, We believe that, right off the bat,
the building will generate more power than it will use.
1
During its first year of occupancy (2000), however, the
building consumed 215,000 kwh of electric energymore
than three times the projected amount. A post-occupancy
study uncovered many differences between actual
building design and what the design team had described
in public literature. For instance, the building was
advertised to be heated and cooled by a ground-well
heat-pump system, with a small electric boiler providing
supplemental warmth. In fact, the ground-well system
was designed to heat only two-thirds of the building. The
remaining third, which represented 50 percent of the
winter heating load, was heated with a 112-kw electric
resistive boiler. Electric resistive boilers typically use
three times the energy used by a well-designed ground-
source-heat-pump system. Moreover, in the case of the
AJLC, the heat pumps were specified improperly, leading
26 HPAC ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013
An experimental solid-state physicist with applied research interests, John H. Scofield teaches in the Department of Physics and
Astronomy at Oberlin College. His current research is broadly associated with energy: energy in buildings, energy efficiency, wind
and photovoltaic power, and energy policy. He has conducted detailed studies of the energy consumption of two green buildings:
the Leslie Shao-ming Sun Field Station at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve of Stanford University in Stanford, Calif., and the Adam
Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies at Oberlin College. In 2007-08, he helped conduct the American Physical Societys
energy-efficiency study and co-authored the final report, How America Can Look Within to Achieve Energy Security and Reduce
Global Warming (http://bit.ly/APS_report). Recently, he studied the energy consumption of commercial buildings certified under
the U.S. Green Building Councils LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) rating program, concluding LEED
certification is yielding no significant reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions (http://bit.ly/Scofield_LEED).
For years, a widely
publicized green
building has failed
to meet a key design
goal, calling into
question the
scientific value of
high-performance-
building case studies
PHOTO A. South side of the Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies.
J
O
H
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A Paler Shade of
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PROBLEM:
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to the installation of a second electric
boiler in the ground-well supply line
to heat ground water sufficiently for
use by the heat pumps.
3
Post-occupancy HVAC redesign
and retrofits costing in excess of
$250,000, combined with operational
changes and a milder winter, re-
sulted in energy consumption drop-
ping to 125,000 kwh in 2002, the low-
est it would be for the next nine years
and still double the design teams
projections. The PV array, installed in
November 2000, provided less than
half of the buildings energy.
4
Build-
ing scientists from National Renew-
able Energy Laboratory (NREL), in
collaboration with Oberlin College
Associate Professor of Environmen-
tal Studies and Biology John E. Pe-
tersen, installed an extensive energy-
monitoring system internal to the
AJLC, which provided data for a case
study.
5
After NRELs involvement
ended, internal energy monitoring
was left in Petersens hands.
By 2004, it was clear no roof-
mounted PV array could meet the
buildings energy needs. The Lewis
family then gave $1 million to build
a second, larger PV array over a
portion of the buildings parking
lot, thus, abandoning any hope of
meeting the buildings energy needs
within the buildings footprint.
The 101-kw, 8,000-sq-ft PV parking
pavilion, shown in the upper left of
Photo A, brought with it new energy
projections and claims. Prior to the
pavilions May 2006 construction,
the two PV arrays were projected
to produce 30 percent more energy
than the building consumed.
6
The
AJLCs internal energy-monitoring
system was expanded to include
data from the new PV array. In April
2007, Petersen submitted a paper for
presentation at an American Solar
Energy Society meeting in Cleve-
land. The paper analyzed 10 months
of data, concluding that the two PV
arrays were on track to produce
10 percent more energy than the
building consumed annually.
7
Over the next four years, the
AJLC s success as a net energy
exporter would be widely publi-
cized. Oberlin College promotional
literature claimed the AJLC annually
produced more energy than it con-
sumed, an assertion repeated by hun-
dreds, if not thousands, of Websites,
including those of building designer
William McDonough + Partners,
8
PV-
array designer Solar Design Asso-
ciates,
9
and the U.S. Department of
Energy.
10
In 2011, the AJLCs 10-year
anniversary, ASHRAE published a
case study
11
in which a decade of
data was analyzed to demonstrate
that, since the 2006 installation of
the PV parking pavilion, the AJLC
JANUARY 2013 HPAC ENGINEERING 27
Circle 171
annually had produced slightly more
energy than it consumed.
Annual utility bills, however, paint
a different picture. Figure 1 shows
annual electricity sales to the AJLC
from 2000 through 2011. If the PV
parking pavilion made the AJLC a
net energy exporter, one would
expect net annual electricity sales
to the building to be zero after 2006.
Instead, annual electricity imports
averaged 43,000 kwh.
Interpretation of annual electric-
ity bills is complicated by electrical
modifications made during the fall
of 2005, when a 3,700-sq-ft college-
owned house adjacent to the AJLC
was renovated to provide additional
space for the Environmental Stud-
ies program. Figure 2 shows electric
utility meters and interconnections
for the AJLC complex. A bidirec-
tional billing meter (M1) is installed
on the grid side of the college-owned
high-voltage transformer, while a
unidirectional meter (M2) measures
energy produced by both PV arrays.
Electricity was fed to the renovated
structure, named the Lewis Cen-
ter Annex, from the AJLCs trans-
former and, curiously, left unme-
tered. Thereafter, the utility meters
measured the energy consumed by
the entire AJLC complex. This left
the AJLC internal monitoring system
as the lone measure of AJLC energy
consumption. (In February 2012, the
college installed a separate billing
meter on the power feed to the Lewis
Center Annex.)
Figure 3 shows three measures
of annual energy flow: energy con-
sumption as determined by the util-
ity meters, energy consumption as
determined by the AJLCs internal
monitoring system (figures obtained
from the Historic Data section of
the AJLCs Web-based energy dash-
board [http://buildingdashboard.net/
oberlin/ajlc/]), and PV production as
determined by the utility meter. The
graph clearly shows that from 2000
through 2011, there was not one year
during which the PV arrays produced
as much energy as the building con-
sumed. Petersen has acknowledged
his claims of energy sufficiency were
incorrect.
12
The AJLCs internal energy-mon-
itoring system measures nighttime
isolation-transformer losses for the
rooftop PV array (estimated to be
4,300 kwh per year
4
), but it does not
measure nighttime losses for the
sol ar parki ng pavi l i on, el ectri c
energy used by the Lewis Center
Annex, and losses in the buildings
high-voltage transformer (estimated
to be 9,000 kwh per year
3
), all of
whi ch contri bute to the uti l i ty-
billing-meter readings. Building-
transformer l osses expl ai n the
differences between utility-bill -
i ng-meter and i nternal -energy-
monitoring-system readings from
2002 through 2004. From 2007
through 2011, the average annual
difference between the two mea-
sures was 27,000 kwh per year. The
author estimates 12,000 kwh of that
was used by the Lewis Center Annex,
based on meter readings taken since
February 2012. That leaves 6,000 kwh
of consumption measured by the util-
ity meters that could be associated
28 HPAC ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013
A PALER SHADE OF GREEN
Parking lot
101-kw PV array
8,000 sq ft
58-kw rooftop PV array
4,700 sq ft
90 kw
INV-2
INV-1
45 kw
M2
M1
208 VAC
XFMR
City electric grid
12,000 VAC
AJLC building and
parking-lot lights
Lewis Center Annex
FIGURE 2. A bidirectional utility meter (M1) measures imports/exports from/to the grid,
while a unidirectional utility meter (M2) measures energy produced by the PV arrays.
Bidirectional billing meter installed in April 2002.
Uncredited photovoltaic exports were 27,000 and
4,100 kwh in 2001 and 2002.
A
n
n
u
a
l

e
n
e
r
g
y
,

k
i
l
o
w
a
t
t
-
h
o
u
r
s
250,000
200,000
150,000
100,000
50,000
0
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
1
2
0
0
2
2
0
0
3
2
0
0
4
2
0
0
5
2
0
0
6
2
0
0
7
2
0
0
8
2
0
0
9
2
0
1
0
2
0
1
1
Uncredited exports
Purchase
FIGURE 1. Annual electricity sales to the AJLC as determined by the utilitys billing meter.
with nighttime losses in the PV park-
ing pavilion per year.
Through Sept. 1, utility-meter data
show the PV arrays had produced
31,000 kwh more electric energy than
the AJLC complex had consumed in
2012. Based on previous October-
through-December performance,
absent a major disaster, that should
be enough to carry the complex
through the end of the year, making
2012 the first calendar year the PV
arrays generated more el ectri c
energy than the AJLC compl ex
consumed. (May 2012 marked the
conclusion of the first 12-month
period during which the PV arrays
produced more electric energy than
the AJLC complex consumed.)
Discussion
So, why did the addition of the
solar parking pavilion not yield the
desired success?
Wi nt er heat i ng dri ves AJLC
energy consumption. The winter
of 2002 was mild, but subsequent
wi nters have not been so ki nd.
Ground-source-heat-pump systems
work best when heating and cooling
loads are balanced; the AJLCs are
not. From the outset, the well field
was undersized. Subsequent HVAC
renovations have added heat load.
During extended cold periods, well
temperature drops below the operat-
ing range for heat pumps, activating
an electric boiler in the groundwa-
ter supply line. The building, then, is
heated entirely with electric resistive
heat.
Another factor l eadi ng to i n-
creased energy consumption is the
complexity of the AJLCs HVAC
system and controls. A handful of
HVAC technicians manage 2.6 mil-
lion sq ft of college buildings and
do not have the resources to keep
AJLC systems operating optimally.
Temporary fixes remain in place
for months, often increasing energy
consumption. And, of course, as the
use of technology has grown, so have
plug loads in offices and classrooms.
On the supply side, there have
been problems with the solar parking
pavilion. Several PV modules failed
early, taking out the production of
entire strings, and were not replaced
until 2012. On numerous occasions,
the inverter has tripped off for hours
and even days.
Energy problems undoubtedly
were reflected daily on the Web-
based dashboard of the buildings
internal energy-monitoring system.
Identifying and solving energy prob-
lems, however, involves more than
gathering and displaying datait
requires human vigilance, and that
was missing. Never was there a con-
nection between energy-monitoring
efforts and the HVAC shop.
So, what caused the turnaround
in 2012? First, the winter of 2011-12
was the warmest on record. Second,
late in 2011, the college hired a full-
time building manager tasked with
identifying and solving AJLC energy
problems. He arranged for the re-
placement of the defective PV pan-
els and helped identify and reduce
excessive energy use by the ground
well pump.
This begs the question of the finan-
cial sustainability of the AJLC model.
On average, the AJLC has consumed
about 150,000 kwh of energy a year,
energy that can be purchased for less
than $20,000. Compare that with the
capital cost of the two PV arrays: $1.4
million. The arrays are expected to
last 20 years; the simple payback is
70 years. And consider the full-time
building manager. Can any amount
of energy savings justify his salary
and the disproportionate amount of
time devoted by HVAC technicians
tasked with maintaining all of the
colleges buildings? This model is
neither sustainable nor scalable.
Setting aside the specifics, what
are some broader l essons to be
learned from the AJLC?
One lesson concerns the impor-
tance of utility meters in determining
the true energy budget of a building.
Sustainability requires that a ZEB
generate enough energy to cover
all of its energy demands, including
energy lost in the grid. While grid
losses are difficult to estimate, they
include building-transformer losses.
Utility meters measure transformer
losses, while the AJLCs internal
energy-monitoring system does
not. Moreover, i nternal meters
installed by and under the control
of a buildings owner typically are
less accurate and reliable than utility
meters and produce data that is more
JANUARY 2013 HPAC ENGINEERING 29
A PALER SHADE OF GREEN
Uncredited PV exports
prior to April 2002
A
n
n
u
a
l

e
n
e
r
g
y
,

k
i
l
o
w
a
t
t
-
h
o
u
r
s
250,000
200,000
150,000
100,000
50,000
0
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
1
2
0
0
2
2
0
0
3
2
0
0
4
2
0
0
5
2
0
0
6
2
0
0
7
2
0
0
8
2
0
0
9
2
0
1
0
2
0
1
1
Utility meters
Internal monitor
PV production
FIGURE 3. Annual energy consumption determined by utility meters and the AJLCs internal
energy monitor, along with annual PV production measured by the utility.
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easily manipulated to distort building
performance.
The AJLC raises questions about
the scientific value of high-perfor-
mance-building case studies. The
2011 case study
11
gave no hint of
disappointing building or PV perfor-
mance. In many cases, high-perfor-
mance-building case studies are little
more than marketing pieces for the
building owner and design team and
do nothing to advance our scientific
understanding of buildings.
What is the value of the zero-
energy label when energy is pro-
duced outside of a buildings foot-
print? Surely, renewable energy is
a good thing, but what is the value
added by the building? When energy
generation is limited to a buildings
footprint, as it is with a roof-mounted
PV array, there is a synergy between
the building and PV array. With-
out such a constraint, any building,
no matter how inefficient, could be
a ZEB using a sufficiently large PV
arrayit simply is a question of land
and money. A recent study shows
that only a handful of commercial
ZEBs and ZEB wannabes gener-
ate their energy within their own
footprint, and of those, only twoan
8,500-sq-ft nature center in Southern
California and a 5,900-sq-ft energy
laboratory in Hawaiiare larger
than the authors house. If and when
NRELs widely publicized 222,000-
sq-ft Research Support Facility pro-
duces more energy than it consumes,
it will be with PV arrays located over
nearby parking garages.
13
The AJLCs crossing of the zero-
energy threshold in 2012 is to be
celebrated. But unlike LEED (Leader-
ship in Energy and Environmental
Design) building certification, zero-
energy status is not permanent; it
is to be earned each year through
performance. Success one year does
not guarantee success the next. Each
year brings new challenges, and
constant vigilance is required.
References
1) Reis, M. (2000, March/April).
The ecology of design. Environmen-
tal Design & Construction.
2) Hosey, L. (2010, July 27). The
g-list. Architect. Retrieved from
http://www.architectmagazine.com/
green-building/web-exclusive-the-g
-list-survey-of-architecture.aspx
3) Scofiel d, J. H. (2002). Earl y
performance of a green academic
building. ASHRAE Transactions, 108
(2), 1214-1230.
4) Scofield, J.H., & Kaufman, D.
(2002, May). First year performance
for the roof-mounted, 45-kw PV-array
Circle 172
A PALER SHADE OF GREEN
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JANUARY 2013 HPAC ENGINEERING 31
on Oberlin Colleges Adam Joseph
Lewis Center. Proceedings of the
29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists
Conference, pp. 1691-1694. Available
at http://www.oberlin.edu/physics/
Scofield/pdf_files/pvsc-2002.pdf
5) Pless, S., & Torcellini, P. (2005).
Energy performance evaluation of
a low-energy academic building.
Available at http://www.nrel.gov/
docs/fy06osti/38962.pdf
6) Fowler, Y.G. (2005, Summer).
Lewis Center boosts energy pro-
duction. Oberlin Alumni Magazine.
Retrieved from http://www.oberlin
.edu/alummag/summer2005/ats_2
.html
7) Petersen, J.E. (2007). Produc-
tion and consumption of electricity
in Oberlin Colleges Lewis Center for
Environmental Studies: Realizing the
goal of a net zero building. Proceed-
ings of the American Solar Energy
Society. Available at http://oberlin
.edu/faculty/petersen/ColorPrint/
Pet ersen2007ASESProduct i on
ConsumptionAJLC.pdf
8) Adam Joseph Lewi s Center
for Environmental Studies, Oberlin
College. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://
www. mcdonoughpartners. com/
projects/view/adam_joseph_lewis
_center_environmental_studies_
oberlin_college
9) Worlds first fully solar-powered
academic facility. (n.d.). Retrieved
from http://www.solardesign.com/
projects/project_display.php?id=16
10) Adam Joseph Lewis Center
for Environmental Studies--Oberlin
Col l ege ( Oberl i n Col l ege Lewi s
Center). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://
zeb.buildinggreen.com/overview
.cfm?projectid=18
11) Petersen, J.E. (2011, Win-
ter). Early adopter. High Perform-
ing Buildings, pp. 20-31. Available
at ht t p: / / www. i deast ream. org/
common/i mages/soi /2011/earl y
-adopter.pdf
12) Scofield, J., & Petersen, J.E.
(2012). Discussion: Oberlin Colleges
Adam Joseph Lewis Center: Ober-
lin, OH. Retrieved from http://www
. hpbmagazi ne. org/Fi l e Li brary/
Unassi gned/ Pet er senScof i el d
Comments.pdf
13) New Buildings Institute. (2012).
Getting to zero 2012 status update: A
first look at the costs and features of
zero energy commercial buildings.
Retrieved from http://www.new
buildings.org/sites/default/files/
GettingtoZeroReport_0.pdf
Did you find this article useful? Send
comments and suggestions to Executive
Editor Scott Arnold at scott.arnold@
penton.com.
Circle 173
A PALER SHADE OF GREEN
T
By DON BEATY, PE, FASHRAE
DLB Associates
Eatontown, N.J.
This an exciting time for the data-center industry,
which is experiencing a great deal of change. However,
data-center operators do not necessarily like excitement;
they like to keep things calm and low-risk. They want to
maintain a steady, predictable, tightly controlled environ-
ment for their sensitive and valuable equipment.
In 2004, information-technology (IT) original-equip-
ment manufacturers (OEMs) from ASHRAE TC 9.9, Mis-
sion Critical Facilities, Technology Spaces and Electronic
Equipment, published the first vendor-neutral tempera-
ture and humidity ranges that did not void legacy IT-equip-
ment warranties: Thermal Guidelines for Data Processing
Environments. However, this data was
prepared with a focus of alignment be-
tween the IT and data-center-facilities
(design and operation) industries; it
was not singularly focused on the call
for energy efficiency that would grow
louder in subsequent years.
In 2008, as the energy-efficiency
trend became more influential, the
temperature and humidity ranges
were expanded. Now, the third edi-
tion of Thermal Guidelines for Data
Processing Environments has been re-
leased. It contains new data to help
guide greater energy efficiency with-
out voiding IT-equipment warranties.
The opportunities for compressor-
less (no refrigeration) cooling never
have been higher. The challenge no
longer is to convince the data-center
industry that energy efficiency is an
important consideration. Instead, in the traditionally
(and understandably) risk-averse world of mission-crit-
ical data-center operation, it is how to continue to keep
things calm and minimize risk while saving energy.
Measurement Points
The first challenge to overcome when establishing ven-
dor-neutral guidelines was to agree on the actual physical
location of the measurement points. With data-center
floor spaces becoming larger, it no longer was valid to
consider overall room temperature as the design criteria.
The criteria needed to focus on being more exacting from
the standpoint of cooling airflow management.
The third edition of Thermal Guidelines for Data Process-
ing Environments identifies specific measurement points
at the air inlet of IT-equipment packaging (typically the
32 HPAC ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013
Creating Energy-Efficient,
Low-Risk Data Centers
A lontime member of HPAC Engineerings Editorial Advisory Board, Don Beaty, PE, FASHRAE, is president of DLB Associates.
He was the co-founder and first chair of ASHRAE Technical Committee TC 9.9 (Mission Critical Facilities, Technology Spaces and
Electronic Equipment). DLB Associates is a consulting-engineering firm licensed in more than 40 states. The firm has provided de-
sign, commissioning, and operations support services for a wide variety of data-center clients, including eight of the largest Google
data-center campuses worldwide.
ASHRAE unveils third edition of Thermal Guidelines
For Data Processing Environments
FIGURE 1. Measurement points for design, troubleshooting, and facility health.
Midway
between rows
Souce: ASHRAE graphics reformatted by DLB Associates
Server troubleshooting Rack troubleshooting Facility health
1U to 3U
4U to 6U
7U and up
Every fourth cabinet or
10 to 30 ft (3 to 9 m) of aisle
Measurement point
~6 ft
(2 m)
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Circle 174
front face). The subsequent temper-
ature and humidity ranges that are
stated in the publication are based
on these inlet points. Further, these
defined measurement points aid in
the determination of the health of
an existing facility (Figure 1).
Recommended and Allowable
Envelopes
The first edition of Thermal Guide-
lines for Data Processing Environ-
ments introduced the concept of
recommended and allowable envi-
ronmental ranges (for temperature,
humidity, maximum dew point, and
maximum rate of rise) at the inlet
of IT-equipment packaging. These
ranges were expressed in both tabu-
lar form and the form of an enclosed
envelope formed when they are plot-
ted on a psychrometric chart, which
is why the ranges sometimes are re-
ferred to in the industry as recom-
mend envelope and allowable enve-
lope (Figure 2).
The definitions of recommended
and allowable sometimes led to the
wrong conclusions being drawn on
how to apply them. For reference,
here are abbreviated definitions of
the two ranges:
Recommended environmental
range: Facilities should be designed
to achieve, under normal circum-
stances, ambient conditions that fall
within the recommended range.
Allowable environmental range:
The allowable envelope is where IT
manufacturers test their equipment
to verify that it will function within
those environmental boundaries.
The purpose of the recommended
environmental range is to give guid-
ance to designers and operators
on the balanced combination of re-
liability and energy efficiency. The
recommended environmental range
is based on the collective IT OEMs
expert knowledge of server-power
consumption, reliability, and perfor-
mance under various ambient-tem-
perature and humidity conditions.
What often is missed is that di-
rectly below the definitions of recom-
mended and allowable in the pub-
lication is an explanation of how to
practically apply the ranges. Too of-
ten, the approach is a conservative
one, with the recommended range
representing the absolute boundary
for the design criteria and further
compounded by selection of a target
condition that is toward the lower or
middle of the recommended range.
This approach results in a lost
opportunity to take advantage of
a greater duration where ambient
conditions could reduce the need for
mechanical cooling. The practical
application described in the publi-
cation speaks to the consequence of
prolonged exposure of operating IT
equipment beyond its recommended
range and into its allowable range.
The overall spirit is that excursions
beyond the recommended range
and into the allowable range are not
overly detrimental to the operation of
a data center. Certainly, prolonged
exposure in the allowable range can
have an impact on IT-equipment
reliability, but the impact neither is
instantaneous nor does it represent
an increase in risk that is orders of
magnitude greater than being in the
recommended range.
Designing a data center to accom-
modate and accept excursions into
the allowable range under certain
conditions opens up a far greater po-
tential for energy-efficient designs
and, in a surprisingly large number of
cases, could be the difference between
needing energy-intensive mechanical
refrigeration equipment (e.g., com-
pressors, chillers) and eliminating it
completely from the design.
New Environmental Classes
There are a number of different
types of IT equipment, and each has
a different tolerance and sensitivity
to environmental conditions, as well
as a different level of reliability nec-
essary to perform its mission. For
example, blade servers allow for hot
swaps of individual server blades and
often have dual (redundant) power
supplies with dual power cords from
two power sources. To account for
this, the first edition of Thermal
Guidelines for Data Processing Envi-
ronments introduced the concept of
classifying IT equipment into specific
34 HPAC ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013
CREATING ENERGY-EFFICIENT, LOW-RISK DATA CENTERS
FIGURE 2. Recommended and alllowable envelopes.
W
e
t
-
b
u
l
b

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

F
)
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
Relative humidity (percent)
90 80 70 60 50 40 30
Souce: ASHRAE graphics reformatted by DLB Associates
D
e
w
-
p
o
i
n
t

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

F
)
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
20
10
0
Dry-bulb temperature (F)
35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120
Recommended
A1
A2
A3
A4
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Circle 175
classes.
Previously, there were four IT-
equipment classes (Class 1 through
Class 4). Two of the four classes ap-
plied specifically to the type of IT equip-
ment used in data-center applications
(classes 1 and 2), with Class 1 being
the most common for IT equipment
deployed in dedicated data centers
and Class 2 being geared more toward
smaller dedicated server rooms that
may not have the same level of preci-
sion in their cooling control systems
(e.g., a server room within an office
building).
The thi rd edi ti on of Thermal
Guidelines for Data Processing Envi-
ronments has more data-center IT-
equipment classes to accommodate
different applications and priorities
of IT-equipment operation. This is
critical because fewer data-center
IT-equipment classes force a nar-
rower optimization, whereas each
data-center needs to be optimized at
a broader scale based on the data-
center owner or operators own cri-
teria and emphases (e.g., full-time
economizer use vs. maximum focus
on reliability).
The naming conventions have
been updated to better delineate the
different types of IT equipment. The
old and new classes are now speci-
fied differently, with the previous
classes 1, 2, 3, and 4 directly mapped
to A1, A2, B, and C. The two new
data-center classes that have been
introduced are noted as A3 and A4.
Each class has its own recommended
and allowable environmental speci-
fications, as summarized in Table 1,
which is extracted from the more
comprehensive version included in
Thermal Guidelines for Data Process-
ing Environments.
What Is the X Factor?
For the first time, there is pub-
lished numerical data directly from
IT OEMs that quantifies what the
relative failure rate would be for
equipment operating at various tem-
peratures. Further, this information
is valid for both new and legacy IT
equipment, which means it can be
applied to existing data centers as
well as new designs.
This quantification of relative fail-
ure rates represents absolutely vital
information when determining the
operating conditions for a data cen-
ter because it allows a better assess-
ment of the tradeoff of risk of failure
vs. energy efficiency when operating
at higher temperatures. Additionally,
by being a dimensionless and relative
scale, it also allows assessment of the
overall risk of a variable temperature
range, rather than a fixed one.
Through the combination of time-
at-temperature histogram plots of
weather data for a given locale and
the relative failure-rate X-factor table
within Thermal Guidelines for Data
Processing Environments, a sys-
tem designer quickly can discover
whether economizer-centric opera-
tion that is more directly linked to
outdoor ambient conditions repre-
sents more or less risk than opera-
tion at a fixed temperature.
Somewhat surprisingly, for almost
all locations around the world, there
is a negligible difference between op-
erating with a varying inlet temper-
ature based on outdoor conditions
compared to a fixed inlet tempera-
ture of 68F (20C). In many places,
varying inlet temperature based on
outdoor conditions actually repre-
sents a lower risk of failure.
The adoption of these vendor-neu-
tral guidelines could be the single big-
gest catalyst to the growth of chiller-
less data centers, which represents
both a capital-cost reduction and an
operating-cost reduction and makes
the financial side of the tradeoff more
attractive.
New Liquid-Cooling Classes
Also new in the third edition of
Thermal Guidelines for Data Process-
ing Environments is the introduc-
36 HPAC ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013
CREATING ENERGY-EFFICIENT, LOW-RISK DATA CENTERS
TABLE 1. ASHRAEs IT-equipment environmental specifications.
TABLE 2. IT-equipment environmental specifications for liquid cooling.
Liquid-
cooling
classes
Typical infrastructure design
Facility supply-water
temperature Main cooling equipment
Supplemental cooling
equipment
W1
Chiller/cooling tower
Water-side economizer
(cooling tower or dry cooler)
36 to 63F (2 to 17C)
W2 36 to 81F (2 to 27C)
W3 Cooling tower Chiller 36 to 90F (2 to 32C)
W4
Water-side economizer
(cooling tower or dry cooler)
N/A 36 to 113F (2 to 45C)
W5 Building heating system Cooling tower >113F (>45C)
Class
Dry
bulb
(F)
Humidity
range
Max.
dew point
(F)
Max.
elevation
(ft)
Max. rate
of change
(F/hr)
Previous Current
Recommended
1 and 2 A1 to A4
64.4 to
80.6
41.9F DP to 60 percent
RH and 59F DP
N/A
Allowable
1 A1
59 to
89.6
20 percent to
80 percent RH
62.6 10,000 9/36
2 A2
50 to
95
20 percent to
80 percent RH
69.8 10,000 9/36
N/A A3
41 to
104
10.4F DP and 8 percent
RH to 85 percent RH
75.2 10,000 9/36
N/A A4
41 to
113
10.4F DP and 8 percent
RH to 90 percent RH
75.2 10,000 9/36
More stringent rate of change for tape drives. Souce: ASHRAE table reformatted by DLB Associates
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JANUARY 2013 HPAC ENGINEERING 37
Circle 176
CREATING ENERGY-EFFICIENT, LOW-RISK DATA CENTERS
be added to remove gaseous pol-
lution and particulates, if needed.
In all cases, engineering expertise
should be applied when designing
an economizer system for use in a
data center.
Meaningful and Relevant Data
Convincing the data-center in-
dustry (owners, operators, design-
ers, etc.) to become more energy
efficient no longer is the challenge.
Provi di ng meani ngf ul and rel -
evant data that arms and enables
the data-center industry to make
informed decisions on energy-effi-
ciency strategies is.
The thi rd edi ti on of Thermal
Guidelines for Data Processing Envi-
ronments offers credible and vendor-
neutral published data that creates
the opportunity to optimize energy-
efficiency strategies on an individ-
ual basis to best meet the needs of
the user and achieve the best total
cost of ownership. Accomplishing
this requires a holistic approach that
considers more variables and the use
of in-depth engineering assessment.
This not only can save on operational
expenses, but dramatically reduce
capital costs.
The keys to success include holistic
cooling design, a multivariable de-
sign approach, and multidiscipline
designers who understand both facil-
ity cooling and IT.
Did you find this article useful? Send comments
and suggestions to Senior Editor Ron Rajecki at
ron.rajecki@penton.com.
tion of liquid-cooling IT-equipment
classes. These new classes reflect the
movement by IT OEMs to provide IT
equipment that has connections for
liquid cooling media instead of air-
flow requirements at the inlet.
The environmental specifications
for each liquid-cooling class in-
clude a range of supply-water tem-
peratures as well as cooling-system
architectures that can be used to
achieve them. Additional informa-
tion on water-flow rates and pres-
sures, water quality, and velocity
also is provided.
Five classes of IT equipment for
liquid cooling have been defined, al-
though it is stated that not all classes
have IT equipment that is readily
available. Table 2 summarizes the
five classes and the specifications
of each.
Additional Consideration of
Increased Economizer Use
Operating at variable tempera-
tures and allowing excursions into
the allowable envelopes are criteria
that lend themselves to the increased
(if not full-time) use of economizers.
Particulate and gaseous contamina-
tion becomes a more important con-
sideration when there is an increased
use of economizer systems, particu-
larly for locations that are in close
proximity to products of combustion,
pollen, dirt, smoke, smog, etc.
Air quality and building materi-
als should be checked carefully for
sources of pollution and particu-
lates, and additional filtration should
Experts with in-depth experience applying the ASHRAE TC 9.9 Datacom
Series of publications can save excitement-adverse data-center operators
plenty of money on operational and capital costs without compromising a
data-centers mission or increasing the risk to IT equipment.
The ASHRAE Datacom Series consists of 10 publications that provide a
comprehensive treatment of datacom cooling and related subjects.
ASHRAE Datacom Series on Data Center Design and OperationASHRAE
Datacom Series CD, 3rd Edition includes all 10 publications and is fully
searchable. This CDs material can also be printed or copied and pasted into
another document.
For more information, visit http://bit.ly/119cW91.
THE ASHRAE TC DATACOM SERIES
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Circle 177
Boiler Systems Engineering JANUARY 2013 BSE1
+RZORZFDQDQGVKRXOG\RXJR"
Low-NDx urners
for IndustriaI oiIers
Vince Basilio, PE, CEM, is an associate with RMF Engineering Inc. For nearly 20 years, he has been the lead design
engineer for dozens of industrial and institutional steam- and cogeneration-plant renovations and expansions.
His work for RMF has taken him to areas of the United States with some of the most stringent NOx-emissions
regulations. He has a degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Delaware. He can be reached at
vince.basilio@rmf.com.
O
perators of industrial-size centralized hot-water- and
steam-generating facilities on college, hospital,
and government campuses are under increasing
pressure to restrict nitrogen-oxide (NOx) emissions, as state
environmental agencies enforce federal law
intended to decrease respiratory-related
health concerns.
Limiting NDx Formation
There are three major types of combustion-related NOx:
thermal, fuel bound, and prompt.
ThermaI. Thermal NOx is created by high flame tempera-
ture in the presence of oxygen. The key to limiting thermal
NOx is to reduce peak flame temperature and restrict oxygen
availability and exposure at peak tempera-
ture. There are two main ways burner man-
ufacturers have accomplished this without
post-combustion control: steam injection
and flue-gas recirculation (FGR).
Steam injectioninjecting steam into
a flameworks because steam tempera-
ture is considerably lower than flame tem-
peraturein the case of a boiler operating
at 300 psig, 421F vs. 2,400F to 3,400F.
Also, steam is pure water, which is not free
oxygen.
FGR is the process by which exhaust
gas is introduced into the combustion-air
stream prior to a burner. Flue gas also is rel-
atively cool (300F to 550F, depending on
the design of the boiler and whether there
is a feedwater economizer) with respect to
flame temperature, and flue gas has little
oxygen from the combustion process.
FGR is more prevalent than steam injec-
tion simply because of economicsgener-
ating steam for injection is more expensive.
FueI bound. Fuel-bound NOx is inherent in fuel and cannot
be reduced, except via post-combustion processes. Compared
with other fuels, such as oil, the fuel-bound nitrogen in natural
gas is low and considered insignificant.
Prompt. Prompt NOx occurs through
early reactions of nitrogen molecules in the
combustion air and hydrogen radicals from
the fuel.
1
Recent ultralow-NOx designs
have limited the generation of prompt NOx by minimizing the
formation of substoichiometric regions in the flame.
hore on FCP
Early designs used a fan other than the combustion-air fan
to move flue gas, a method called forced
FGR. The current standard burner design
incorporates induced FGR, whereby the
relatively negative pressure near the inlet
of the combustion-air fan pulls flue gas
into a mix box, where the flue gas and
combustion air combine on the way to
the inlet of the combustion-air fan (Figure
1). There is no separate FGR fanthe
combustion-air fan does all of the work.
There may be a non-modulating damper
between the fresh-air intake and mix box
to increase velocity in the fresh-air-inlet
duct and create a more negative pressure
to fight the stack effect pulling the flue
gas to atmosphere.
Burners that require FGR use more mo-
tor horsepower because more gas must be
moved in the burner. Also, there is a slightly
higher static requirement for the fan be-
cause more gas is going through the boiler.
This decreases the efficiency of the boiler.
By VINCE BASILIO, PE, CEM
RMF Engineering Inc.
Baltimore, Md.
Internal view of a low-NOx burner
for an industrial boiler.
Another open
invitation for our
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L O W - N O X B U R N E R S F O R I N D U S T R I A L B O I L E R S
FGR usually pulls flue gas downstream
of the feedwater economizer, as opposed
to upstream, because, downstream, flue
gas is cooler, denser, and, thus, less of
a horsepower draw on the fan than it is
upstream. If the stack is approximately
50 ft or higher, and there is a damper
to control boiler draft outlet pressure,
FGR is pulled from upstream of the draft
damper to limit the opposing pressure
from which the fan needs to pull.
Some burner manufacturers are be-
ginning to market internal FGR, whereby
flue gas within the furnace recirculates
back into the flame. This approach re-
duces volume through the fan and, thus,
lowers horsepower requirements. Addi-
tionally, it can increase overall efficiency.
How Low Can You Co!
With a 100-million-Btuh-fuel-input
gas boiler, the average emission factor
for an uncontrolled burner is roughly
85 ppm; for a low-NOx burner, it is
42 ppm, and for a low-NOx burner with
FGR, it is 26 ppm.
1
Keep in mind these
are average emissions; they are not
regulation requirements and are not
to be used as a basis for an air-permit
application. You need to verify predicted
performance with the burner manufac-
turer and state it in your specifications.
In a standard D-style industrial boiler
firing natural gas, a standard burner
without FGR can achieve 85 to 100 ppm,
while a burner with FGR with staged air/
fuel can achieve 30 to 50 ppm. FGR rates
can be 5 to 15 percent of total boiler
flue-gas output, depending on a host of
variables; most operators will not sense
a difference in burner performance or
interaction with controls. Initial designs
used either a gas ring alone or a gas ring
with spuds or pokers. Recent designs for
30 ppm to 9 ppm use these combina-
tions, but also use a center-fired gun with
separately modulated control valves to
help with flame staging and spread and
to keep the flame stable at lower loads.
These designs require less FGR than pre-
vious designs for the same emissions
rates and can be evaluated as an energy-
saving measure for existing installations
of low-NOx burners. In fact, some manu-
facturers state they can achieve 30 ppm
or less without FGR, a significant devel-
opment in the advancement of burner
technology.
When approaching 9 ppm, prompt
NOx is addressed, in addition to thermal
NOx. FGR rates increase to 20 to 30 per-
cent, and control feedback is required
to maintain NOx emissions. There is
more hardware in the burner for staging
fuel and air. Some burner designs can
achieve about 5 ppm to 6 ppm. These
designs limit prompt-NOx formation
more aggressively and focus even more
on air and fuel mixing and internal and
external circulation zones. It is important
to note that circumstances must be right,
and before these levels are pursued, an
engineering evaluation is required.
While the focus of this article is on
reducing NOx formation at the burner,
there always is post-combustion control
technology, such as selective catalytic
reduction (SCR), which can reduce NOx
Boiler Systems Engineering JANUARY 2013 BSE3
Boiler
Mix box
Forced-
draft fan
FGR
damper
FGR ow meter
(alternate for
high FGR ows)
Fresh-air
damper
Fresh-air
ow meter
Fresh air
Steam
Condensate
Natural gas
Air preheater
(for high FGR ows)
Combustion-
air damper
Burner gas ring
Center-red gun control
(used for lower-ppm designs)
M
Flue
gases
To stack
Feedwater
Feedwater
economizer
Draft
damper
Steam out
Oxygen analyzer
(alternate for
high FGR ows)
Windbox
FIGURE 1. Typical low-NOx induced FGR flow for an industrial-style boiler.
Circle 180
L O W - N O X B U R N E R S F O R I N D U S T R I A L B O I L E R S
The Combustion Control Specialists
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Servos
emissions to 1 ppm. In SCR, ammonia is
introduced into the flue-gas stream up-
stream of a catalyst, where it transforms
NOx into nitrogen and water. Compared
with the technologies described above,
SCR typically is not cost-effective for
industrial boilers, but is used in extreme
cases, when limits are tight.
What 0oes It hean!
Now that you know how low you can
go, what does it mean to your plant?
Many factors can be affected, based on
how much FGR you need and the design
of the burner and boiler. All of these
factors need to be considered.
To ensure a consistent radiant-tem-
perature heat sink around the flame, low-
NOx-burner manufacturers generally
mandate no refractory tile on the floor,
and some request limited or no refractory
on the target (rear) and even burner end
walls. Because of the air staging, more
length may be needed in the furnace
to ensure the flame does not impinge
on the rear wall. To handle the amount
of flue gas coming into the burner and
related staging hardware, the depth of
the windbox may be extended by a few
feet over that of a standard burner. All of
this means a physically longer boiler.
The staging of air into the furnace may
require a higher static pressure, which
may require additional fan horsepower.
Also, the staging of fuel into the air may
require a higher natural-gas pressure to
satisfy turndown requirements. Natural-
gas pressure at the inlet of the regulating
pressure valve can be 10 to 30 psig.
Depending on NOx-emissions re-
quirements, FGR flow may or may not
be modulated as part of the control
process. Burners with lower emission
requirements generally have modulat-
ing dampers, with the control signal
provided via the measurement of flow
through the FGR duct or by use of an
oxygen analyzer in the windbox.
Note that for burners 30 ppm and
hi gher, control s can be rel ati vel y
simple. For burners 9 ppm and lower,
having the burner manufacturer pro-
vide the logic and controller generally
is recommended, if not required. Fully
metered, cross-limited controls are
the norm for these systems, and airflow
must be measured upstream of the
mix boxavoid using differential draft
pressure across the boiler. Maintaining
instrumentation is more important with
lower-NOx burners, so a more aggressive
service contract or competent in-house
instrument technician is required. Also,
you want to specify that the burner
manufacturer hire the startup person-
nel and ensure that enough timegen-
erally, at least a week per burneris
allowed. If more than one unit is to be
installed and started up at a time, still
allow for at least a week because no two
burners or startups are alike. Consider
the availability of experienced burner
BSE4 JANUARY 2013 Boiler Systems Engineering
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technicians in the event an urgent issue arises.
Because of the sensitivity of air and fuel mixing and
staging for burners 9 ppm and lower, more time is needed
for stabilization when changing load. If there are major
swings in campus demand, consider base loading boilers
(if possible). Otherwise, expect a little more offset and lag
in header-pressure control.
With FGR in the flue-gas stream, the temperature through
the combustion-air fan, through the duct, and into the
windbox is elevated. Burners designed for 30 ppm and
higher generally have combined temperatures low enough
that insulation is not required for personnel protection.
At 9 ppm and lower, insulation becomes a consideration.
Generally, burners 9 ppm and lower must have fresh air
above a certain temperature to prevent water vapor from
condensing out of the FGR; otherwise, liquid water will fill up
the windbox. A steam-coil air preheater is required to heat
fresh air during colder months. An air preheater, however,
adds air pressure drop and maintenance requirements. An
outage of the air preheater means the burner cannot be fired
when it is needed most.
How Low 0o You Need to Co!
Knowing the extent to which you need to reduce NOx,
which is dependent on your geographic location, the size of
your equipment, and how much fuel you burn, is important.
Seeking professional help from firms experienced with
your states laws as well as federal requirements is highly
recommended.
A new boilers NOx emissions may be limited to a 12-month
rolling peak. When the primary demand is for heating, fuel-
input requirements relate heavily to ambient temperature.
Relative demand is extremely low during summer, almost
immediately dropping the annual potential fuel fired to 75
percent or lower.
Note that emissions guarantees from burner manufactur-
ers generally are in the 4-to-1 turndown range, although
a burner may be able to operate at 8-to-1 or even 10-to-1.
Make sure the state agency writing the permit understands
the operational limits of your burner. You do not want to
get stuck operating a burner with a turndown capability of
only 4-to-1.
One last thing regarding air-permit applications: Be careful
specifying emissions limits based on literature from a burner
manufacturer. Leave a cushion. If a manufacturer is guaran-
teeing 9 ppm, place that in the boiler/burner-purchase speci-
fications, but try to have the air-permit restrictions based on
something a little higher, such as 11 ppm. This will give plant
operators some breathing room, allowing them to continue
operating while planning for tuning if parameters start to get
loose.
Petrofitting
Whether you have a burner that fires natural gas and you
BSE6 JANUARY 2013 Boiler Systems Engineering
L O W - N O X B U R N E R S F O R I N D U S T R I A L B O I L E R S
At Rinnai, were constantly pushing ourselves
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Circle 183
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Circle 185
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need to reduce NOx emissions or a burner that fires oil and
you need to add gas firing, the best place to start is the
original burner manufacturer, who is best able to advise you
as to your options. Other manufacturers may have to invest
some level of engineering.
Retrofits of coal-fired boilers must be evaluated on a case-
by-case basis. Most furnaces are relatively tall, but skinny
compared with D-style boilers. Multiple burners usually are
required to maintain similar heat output. Burners can be
placed on the sides in configurations that allow the coal
grate, which can be packed down with sand and refractory,
to stay. Burners also can be located at the bottom pointing
upward. In some cases, overfire air fans can be re-used to
reduce NOx emissions. Thirty ppm for coal retrofits is achiev-
able. Going lower is possible for some configurations.
Peference
1) EPA. (1995). Compilation of air pollutant emission factors,
volume i: Stationary point and area sources. Research Triangle
Park, NC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Di d you fi nd thi s arti cl e useful ? Send comments and
suggestions to Executive Editor Scott Arnold at scott.arnold@
penton.com.
BSE8 JANUARY 2013 Boiler Systems Engineering
L O W - N O X B U R N E R S F O R I N D U S T R I A L B O I L E R S
W
W
W
.
I
N
D
U
S
T
R
I
A
L
S
T
E
A
M
.
C
O
M
Systems
Circle 186
2012 Cleaver-Brooks, Inc.
Introducing the Cleaver-Brooks Large Capacity Condensing Boilers
12,000 MBTU IN A CONDENSING BOILER.
THE BAR HAS BEEN OBLITERATED.
The new ClearFire

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capacity, with a compact footprint and ultra-high efciency through our superior
product design. By combining our patented AluFer tubes with the proprietary spiral
tube design featured in our EX technology, along with integrated and optimized
burner and controls, Cleaver-Brooks engineers have been able to produce the
highest capacity condensing boiler system designed, engineered and built by a single
manufacturer. With six different large capacity sizes available up to 12,000 MBTU,
theres a CFLC thats right for you. Contact your Cleaver-Brooks rep today to learn
more about this exciting new boiler offering.
Visit cleaverbrooks.com or call 1.800.250.5883.
Stop by booth #2861 at the AHR Expo in Dallas to see the new
CFLC boiler.
Circle 187
Rick Botto, ME, PE, is the founder and owner of Cornerstone Automation LLC. Cornerstone specializes in HVAC and mechanical/
electrical/plumbing-system design, installation, and integration in the health-care, hospitality, and medium-industrial sectors.
He holds a bachelors degree in mechanical engineering from Christian Brothers University and has worked as a mechanical and
automation contractor since 1985. Jim Wyant joined Cornerstone in 2007 after 24 years of active-duty service as a surface-warfare
officer in the U.S. Navy, with a specialty in mechanical engineering. He holds a bachelors degree from Texas A&M University and a
masters degree from The Naval War College.
Boiler Systems Engineering January 2013 BSE11
I
f you ask 10 construction-project managers to define com-
missioning, you are likely to get 10 different answers
sometimes overlapping, sometimes
divergent. Rather than attempting to
definitively define what commission-
ing is supposed to be, this article fo-
cuses on a specific and highly effective
aproach to commissioning a commercial boiler system.
Todays boilers/burners are the end result of 150-plus years of
industrial development and are among the most widely applied
and robust pieces of heating equipment in the world. However,
although the basic boiler may stay much the same, it comes in a
number of designs, is asked to play a variety of roles, and often
serves as the base for a wide array of supporting or dependent
equipment. These supporting pieces and components must be
closely matched to a specific job, and it is with these pieces that
much of our commissioning work is done. The goal is to provide
a building owner the most stable, efficient, and maintainable
system possible given the overarching goals and constraints
of a project. The process requires spending a great deal of time
onsite, examining components as they are being installed and
studying component manuals to determine how they can best
be operated, controlled, and interfaced.
When the process works well, it is a win for everyone: The
owner gets a quality system that works efficiently and can be
maintained easily, the commissioning agents close relationship
with the engineer of record and links to the builders request-for-
information process ensures the designers true intent is realized,
the craftsmen have an on-site technical representative who can
provide guidance, everyone has a point of contact with whom
they can coordinate subsystem startups and initial testing, the
construction contractors and equipment vendors have definitive
dates as to when the system will be installed and working prop-
erly, and efficiencies that may have been overlooked during the
design process are discovered and provide the owner/operator
significant operating savings over the
life of the system.
Unfortunately, because of time and/
or financial constraints, the full com-
missioning process often is cut short.
The most common example of this occurs when the commis-
sioning agent is brought into the process late in the game, some-
times seemingly as an afterthought. In reality, the agent can pro-
vide the most useful input early in the design process, preferably
before significant equipment and interface selections are made.
Commissioning hethodoIogy
The following sections detail the major steps of a commis-
sioning process.
Design development, including equipment submittal,
installation, operation, and maintenance review. This phase
is of equal importance to the actual testing that is commonly
thought of as commissioning. The goal in this phase is not to
second-guess the designer, but rather to truly understand how
the designer and owner intend for the overall system of sys-
tems to operate. Steps in this phase include:
Load estimation and boiler sizing. Boilers must be appro-
priately sized not only for the full design load, but all reason-
ably expected turndown states. The goal is to prevent prob-
lems that could affect reliability and efficiency caused by boiler
short-cycling during periods of low demand. Bigger boilers are
not necessarily better.
Staging and control. Are the boilers to be automatically
staged by a central master control system, will additional boilers
simply be manually added (and removed) as required, or will the
system be some type of hybrid of the two?
The
oiIer-Commissioning
Process
3XUVXHWKHJRDORIFUHDWLQJWKHEHVWV\VWHPSRVVLEOH
By RICK BOTTO, ME, PE, and JIM WYANT
Cornerstone Automation LLC
Chattanooga, Tenn.
T H E B O I L E R - C O M M I S S I O N I N G P R O C E S S
BSE12 January 2013 Boiler Systems Engineering
Hot-water HVAC boilers often can
have their heat rejected into a chiller sys-
tem via manual air-handler-control-valve
manipulation. This can provide a load
for chiller testing, too. Regardless, any
special testing connections need to be
thought out in the design phase.
Construction and
InstaIIation
In this phase of commissioning, con-
struction progress is monitored onsite as
the various components are installed. The
goal is early detection of any problems that
would cause issues during startup and op-
erational testing. Examples of items that
should be reviewed in detail include:
Piping installation and supports. Is
the piping and hanger system going in
as designed and per any stress analysis to
allow adequate room for thermal expan-
sion without imposing excessive stresses at
equipment connections? Are the various
check valves installed in the proper direc-
tion? Are steam reducers being installed
right-side up? (This seems to be a too-
common problem; some installers think
steam reducers appear upside-down when
installed properly.) Is the steam piping
system properly trapped to avoid water
hammer? Are the necessary piping acces-
sories being installed to facilitate routine
maintenance? For example, are unions (or
flanges) fitted on relief valves to allow easy
removal for routine pressure-bench test-
ing? Are relief valves and their associated
drains properly routed to either the speci-
fied location or another safe location? Is re-
mote operating gear attached to all speci-
fied valves to allow operationincluding
emergency isolationwithout the need
for a ladder or climber safety gear?
Boiler accesses. As the core of the
boiler becomes buried in piping and the
wire raceway, are all of the necessary
maintenance and repair accesses left
open? Pay particular attention to door-
opening swing arcs, which often are
prime targets for encroachment.
Are the boilers own thermal expan-
sion mechanisms set up properly? This
generally is accomplished with loosened,
double-nutted bolts on slotted or sliding
feet. Is there adequate allowance around
As these devices generally are used for
performance monitoring and/or billing
and sometimes for actual boiler control
(e.g., as in a three-element steam-drum
water-level control system)their proper
selection is essential. Equally critical is the
need for required upstream and down-
stream piping diameters. In many tight
boiler plants, these devices may drive the
need for straight run(s) of piping specifically
installed to allow accurate flowmetering.
Control valving. Much like flowme-
ters, a control valve sized to match the
pipe is generally too large. It should be
sized to match the flow of the boiler.
Relief-valve coordination. Are the
boiler pressure-relief settings sufficiently
separated from the normal boiler operat-
ing point? A general rule of thumb is to
avoid normal boiler operation in excess
of 80 percent of the units pressure-relief-
valve setpoint. Are the feed pump(s) ca-
pable of providing sufficient flow into the
boiler at at least 103 percent of the boiler
relief setting? The intent of the boiler-code
requirement is to be able to flow feedwa-
ter into the boiler as fast as the boiler reliefs
can dump steam, thereby preventing a
high-pressure condition from cascading
into a dangerous low-water casualty. Are
all relief valves in the feedwater system
coordinated to fit into this scheme?
Test connections. Is there a way to
operationally test the boiler(s) across the
full range of operation? It may be pos-
sible to connect the boiler to the actual
load, but will that reliably provide suf-
ficient load to fully flex the boiler from
its maximum turndown up to its design
maximum operating point during the
timeframe(s) the testing needs to be per-
formed? Assume the testing might need
to be repeated several times.
A steam-boiler system may need a
steam blowoff/silencer or other means
of creating an artificial steam demand.
Depending on the configuration (e.g., a
high-condensate-return-percentage de-
sign) a temporary auxiliary makeup-water
system might also be required to support
a steam dump or blow-off. Another op-
tion would be dumping steam to heat ex-
changers to allow condensate recovery
while rejecting the heat elsewhere.
Redundancy. There must be sufficient
redundancy (in numbers) to meet the de-
signers and owners concept of operations
and requirements for maintenance and/or
failover. For example, the owner might prefer
to operate two smaller boilers firing in paral-
lel, rather than risk a total failure of a single
larger boiler, or he might want to always have
one extra boiler to allow planned mainte-
nance and unplanned repair.
Standby efficiency. If standby boilers
are expected to perform when needed,
how warm must they be maintained
to allow a quick cycle-up when called
upon? What method is provided to most
efficiently maintain this temperature,
and is that method compatible with the
boiler firing-rate-control method?
For example, we recently commissioned
a 190F-outlet-temperature firetube hot-
water-boiler system that, by design, had
water returning from the building at 160F.
A small flow of return water sufficient to
maintain the offline boiler at return tem-
perature was provided. Unfortunately, this
concept had not been worked out in suf-
ficient detail with the boiler manufacturer.
In practice, when the boiler was started at
the return temperature, the boiler control
could take up to 90 min before it would
allow full-rate firing. This limitation was im-
posed by the manufacturer to allow suffi-
ciently gradual warming of the refractories.
Clearly, this did not meet the owners re-
quirements for failover, and an alternative
boiler-staging scheme and operating con-
cept had to be implemented.
Piping and pump sizing. Pumping
and piping subsystems must be suffi-
cient to support the boiler design and
meet the owners operating concept and
any redundancy requirements. They also
must match and meet the building heat-
ing systems design intent.
Flowmetering. Flowmeters (e. g. ,
steam, feedwater, and/or makeup water)
must be appropriately selected and sized
to provide reliable metering at maximum
design flows and also at maximum turn-
down. Much like boiler selection, bigger
is not necessarily better; a flowmeter sim-
ply matching the size of the pipe almost
always is too large and often has difficul-
ties reading at a lower demand level.
Circle 188
Circle 189
T H E B O I L E R - C O M M I S S I O N I N G P R O C E S S
Bryan Triple-Flex boiler
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BSE14 January 2013 Boiler Systems Engineering
the boiler for expansion? The bigger and
hotter the boiler, the more it expands. The
physical expansion of larger boilers can be
quite significant. It must be ensured that
all of the piping, the raceway, and plat-
forms being installed on and around the
boiler move in concert with the way the
boiler itself is designed to expand.
Chemical treatment. Is the chemical-
treatment provider actively involved in the
construction process? This person should
be involved before the first drop of wa-
ter is placed in a vessel and manage water
chemistry throughout the entire startup,
testing, and commissioning process.
Testing connections. The construc-
tion-installation phase is when we ensure
that various taps and connections are in
place to allow complete commissioning
testing. The most common examples of
these connections are devices that allow
pressure and temperature measurements
to be made at critical points, or where
there is no designed-in instrumentation.
Commissioning plans. This is the last
element of this phase. These plans can
be as simple or as complex as the project
itself. Generally, the overall boiler system
is broken down into its main subsystems
(e.g., feedwater, fuel supply, condensate,
boiler proper, etc.). Each plan clearly
identifies what commissioning testing
will be performed, what the expected
design outcomes should be, what pre-
requisites are required, and what parties
are involved in the testing.
These plans are best written in con-
junction with the key providers and in-
stallers of the entire boiler system. This
helps achieve buy-in and promotes
teamwork for a successful effort.
Manufacturer startup reports are a key
piece in these commissioning plans, but
considerable emphasis is placed on tailor-
ing each plan to realistically exercise each
component as designed given the context
of its actual operational function. For exam-
ple, a manufacturers startup report might
simply verify that Pump Set A starts and
runs properly, has correct and balanced
amperage, does not leak, and operates on
its designed performance curve. However,
the balance of the commissioning plan
might test that Pump Set A activates as
called for by System B, distributes its prop-
erly balanced discharge to System C, and
accurately reports its status and alarms to
System D via System E.
Testing and 0emonstration
This phase of commissioning nearly
always significantly overlaps with con-
struction and installation. It is best to
test equipment as soon as its ready to be
tested. If only 60 percent of a particular
sub-systems capability is ready for test-
ing, thats fine: Test that 60 percent now,
and finish the rest when the rest is ready.
The earlier each test is performed, the
Continued on Page BSE19
Circle 190
BSE16 JANUARY 2013 Boiler Systems Engineering
T
he burner is the true driver of fuel use and costs in a
boiler. Over time, linkage joints, cams, and other
moving parts wear out, and a burner loses its ability
to keep tight control of fuel/air ratio. The result commonly
is referred to as hysteresis, or the inability of a burner to
repeat desired excess-air levels across the firing range for
opti mum combusti on. Hi gher excess ai r means l ower
combustion efficiency. Additionally, a legacy burner can
suffer from pl ugged or deteri orated nozzl es and gas
orifices, deterioration of other combustion-head components
responsible for proper fuel and air mixing, and a host of
other issues. All of this results in unburned fuel and higher-
than-required excess-air levels, leading to poor performance,
reduction in overall efficiency, and higher operating costs.
If a burner has too many worn-out parts or outmoded tech-
nology, the optimum solution is not new controls, but replace-
ment with a new burner featuring advanced controls, higher
turndown capability, and lower excess-air requirements.
Depending on a variety of factors unique to a boiler system,
replacing an old burner can reduce fuel use by 5 to 10 percent.
Petrofit Peduces Costs by 30 Percent
Part of the Episcopal Senior Community network, St. Pauls
Towers in Oakland, Calif., is a 213-room senior-living commu-
nity requiring heat and hot water 24 hours a day, seven days a
week. To accommodate this need, St. Pauls Towers counts on
two gas-fired, flextube hot-water boilers, each with an input
of 6.0 MMBtuh. With new state regulations mandating that
boilers emit less than 15-ppm nitrogen oxide (NOx), St. Pauls
Towers contacted its boiler-service provider, R.F. MacDonald
Co. of Hayward, Calif., about an equipment upgrade.
After anal yzi ng the equi pment and revi ewi ng the
emissions requirements, St. Pauls Towers retrofitted its
boilers with Cleaver-Brooks ProFire MTH Series burners. ProFire
MTH burners incorporate premix, surface-burning technology
for ultralow-NOx-emissions performance. They are fitted for
full modulation with parallel positioning control and offer both
low NOx and low carbon-monoxide emissions without flue-
gas recirculation. These boiler-burner packages also include
automatic adjustment for proper water temperature under
changing conditions, as well as network connectivity for
remote operation and control.
The two new MTH burners were installed in less than one
week without service to residents being interrupted. Immedi-
ately following the installation, Facility Manager Bob Reagan
noted an increase in energy efficiency. In fact, the new burners
were optimized so effectively that under normal conditions,
only one of the two boilers typically is needed to supply hot
water for the building. As a result, the gas bill at St. Pauls
Towers decreased by 30 percent. Before the burner retrofits,
gas bills were approximately $38,000 per month. Today, they
are less than $26,000 per month.
In addition to saving a significant amount of money in fuel
costs, the burners more than met the 15-ppm NOx require-
ment set forth by the Bay Area Air Quality Management District.
NOx emissions were reduced to single-digit levels.
Petrofit HeIps to heet NDx Pequirement
In 2005, the San Joaquin Valley (Calif.) Air Pollution Control
District (APCD) set a NOx-emissions limit of 9 ppm. Working
with R.F. MacDonald Co. of Modesto, Calif., a large cereal
manufacturer installed Cleaver-Brooks NTI low-emissions
burners on its two Cleaver-Brooks CBLE 700-hp firetube units.
In the area meetings, APCD said 9 ppm was as low as they
were going to go, Bob Murr, senior project engineer for the
cereal manufacturer, said.
But in 2010, environmental conditions caused the APCD
to tighten its NOx requirement to 7 ppm. R.F. MacDonald
recommended installation of a Cleaver-Brooks 7-ppm retrofit
kit and an integrated programmable-logic-controller-based
Hawk touchscreen control panel on both CBLE units.
The boiler-system upgrade was performed during a
scheduled plant shutdown in June 2010. Since then, the cereal
manufacturer has been achieving sub-7-ppm NOx.
When a urner Petrofit hakes Sense
While a boiler and other components can withstand the
rigors of constant service for decades, burners need to be
upgraded. The practical life of a burner is 10 to 20 years,
depending on the type of load (modulating/non-modulating)
and site conditions.
Most older burners and many new ones operate on the
high/low/off principle, with single-point positioning systems.
This provides little adjustability and, in time, poor fuel/air-ratio
control, meaning considerable boiler cycling and high excess
air or sooting. Todays burners have high turndown capability
and parallel positioning, allowing a boiler to modulate to
better match the needs of the load while precisely tracking
fuel/air ratio, mitigating energy waste.
Information courtesy of Cleaver-Brooks.
Circle 100
urner Petrofits Increase Efficiency
and Peduce Emissions for Dwners
+LJKWXUQGRZQDQGSDUDOOHOSRVLWLRQLQJDUHNH\
D E S I G N S O L U T I O N S
Boiler Systems Engineering January 2013 BSE17
I
n the classic horror novel The Shining, Jack Torrance,
caretaker of an aging Rocky Mountain hotel, makes repeated
visits to the basement to address the rumbles and groans
of a monstrous, old hot-water boiler. The book was inspired
by author Stephen Kings stay at the historic Stanley Hotel in
Estes Park, Colo., which, until a few years ago, dealt with an
inefficient hot-water boiler that was more than 30 years old.
The inefficient performance of the boiler created a variety
of problems, such as high utility bills and complaints from
guests about long waits for hot water, in the five-story, 140-
room hotel. In 2007, the hotel began the long process of
implementing a new, more modern, and more efficient
heating and hot-water system featuring eight Rinnai con-
densing boilers and 12 Rinnai tankless water heaters. Rinnai
provided on-site engineering and technical support. To help
with installation, Rinnai recommended mechanical contractor
Chambers Plumbing and Heating Inc. of Loveland, Colo.
Chambers arrived in September 2010 and helped coor-
dinate communication between the hotel, the City of Estes,
and the state boiler inspector. As planned, Chambers
replaced the Rinnai field-test units with new ASME-rated
Rinnai condensing boilers.
We were in very tight quarters, so disassembling the
mounting rack and getting the old manifolds out to retrofit
them for the new boilers was quite a challenge, David Lohnes,
president of Chambers Plumbing and Heating, said. We
basically had the space left from the earlier removal of
the mai n hot-water
boiler to work in, and
the backup hot-water
boiler next to it was
about the si ze of a
Volkswagen. We iso-
lated that boiler, re-
moved all the piping,
and capped it off. The
hotel engineering staff
planned to disassem-
ble and remove it after
we left.
After modification
of the boiler manifolds
was complete, the new
boilers were installed.
Shor t l y bef or e
the installation of our
condensing-boiler system, both the main and backup hot-
water boilers were not operational during a spring blizzard,
leaving the hotel without heat for 53 hours, Kevin York,
business-development manager for Rinnai, said. The hotel
won t have that probl em any more, though, wi th the
redundancy of the new system. As opposed to having one
single backup boiler that could fail, it now has eight boilers
modulating in sequence. If one goes down, youll still have
heat. If two go down, youll still have heat.
Chambers next focused on venting runs for the boilers and
the 12 Rinnai tankless water heaters installed two years before.
The venting and the air intake of the boilers were actually
too close together when we got there and also too close to
the venting for all the tankless water heaters, Lohnes said.
We had to reinstall the boilers air intake and venting. We
went through the back wall for the air intake and out the roof
for venting. This separation ensured we didnt have a cross-
ventilation issue. The tankless water heaters went straight up
to the roof individually via concentric venting. The crew had to
raise and lower some of the water heaters to get them in the
proper location.
Chambers finished the job well in advance of the winter
heating season. Afterward, Rinnai provided on-site training to
the hotels engineering staff.
We replaced ancient heating technology with state-of-the-
art, new heating technology and got their staff transitioned
into the proper care of the new system, York said. Theyve
seen a dramatic reduction in energy consumption with the
new system, and they have been very pleased.
Information and photographs courtesy of Rinnai.
Circle 101
Happy Ending for HoteI That Inspired
CIassic Horror NoveI 'The Shining'
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D E S I G N S O L U T I O N S
The Stanley Hotel, inspiration for The Shining.
Four of the Stanley Hotels new
Rinnai condensing boilers.
BSE18 JANUARY 2013 Boiler Systems Engineering
W
ith a goal to have 40 percent of its energy needs met
with renewable resources by the end of 2020, The
University of Iowa (UI) replaced a natural-gas boiler
with a biomass boiler at its Oakdale Research Park campus
in Coralville, Iowa. The project was not without challenges,
including space restrictions, unusual piping, creative wiring,
and many customized solutions worked out in the field.
iomass 0ecisions egin With the FueI
In 2008, Global Energy Solutions Inc., representing Hurst
Boiler & Welding Company Inc., was approached by Ferman
Milster, UI associate director, utilities and energy manage-
ment, to brainstorm a biomass-boiler solution for the Oakdale
Research Park plant. The plan was to replace one of four gas
boilers with a biomass boiler fired with local fuels, such as
wood chips and oat hulls, utilizing an existing coal bunker
for fuel storage. The goal was to operate the Research Park
campus on 100 percent renewable energy, with fossil fuels
in place for backup.
Working with Milster to shape the project were Barry Butler,
UI professor of mechanical and industrial engineering and
dean of the UI College of Engineering, and Albert Ratner, UI
assistant professor of mechanical and industrial engineering.
The DakdaIe Pesearch Park oiIer System
In July 2010, fabrication of the biomass system was
approved, and the UI facilities-management team began
the collaborative process. Once the equipment was on
site, weekly meetings were held to assess progress, discuss
necessary adjustments, and sort out responsibilities.
AgricuIturaI-Waste Casifier
Tied into the biomass-boiler system is a small gasifier
provided by Ag Bio-Power LC of Tama, Iowa. The gasifier is
used by the College of Engineering for ongoing combustion
research and study of alternate, locally obtained renewable
fuels, such as expired seeds, corn stover, and paper sludge.
Agricultural products introduced into the gasifier produce
syngas, which is injected into the burner.
InstaIIation and Startup
According to Bruce Coffee, chief engineer, Hurst Boiler &
Welding Co., the UI project required some creative solutions,
including modifications to work around space constraints
and fixed barriers. Components such as boiler legs, breeching
(ductwork), piping, and fly-ash collector chute, were like puzzle
pieces that needed to be modified and placed to fit.
Training Is CriticaI
The training classroom for the project was filled with manag-
ers, boiler operators, engineers, and other technicians ready to
learn all they could about the new technology. James Alwin,
PE, of Global Energy Solutions, who served as a liaison between
the university and the various manufacturers throughout the
project, attended training sessions as well. According to Alwin,
there always is something new to learn about these systems
particularly if a new fuel is being introduced.
Hurst equipment can combust hundreds of different fuels.
Reviewing the moving parts, making required adjustments,
and performing recommended annual maintenance is
essentialeven for seasoned boiler technicians.
Pecognition
In December 2012, Shive-Hattery, the architect and
engineer for the project, was announced as the winner of
the Grand Place Award in the Energy Production category in
the American Council of Engineering Companies of Iowas
2013 Engineering Excellence Awards competition.
Information courtesy of Hurst Boiler & Welding Company Inc. and
Natalie M. Smith of Global Energy Solutions Inc.
Circle 102
Wood-Fired oiIer InstaIIed as Part
of SchooI's Creen-Energy Initiative
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D E S I G N S O L U T I O N S
Components of the system.
Boiler 600-bhp biomass-waste-fuel boiler/gasifier
450-psi design pressure
20,700-pph-output steam
Dual screw metering bin, reciprocating grate-type
stoker, substoichiometric combustion-air system
Automatic ash-collection system
Burner Integral burner unit for biomass gas
Natural-gas-fired with 25-hp axial-flow blower
Variable-frequency drive
Fuel feed Two four-section walking floor units with vertical
spike rollers
Horizontal screw conveyor for transport to bucket
elevator
Control
system
Hurst BIOMASS-TER
Dashboard-driven intuitive control and monitoring
for boiler and peripheral equipment
Air-pollution
control
Primary: Hurst
Secondary: Tri-Mer UltraTemp Filtration System
High-temperature ceramic filters impregnated with
NOx oxidation catalyst
Boiler Systems Engineering January 2013 BSE19
earlier problems will be discovered and corrected, all of which
contributes to keeping the schedule on-track. This is why pre-
written commissioning plans clearly defining all the testing to
be accomplished are crucial in tracking commissioning testing
completion.
Commissioning testing and demonstration covers five areas:
Equipment installation and pre-checks. Ensure the system
is installed in accordance with the design and the manufacturers
instructions. Most of this checking is completed during the instal-
lation and construction phase described above and often is well-
itemized in a manufacturers startup checklist and report.
Equipment safety checks. Ensure that the subsystem oper-
ates safely and all of its own safety interlocks function as designed.
Equipment operational sequencing testing. Does the sys-
tem start, stop, and control as intended in the design? Does the
system properly respond to all of its designed inputs, and does it
provide the proper monitoring, control, and alarm outputs? Is any
startup/shutdown sequencing appropriate to the overall system
operation, and does it adhere to the overall design intent? Does
the plant sequencing support the owners operating concept?
Equipment performance testing. This is the heart of what
normally is considered commissioning. Does the boiler pro-
duce its design Btu output at design pressure, efficiency, and
emission levels? Does it smoothly transition across its entire
operating range down to its maximum design turndown? Does
it properly stage up and down, and does it behave well with
any other boilers that ight also be in the plant, sharing the load
as per design intent? Does the boiler properly flex, providing
adequate responses to expected load-demand changes con-
sistent with the design?
Equipment off-normal testing. Does the boiler and its related
subsystems place itself and the plant as a whole into a safe condi-
tion during failures? Does a trip result in a controlled shutdown or
a series of cascading failures? Does the standby boiler system start
and come online with sufficient rapidity to maintain the load in ac-
cordance with the design intent and the owner/operators operat-
ing concept? Does the system make its status clearly apparent to
the operator so that he may take any immediate or controlling ac-
tions and make appropriate notifications? Is there sufficient data
logging to allow reasonable post-event reconstruction?
Commissioning Peports
As with any formal construction process, a final report is
required. This report outlines the various findings and provides
detailed documentation in the form of startup reports, field
notes, performance testing data, equipment data sheets, etc.
There should not be any surprises in the report; any equipment
that is not performing per the design intent already will have
been the subject of considerable discussion by the project team.
These reports represent a valuable source of information
during the life of the plant as it nearly always becomes neces-
sary to compare current performance with original as-built
performance.
Large-capacity and dual-fuel boilers
The CREST condensing-boiler line
is now available with inputs of up to 5
million Btuh. The line also has been ex-
panded to include a dual-fuel gas train.
Additional enhancements include lower
firing-input-derate numbers in high-alti-
tude applications. All models incorporate
the exclusive SMART TOUCH operating
control and offer thermal efficiencies as
high as 99 percent. Lochinvar
Circle 22
Small-footprint boilers
P-K MACH boilers are available in three new models:
MC300 (300,000 Btuh), MC399
(399,000 Btuh), and MC500
(500,000 Btuh). The boilers are
designed with a 40-percent
smaller footprint and improved
serviceability compared with
previ ous model s. They
ar e avai l abl e i n f l oor -
standing or wall-hung con-
figurations. Harsco Industrial Patterson-Kelley
Circle 23
Condensing hot-water boiler
The TC 205 series condensing hot-water boiler features a
low-NOx metal-fiber burner. It is available
in capacities from 399,000 to 5,443,000
Btuh gas-fired and is capable
of thermal efficiencies of up to
98 percent, temperatures
to 190F, and pressures to
80 psi. The TC 205 resets
down to ultralow water
temperatures and will toler-
ate extremely low flows (to 100 F
delta-T). Parker Boiler
Circle 24
Expanded boiler line
The MVB product platform has
been expanded to 4 mi l l i on Btu.
Standard features include a fully in-
tegrated control system, a Modbus
building-management-system port,
and cold-water protection function-
ality via an optional three-way valve.
The units feature 88.4 percent ther-
mal efficiency and a 7:1 turndown
ratio. Raypak
Circle 25
P R O D U C T S P O T L I G H T T H E B O I L E R - C O M M I S S I O N I N G P R O C E S S
Continued from Page BSE14
Easy PP-R-to-PEX transition
Aquatherms new polypropylene-
random (PP-R)-to-PEX transitions
come in -in., -in., and 1-in. sizes
and are designed to make it easy
to design and install Aquatherm
systems that integrate PEX tubing.
The transitions, which are made
from PP-R and brass, are heat-fused
to Aquatherm pipe on one side and
crimped to PEX pipe on the other.
They meet ASTM F1807 specifications,
connect seamlessly to standard
Imperial PEX sizes, and are designed
to reduce cost and the risk of leakage
by eliminating a threaded connection
in the transition to PEX.
Aquatherm
www.aquatherm.com
Circle 26
Fiber-free duct liners
and wraps
AP Armaflex and AP Coilflex duct
liners and wraps feature a closed-
cell, flexible, elastomeric-foam
composition that provides an efficient
thermal insulation with excellent
sound-absorption properties that
attenuate low-frequency airborne
noise below 1,000 Hz. Fiber-free
construction and built-in Microban
antimicrobial protection ensure
good indoor-air quality. The liners
and wraps are fiber-free, non-
particulating, formaldehyde-free,
free of PDBE flame retardants, and
have low volatile-organic-compound
content.
Armacell
www.armacell.com
Circle 27
Pressure-independent
control valve
The Energy Valve is a two-way,
pressure-independent control valve
that optimizes, documents, and
proves water-coil performance. It uses
Belimo Delta T Manager algorithm
to directly control air-handler-unit-
coil performance. It monitors the coil
performance characteristic curve and
resulting energy/power output. The
actuator calculates and stores all coil-
performance data, such as delta-T
and energy usage. Performance data,
stored trends, and control functions
can be sent to and from the building-
automation system via the data
network to optimize coil and system
performance.
Belimo
www.belimo.us
Circle 28
Ultrahigh-efficiency boilers
Triple-Flex ultrahigh-efficiency
condensing
flexible-
water-tube
boilers offer
guaranteed
minimum
thermal
efficiency of 90
percent, even
in worst-case
condensing-
boiler operating
conditions, such
as 160F return
water and 180F
supply water at
maximum input.
Efficiencies of 99 percent are
achievable with lower return-water
temperatures. Triple-Flex boilers
fire at 1,500- to 3,000-mbh input,
with sub-30-ppm NOx levels utilizing
a hybrid metal-fiber 5:1-turndown
burner and Honeywell SOLA hydronic
safety controls and interface systems.
Bryan Steam LLC
www.bryanboilers.com/boilers_
condensing.html
Circle 29
Condensing hot-water boiler
The ClearFire-LC (CFLC) gives large
facilities a condensing-hot-water-
boiler option from 4,000 to 12,000
MBtu.The CFLC uses patented AluFer
heat-transfer technology and a high-
turndown burner with advanced
controls to deliver peak efficiency
and ultralow emissions in a compact
footprint. The CFLC is a cost-effective
alternative to installing multiple
smaller boilers or less-efficient, non-
condensing boilers of similar capacity.
Installing a CFLC large condensing
boiler can reduce a facilitys operating
costs by up to 50 percent compared
with a traditional steam or hot-water
system.
Cleaver-Brooks
www.cleaverbrooks.com
Circle 30

Durable drives
The Danfoss VLT HVAC NEMA/
UL Type 4X drive is a durable
solution for installations that require
protection against windblown dust
and rain or splashing water and
provides an additional degree of
protection against corrosion. The
drives are available in standard
horsepowers and voltages: 1.5 to 60
hp at 208/240 vac, 1.5 to 125 hp at
480 vac, and 1.5 to 125 hp at 600
vac. The drives also are suitable for
NEMA/UL types 1/12/3R and 4.
Danfoss
www.danfossdrives.com
Circle 31
Fast chiller-tube cleaning
The RAM-PRO chiller-tube cleaner
is designed to handle the demanding
environment of commercial
58 HPAC ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013
SPECIAL ADVERTISING SECTION
contracting work like no other tube
cleaner. Features include:
A roll cage that protects the unit at
the job site and in the work truck.
A quick-connect shaft that attaches
with a simple push.
A chain-drive system that replaces
a traditional rubber belt for smooth
operation.
Vibration isolators on the motor
assembly to help tolerate bumps and
jolts.
Compact and lightweight design
that is less than half the weight of
other tube cleaners.
Goodway
www.goodway.com.
Circle 32
Housed plenum array
The housed plenum array
(Model HPA) is designed for fan-
array installations in air-handler
applications. Model HPA features
a galvanized plenum fan mounted
inside a sound-attenuating housing.
Integrated isolators between the
fan and housing reduce vibration,
eliminating the need for isolators and
gaskets between modules. Available
in 10 wheel sizes (15 in. to 36 in.)
and three housing options (compact,
standard, and large). Model HPA is
licensed to bear the AMCA seal for
sound and air performance.
Greenheck
www.greenheck.com
Circle 33
Customizable
IAQ touchscreen
IAQPoint2 is a customizable
touchscreen monitor with the ability
to control three indoor-air-quality
parameters (carbon-dioxide or
volatile organic
compounds,
temperature,
and humidity).
The unit is
designed to
boost energy
efficiency, fresh-
air comfort,
and building
performance
through
on-demand
ventilation activation
with relays triggering fans locally or
via a building-automation system.
Easy to use, easy to install, and easy
to maintain, the unit contributes to
LEED accreditation (up to three points)
and green-building best practices and
complies with ASHRAE 62.1, CSA-B52,
and the International Building Code.
Honeywell Analytics
www.iaqpoint2.com
Circle 34
Firetube wet-back boiler
The Euro Series three-pass firetube
wet-back boiler features a full wet-
back radiant heat-transfer area that
promotes superior internal water
circulation and rapid heat absorption.
It is available in eight models from
100 to 2,000 bhp, in steam or hot
water, and in oil, natural gas, or
combination. Separate rear tube
sheets allow each pass of tubes to
expand and contract at its own rate
without tube-to-sheet stress. Tubes
are mechanically rolled, flared, and
beaded to simplify tube service.
Hurst Boiler
www.hurstboiler.com
Circle 35
Variable-refrigerant-flow
system
The updated S-Series PUMY-P60
is a 5-ton, single-phase variable-
refrigerant-flow zoning system
designed for light-commercial
spaces. Enhancements
include
longer line
lengths, higher
efficiencies,
and expanded
indoor zone
capacities.
Other key
features include
operation to
-4F, a line
length of 492
ft, and the ability
to connect to up to 12 indoor
units. The unit is compatible with
all Mitsubishi Electric indoor ducted
and ductless unit styles and can be
centrally controlled using Mitsubishi
Electrics CITY MULTI Controls
Network.
Mitsubishi Electric Cooling &
Heating
www.mitsubishipro.com
Circle 36
Insertion electromagnetic
flow meter
F-3500 series
insertion
electromagnetic flow
meters are suitable for
measuring electrically conductive
liquids in a wide variety of
applications. Each F-3500
provides a single analog output
for flow rate, a high-resolution
frequency output to drive
peripheral devices, a scalable-
pulse output for totalization, and
an empty pipe alarm signal.
Optional remote displays and
Btu measurement systems also
are available.
ONICON Inc.
www.onicon.com/F3500.html
Circle 37
Filtration products
Orival filtration products are used
on cooling systems worldwide. Orival
offers individual automatic filters,
JANUARY 2013 HPAC ENGINEERING 59
SPECIAL ADVERTISING SECTION
manifolded multifilters, and skid-
mounted water-treatment systems
to remove organic and inorganic
suspended solids from cooling water.
This decreases deposition on heat-
transfer surfaces, reduces sites for
microorganisms to colonize, and
prevents clogging of nozzles, orifices,
and valve actuators.
Orival Inc.
www.orival.com
Circle 38
Mechanical
manufacturers guide
The Division 22/23 Mechanical
Manufacturers Guide eBook makes it
convenient for mechanical engineers
and building specifiers to access
important product information. This
portfolio meets the growing industry
demand for digital and mobile
communication solutions. Users can
easily access duct, pipe, and HVAC
equipment insulation solutions, data
sheets, CSI MasterFormat three-part
system specifications, and green-
building program guides.
Owens Corning
http://Division2223.Owens
Corning.com
Circle 39
Two- and three-way
control valves
599 Series ball valves couple with
OpenAir actuators to offer a wide Cv
range, high close-off, accurate sizing,
long-life reliability, and economical
pricing. Two trim finishes (stainless
steel or chrome) are available. 599
Series ball valves provide exact
control in all types of applications
even harsh environments.
Siemens
www.usa.siemens.com/hvac
Circle 40
High-efficiency pumps
The Viridian pump line is comprised
of wet-rotor pumps with electronically
commutated motors that offer
an 80-percent decrease in energy
consumption compared with standard
commercial pumps of the same
size. Fully automated variable-speed
operation, simple Web-style controls,
and capacities of up to 375 gpm
allow the line to meet a wide range
of closed-loop heating and cooling
applications. An ethernet connection
allows remote control, monitoring
and adjustment without requiring
the involvement of advanced IT or
commissioning personnel. The pumps
feature a working pressure of 175 psi
and are suitable for fluid temperatures
from 14F to 230F.
Taco
http://Taco-hvac.com
Circle 41
Fume-hood and
room controllers
The 1655 Series fume-hood and
room controllers enhance critical
environmental control largely
because of the new, patent-pending
SAFETY HALO. This technology allows
staff to check room status both at
a glance and down the hall and
is fully programmable. The 1655
line features new action icons to
better indicate if a space requires
immediate attention.
Triatek
www.triatek.com
Circle 42
Commercial boilers
The Ultra Commercial condensing
high-efficiency gas boiler is available
in 550- and 750-mbh sizes and
features efficiency levels of 94
percent. The boilers feature U-Control
flexibility, which includes 11 pre-set
applications for quick system setup
and a fully integrated multiple-boiler
control. Ultra Commercial boilers are
low-NOx-certified and allow for direct-
vent and direct-exhaust PVC venting.
Weil-McLain
www.weil-mclain.com
Circle 43
Boiler and
domestic-
water
heater
The Q
Premier
boiler
combines
an efficient
heating-only
boiler with
a 24-gal.
charged
indirect
storage tank.
It delivers
211 gal. of
domestic hot
water within
the first hour
and requires
approximately 70 percent less space
than traditional floor-standing boilers
and indirect tank systems.
Rinnai
www.rinnai.us/boiler
Circle 44
60 HPAC ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013
SPECIAL ADVERTISING SECTION
*PYJSL
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62 HPAC ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013
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Circle 62
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ppp' m ^de ^^g' \hf b g_ h9m ^de ^^g' \hf
Scale formation reduces the heat transfer rate and
increases the water pressure drop through the heat
exchanger and pipes. ln fact, one study has shown
that .002" fouling will increase pumping needs by 20%.
The Best Engineered Water Filtering
Solution Always Costs Less
Why Should You
Filter Your Water?
BALL-IN-THE-WALL
ROOM PRESSURE
MONITOR
Airow Direction, Inc.
Toll Free:
888-334-4545
www.airowdirection.com
HPAC@airowdirection.com

Circle 61
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JANUARY 2013 HPAC ENGINEERING 63
MARKE T P L ACE
Circle 64
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Circle 63
64 HPAC ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013
AD INDEX
HPAC Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning Engineering
(ISSN 1527-4055) is indexed by Engineering Index, Inc.,
Applied Science & Technology Index, and ISMEC and is micro-filmed
by National Archive Publishing Company (NAPC), 300 N. Zeeb Road
P.O. Box 998, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-0998, 734-302-6500 or
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SUBSCRIPTIONS: Yearly subscription price: U.S.A. and possessions,
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International, $116.00; 2 yr., $184.00. Single copy price: U.S.A.
and possessions, $12.00; Canada, $11.00; International, $12.00;
except HPAC Engineering Info-dex: U.S.A and possessions, $30.00;
Canada, $35.00; International, $40.00.
Send payment and order to Penton Media, P.O. Box 2100, Skokie,
IL 60076-7800. (Canadian Distribution Sales Agreement Number
40026880.) Canadian GST #R124631964.
CUSTOMER SERVICE INQUIRIES Send to: Penton Media, Inc.,
P.O. Box 2100, Skokie, Ill 60076-7800 Phone: 866-505-7173
Fax: 847-763-9673; email: hpacengineering@halldata.com
When filing a change of address, include former as well as new
address, ZIP codes, and recent address label if possible.
Allow two months for changes.
LIST RENTALS are managed by MeritDirect
The contact name for 2013 is: Marie Briganti, (877) 796-6947,
mbriganti@meritdirect.com
Member of American Business Press Inc. and Business Publications
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Printed in U.S.A. Copyright 2013 Penton Media. All rights reserved.
CIRCLE NO. PAGE NO. CIRCLE NO. PAGE NO.
195 AAON ................................ BC
178, 179 AERCO International Inc. .........
........................... BSE2, BSE3
193 A-J Manufacturing ............... 64
174 Aquatherm ......................... 33
158 Armacell LLC ...................... 12
169 Belimo .............................. 24
162 Bradford White Corp. .......... 16
189 Bryan Steam LLC .......... BSE14
187 Cleaver-Brooks ............. BSE10
157 Danfoss ............................ 11
151 ebm-papst Inc. ..................... 1
190 ECOM .......................... BSE15
180 Fireye Inc. ...................... BSE4
192 Flaretite Inc. ....................... 64
163 Goodway Technologies Corp. 17
154 Greenheck Fan Corp. ............ 7
166 Honeywell Analytics ............ 19
167, 188 Hurst Boiler ........... 21, BSE13
184 Industrial Steam ............. BSE8
159 LG Electronics Inc. . ............. 13
150 Loren Cook Co. ..................IFC
165 McQuay International .......... 18
176 Metraflex ........................... 37
152 Mitsubishi Electric Cooling
& Heating ............................ 2
172 Modine .............................. 30
160 MultiTherm LLC .................. 14
182 Navien ........................... BSE6
191 ONICON Inc. ....................... 61
171 Orival Inc. .......................... 27
168 Owens Corning ................... 23
185 Parker Boiler Co. ............ BSE8
183 Rinnai ........................... BSE7
153 Schneider Electric ................ 5
164 Shortridge Instruments Inc. . 17
155 Siemens Industry ................. 9
177 Society of Fire Protection
Engineering ........................ 38
170 Spirax Sarco Inc. ................ 25
175 Taco Inc. ........................... 35
194 Tate ................................. IBC
173 Triatek ............................... 31
181 Vapor Power International BSE5
161 Viconics ............................ 15
186 Weil-McLain ................... BSE9
Introducing Criti-Clean: the new, more intelligent
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hootherfanfilterunitcanmatchCriti-Cleansvaluaolefeatures.
s 8taiNless steel CoNstruCtioN with all-welded pleNum.
s Higher CF- output thaN Competitive models.
s Computer-CoNtrolled, variaole-speed EC- motor.
s HEPA filter with 99.997 effiCieNC] at O.8 miCroN.
Criti-CleaN provides CoNstaNt airflow, CompeNsatiNg for ChaNges
iN filter load, statiC pressure aNd more. Plus, it's ouilt to meet
the latest pressure testiNg staNdards.
Clean room projects
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800-247-5746
www.ajmfg.com
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How much energy is your data center wasting?
tateinc.com/dcefciency
877 999 8283
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100
Outside Air
we asked o0r eog|oeer|og departmeot to des|go a ||ght commerc|a| 60Th8NAL
se|I coota|oed 0o|t that has:
v A high eciency, long life, variable speed, belt-free fan
v Complete hinged door access with double-wall, foam
insulated cabinet that can last 40 years or more
v A durable, variable capacity compressor
v Modulating hot gas reheat for precise humidity control
v 2 inch + 4 inch high eciency unit fltration or
2 inch + 4 inch + 4 inch high eciency mixing box fltration
to meet your indoor air quality requirements
v The ability to obsolete all constant volume units by
operating as a Single Zone vAv unit


8ooItop 0o|ts 00tdoor Nechao|ca| 8ooms 0h|||ers 8o||ers 0oodeos|og 0o|ts A|r haod||og 0o|ts 6eotherma| 0o|ts
AA0h - Prem|0m hVA0 eg0|pmeot www.AA0h.com
Contact your local AAON representative to fnd out more about other
products we've engineered for you.
They d|d |t |o a 60Th8NAL 0o|t that operates 0p to
Locate AAON
representative
Learn about
Single Zone VAV
%
Defning Quality. Building Comfort.
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